[17a - 51 lines; 17b - 46 lines]

1)[line 1]ומצפצפיןMETZAFTZEFIN- they cry out [briefly from the pain of Gehinom]

2)[line 1]"והבאתי את השלשית באש, וצרפתים כצרף את הכסף ובחנתים כבחן את הזהב; הוא יקרא בשמי ואני אענה אתו...""V'HEVESI ES HA'SHELISHIS BA'ESH, U'TZRAFTIM KI'TZROF ES HA'KESEF, U'VCHANTIM KI'VCHON ES HA'ZAHAV; HU YIKRA VI'SHMI, VA'ANI E'ENEH OSO..."- "[And there will be in the entirety of the land... two portions of the population that will be cut off and will perish, and the third will be left in it.] I will pass the third through fire, and purify it as one purifies silver, and refine it as one refines gold; they will call out in My Name, and I will answer them..." (Zecharyah 13:8-9) - This verse also refers to the period following the resuscitation of the dead.

3)[line 4]ועליהם אמרה חנהVA'ALEIHEM AMRAH CHANAH- and regarding these [members of middle group] Chanah (see Background to 11:34) said [in the exultant song that she sang following the birth of her son Shmuel]

4)[line 5]שאולSHE'OL- [to] the netherworld

5)[line 5]"[ויעבר ה' על פניו ויקרא, ה', ה', ק-ל רחום וחנון; ארך אפים] ורב חסד [ואמת]""[VA'YA'AVOR HASH-M AL PANAV VA'YIKRA, 'HASH-M, HASH-M, KEL RACHUM V'CHANUN; ERECH APAYIM] V'RAV CHESED [VE'EMES]"- "[And HaSh-m passed before him and called out, 'HaSh-m, HaSh-m, a merciful and favorably disposed G-d; slow to anger] and generous with kindnesses [and truth]'" (Shemos 34:6) - This verse begins the list of the thirteen Midos ha'Rachamim (attributes of HaSh-m's mercy).

6)[line 6]מטה כלפי חסדMATEH KELAPEI CHESED- he leans toward kindness [and pardons even when it is not warranted]

7)[line 7]כל הפרשה כולהKOL HA'PARSHAH KULAH- the entire chapter [116 of Tehilim]

8)[line 8]"[שמר פתאים ה'] דלותי ולי יהושיע""[SHOMER PESAYIM HASH-M;] DALOSI V'LI YEHOSHI'A"- "[HaSh-m watches over fools;[ I was brought low (alt. I had few merits) and [yet] He will save me" (Tehilim 116:6).

9)[line 8]פושעי ישראל בגופןPOSH'EI YISRA'EL B'GUFAN- Jews who sin with their bodies (the Gemara later on this Amud explains this term)

10)[line 11]כלהKALAH- is no longer

11)[line 11]מפזרתןMEFAZRASAN- scatters them

12)[line 12]כפותKAPOS- soles

13)[line 12]"ועסותם רשעים כי יהיו אפר תחת כפות רגליכם""V'ASOSEM RESHA'IM, KI YIHEYU EFER TACHAS KAPOS RAGLEICHEM"- "And you will trample the wicked, for they will be ashes under the soles of your feet" (Mal'achi 3:21).

14a)[line 14]המיניןMININ- heretics [who falsify the Torah; early versions of Rashi specify those who turned to Christianity]

b)[line 14]והמסורותMASOROS- informers [who tell lies to the Nochri government, resulting in the loss of Jewish money]

c)[line 14]והאפיקורסיםAPIKORSIM- heretics [who disgrace Torah scholars]

15)[line 16]ושנתנו חיתיתם בארץ חייםSHE'NASNU CHITISAM B'ERETZ CHAYIM- those who cause others to fear them

16)[line 17]ירבעם בן נבטYERAV'AM BEN NEVAT

(a)Rechav'am, the son of Shlomo ha'Melech, ignored the counsel of his father's ministers to win the people over by repealing the high tax and hard labor that Shlomo had instituted. He instead listened to the advice of his friends, who argued that he demonstrate his kingly power immediately. As a result, the people rebelled (Melachim I 12:1-17).

(b)All tribes other than those of Yehudah and Binyamin seceded from the kingdom and created another under the kingship of Yerav'am ben Nevat of the Shevet of Efrayim. To discourage his subjects from returning to the leadership of the Davidic kings, Yerav'am outlawed the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel (traveling to the Beis ha'Mikdash for Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos). As an "alternative" he erected two golden calves - one in Beis El and one in Dan - and instructed the nation to worship them (ibid. 12:28).

17)[line 19]"ויצאו וראו...""V'YATZE'U V'RA'U..."- "And they shall go out and see the carcasses of those who have rebelled against Me; [for the maggots devouring them shall never die, nor shall the fire consuming them be quenched, and they shall be a disgrace to all flesh]" (Yeshayah 66:24).

18)[line 21]"... וצורם לבלות שאול מזבל לו""... V'TZURAM L'VALOS SHE'OL MI'ZEVUL LO"- "[They are like sheep placed in the netherworld; death shall consume them, and the upright shall dominate them at daybreak.] Their bodies are doomed to rot away in the grave, each from his resting place" (Tehilim 49:15) - This verse describes the fate of sinners. Our Gemara interprets the end of this verse to mean, "Their bodies shall outlast Gehinom, due to that which their sins contributed to the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash."

