ROSH HASHANAH 19 (27 Iyar) - Dedicated by Elliot and Lori Linzer in honor of Neti Linzer's birthday.

[19a - 33 lines; 19b - 47 lines]

1)[line 1]ותיפוק ליהV'TEIPOK LEI- why not discern [that the third of Tishrei is a festive day when the Beis ha'Mikdash stands]

2)[line 3]לאסור את שלפניוLE'ESOR ES SHELE'FANAV- to forbid [fasting and/or eulogizing on] the day before

3a)[line 10]ודברי סופריםDIVREI SOFRIM- Rabbinic decrees

b)[line 14]דברי קבלהDIVREI KABALAH- that which is mentioned by the Nevi'im

4a)[line 16]בעשרים ותמניא ביה אתת בשורתא טבתא ליהודאיB'ESRIM V'TEMANYA BEI ASAS BESORTA TAVTA L'YEHODA'I- on the twenty-eighth of [Adar] the Jews received the good tidings

b)[line 17]דלא יעידון מאורייתאD'LO YE'IDUN ME'ORAISA- that they would no longer [be forced to] disengage from the Torah

5)[line 21]ונטלו עצה ממטרוניתא אחתNATLU EITZAH MI'MATRONISA ACHAS- they took advice from a certain aristocratic Roman matron

6)[line 22]והפגינוHIFGINU- cry out in a public demonstration

7)[line 23]אי שמיםEI SHAMAYIM!- woe Heavens! With this exclamation, the assembled Jews made clear that their protest was for the sake of HaSh-m, and not personally motivated.

8)[line 24]לא אחיכם אנחנו?LO ACHEICHEM ANACHNU?- are we (the sons of Yakov) not your brothers [as you, the Romans, are descended from Esav]?

9)[line 31]ורבי מאיר בתר הכי הוהV'REBBI MEIR BASAR HACHI HAVAH- and Rebbi Meir lived after the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash. Rebbi Meir was the student of Rebbi Akiva, Rebbi Akiva was the student of Rebbi Eliezer, and Rebbi Eliezer was the student of Raban Yochanan ben Zakai, who lived at the time of the destruction (RASHI).

10)[line 32]דתנןD'TNAN- as we learned in a Mishnah [that Yehudah ben Shamu'a was the student of Rebbi Meir]

11)[line 32]זכוכיתZECHUCHIS- glass

12a)[line 32]שניקבוSHE'NIKVU- that developed a hole

b)[last line]והטיף לתוכן אברV'HITIF L'SOCHAN AVAR- and [molten] lead was dripped onto it [to plug the hole]

13)[last line]מטמאMETAMEI (TUM'AS KLI)

(a)All objects belong to one of the following three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)A source of Tum'ah is called an Av ha'Tum'ah. The exception to this is a corpse, which is referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah," due to the fact that it can generate more Tum'ah than any other object. When an object becomes Tamei from coming into contact with an object which is Tamei, that object does not receive the same Tum'ah as that of the first object, but rather a level of Tum'ah one degree weaker than the first. If an object came into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Vlad ha'Tum'ah. Tum'ah received from a Rishon creates a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and that from a Sheni creates a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.

(c)A metal utensil can become an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon l'Tum'ah (see Insights to Pesachim 14b). A person and all utensils other than earthenware can become an Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah (although Chazal decreed that one's hands sometimes have the status of a Sheni l'Tum'ah). Earthenware utensils can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah. Food and liquids which are Chulin can become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or a Sheni l'Tum'ah. Terumah can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah as well, and Hekdesh can receive the status of a Revi'i l'Tum'ah.

(d)Utensils fashioned from metal, wood, leather, cloth, and goat hair can receive Tum'ah mid'Oraisa. Utensils made of certain other materials, including glass, receive Tum'ah mid'Rabanan.

(e)If a utensil develops a hole large enough to render it unusable, it loses any Tum'ah that it had received, and it can no longer receive Tum'ah. Should the hole be repaired, then metal utensils return to Tum'ah status had they been Tum'ah beforehand, although utensils fashioned from other materials do not.

(f)There are a number of ways to understand the disagreement in the Mishnah quoted in our Gemara. The first one suggested by RASHI is that Yehudah ben Shamu'a maintains that the glass utensil repaired with lead (which is considered a metal) has the status of a metal utensil since it would not be a utensil at all if not for the lead. Therefore it returns to its previous Tum'ah. The Chachamim maintain that it has the status of a glass utensil, in which case it does not return to its previous Tum'ah. The second explanation of RASHI is that even Yehudah ben Shamu'a agrees that it does not return to its previous Tum'ah. However, it has the status of a metal utensil in that it can receive Tum'ah mid'Oraisa. The Chachamim rule that it has the status of a glass utensil and receives Tum'ah only mid'Rabanan. The RIVA (cited by TOSFOS DH Yehudah) explains that the Chachamim are of the opinion that a glass utensil has the same Halachah as an earthenware utensil, which can never again receive Tum'ah once it has lost its status as a Kli. Tosfos, however, rejects this approach.


14)[line 7]שאבל הוא להםEVEL HU LA'HEM- they are in a period of mourning

15)[line 11]דנפקי להוNAFKEI LEHU- the [messengers] have gone out

16)[line 14]עזראE ZRA- leader of Klal Yisrael who led them from Bavel to Eretz Yisrael following the seventy-year-long Babylonian exile and before the rebuilding of the second Beis ha'Mikdash; known as Ezra ha'Sofer

17)[line 15]הא איצטריךHA ITZTERICH- if it would be necessary [so as to separate the festivals of Tishrei from Shabbos (see Daf 20a)]

18)[line 16]הא מיקלקל ראש השנה!HA MIKALKEL ROSH HASHANAH!- this [that Elul is not fixed at twenty-nine days] ruins [the calculation of when] Rosh Hashanah [falls, in which case those outside of Eretz Yisrael (a) may have celebrated Rosh Hashanah on the wrong day (RASHI); (b) must always celebrate two days of Rosh Hashanah instead of only one (TOSFOS; see Insights to 18a); (c) may bury a corpse on what they think is the second day of Rosh Hashanah but is really the first, in which case a corpse should be buried only by Nochrim (TUREI EVEN)]

19)[line 20]נתעברה השנהNIS'ABRA SHANAH (SHANAH ME'UBERES)

See Background to 6:29.

20)[line 25]כל מצות הנוהגות בשני נוהגות בראשוןKOL MITZVOS HA'NOHAGOS BA'SHENI NOHAGOS BA'RISHON- all of the Mitzvos [of Purim; namely, the reading of the Megilah, delivering Mishlo'ach Manos, and giving Matanos la'Evyonim] that apply during the second [Adar] may be observed on [those same dates during] the first [Adar as well, in which case it is non-essential to spread the word that the following month is Adar Sheni]

21)[line 29]בעיבור שנהIBUR SHANAH- [the length of] the first Adar

22)[line 30]חדשCHODESH- a month [of twenty-nine days]

23)[line 34]שמקדשין אותם ביום עיבוריהןMEKADSHIN OSAM B'YOM IBUREIHEN- their Rosh Chodesh is declared on that which otherwise would have been the thirtieth day of the previous month (lit. the days of their extension)

24)[line 34]למימראL'MEIMRA- in other words

25a)[line 35]דחסריןCHASEIRIN- twenty-nine-day months

b)[line 35]מלאיןMELEI'IN- thirty-day months

26)[line 36]העיד רבי סימאי...HE'ID REBBI SIMA'I...- This is the beginning of the quote from Rav Nachman bar Chisda with which Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi disagrees.

27)[line 37]חגי זכריה ומלאכיCHAGAI ZECHARYAH U'MAL'ACHI- these were the last three Nevi'im who prophesied to Klal Yisrael. They were also members of the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah (see Background to Shekalim 13:40).

28)[line 39]אחד מלא ואחד חסרECHAD MALEI V'ECHAD CHASER- the first one thirty days long and the second twenty-nine days long

29)[line 41]רבינוRABEINU- Rav

30)[line 42]שהוקבע ראש חדש בזמנוSHE'HUKBA ROSH CHODESH BI'ZEMANO- that Rosh Chodesh [of the second Adar] had been declared on what would otherwise have been the thirtieth [of the first Adar, in which case the first Adar would have been only twenty-nine long]

31)[line 45]מחללין את השבתMECHALELIN ES HA'SHABBOS- [witnesses to the new moon (see Background to 18:21)] transgress Shabbos [by leaving the Techum (see Background to Beitzah 36:57) and performing any other Melachah necessary in order to arrive in Yerushalayim in time to give testimony]