19)[line 22]שפשטו ידיהםPASHTU YEDEIHEM- lit. they stretched their hands out; they [through their sins] contributed to the destruction of

20)[line 25]"ה' יחתו מריביו [עליו בשמים ירעם, ה' ידין אפסי ארץ; ויתן עז למלכו וירם קרן משיחו]""HASH-M YECHATU MERIVAV, [ALAV BA'SHAMAYIM YAR'EM; HASH-M YADIN AFSEI ARETZ; V'YITEN OZ L'MALKO, V'YAREM KEREN MESHICHO]"- "HaSh-m! may those who clash with Him be shattered; [may the heavens thunder against them, may HaSh-m judge the ends of the earth! Give strength to His king, and increase the pride of His anointed one]" (Shmuel I 2:10) - The Dikdukei Sofrim #80 records an alternate Girsa which reads AMAR MAR VA'ALEIHEM AMRAH CHANAH HASH-M MEMIS U'MECHAYEH, MORID SHE'OL VA'YA'AL (see earlier on the Amud and above, entry #5). According to this Girsa, the Gemara earlier did not quote this verse, and it only now begins to explain the Beraisa. It therefore follows that the statements of both Rebbi Yitzchak bar Avin and Rava are describing the Beinoniyim referred to in the beginning of the Beraisa.

21)[line 26]לשולי קדירהSHULEI KEDEIRAH- the [blackened] underside of a pot

22a)[line 27]ואינהו משפירי שפירי בני מחוזאINHU MI'SHAPIREI SHAPIREI BNEI MECHOZA- they from the pampered, fattened residents of Mechoza (a large trading town located on the Tigris River with a predominantly Jewish population)

b)[line 28]ומקריין בני גיהנםU'MIKARYAN BNEI GEHINOM- will be called inhabitants of Gehinom

23)[line 32]לית להו תקנתאLEIS LEHU TAKANATA- they cannot be rectified [but rather their ashes are scattered]

24)[line 35]לא סגיא ליה דלאוLO SAGYA LEI D'LAV- it is not possible without

25)[line 39]שדלהDALAH- poor

26)[line 40]קרקפתא דלא מנח תפליןKARKAFTA D'LO MANACH TEFILIN- a head that has not put on Tefilin. This refers to one who (a) refrained from putting on Tefilin due of his distaste for the Mitzvah (TOSFOS, ROSH); (b) has never once put on Tefilin (RABEINU CHANANEL, RIF); (c) did not put on Tefilin, or for that matter, neglected to perform any other Mitzvah (RAMA MI'PANO, cited by the KORBAN NESANEL 5:10)

27)[line 41]בעבירהAVEIRAH- illicit relations

28)[line 42]פרנס המטיל אימה יתירהPARNAS HA'MATIL EIMAH YESEIRAH- a leader who instills an inordinate amount of fear

29)[line 44]"לכן יראוהו אנשים לא יראה כל חכמי לב""LACHEN YERE'UHU ANASHIM; LO YIR'EH KOL CHACHMEI LEV"- "Therefore people fear Him; He is not impressed with those who are wise of heart" (Iyov 37:24) - Our Gemara allegorically interprets this verse to mean, "Because he causes people to fear him, he will not see any [sons who are] wise of heart."

30a)[line 46]כובשוKOVSHO- He exerts pressure [on the side of the scale that holds the merits, causing them to hang lower than the sins]

b)[line 46]נושאNOSEI- He elevates [the side of the scale that holds the sins, causing them to rise above the merits]

31)[line 46-47]"[מי ק-ל כמוך] נשא עון ועבר על פשע [לשארית נחלתו]... ישוב ירחמנו יכבש עונתינו...""[MI KEL KA'MOCHA,] NOSEI AVON V'OVER AL PESHA [LI'SH'ERIS NACHALASO]... YASHUV YERACHAMENU, YICHBOSH AVONOSENU"- "[Who, G-d, is like You,] Who forgives (lit. lifts up) willful sins and overlooks rebellious ones [for the remnant of His inheritance]... He shall return and have mercy upon us, and compress our sins..." (Michah 7:18-19).

32a)[line 47]מעביר ראשון ראשוןMA'AVIR RISHON RISHON- He withholds the first sin [so that it is never placed upon the scale] (RASHI, as explained by KORBAN NESANEL 5:60; see Insights)

b)[line 47]וכן היא המדהV'CHEN HI HA'MIDAH- and this is the [expression of] the attribute [termed "Rav Chesed"]

33)[line 48]המעביר על מדותיוHA'MA'AVIR AL MIDOSAV- one who forgoes slights to his honor and does not attempt to repay in kind (RASHI based on Yoma 23a)

34)[line 50]חלשCHALASH- became sick

35)[line 50]עלAL- went up

36)[line 50]לשיולי ביהL'SHIYULEI VEI- to visit him

37)[line 50]חזייה דחליש ליה עלמאCHAZYEI D'CHALISH LEI ALMA- he realized that he was about to die

38)[line 51]צביתו ליה זוודתאTZEVISU LEI ZEVADASA- lit. prepare his travel provisions; i.e., prepare his burial shrouds

39)[line 51]איתפחITPACH- he recuperated

40)[line 51]מיכסיףMICHSIF- was embarrassed

41)[line 51]למיחזייהL'MICHZAYEI- to be seen by him

42)[line 51]אין הכי הוהIN, HACHI HAVAH- so it was [that I was about to die]

43)[line 52]מוקים במיליהMUKIM B'MILEI- insist upon upholding his honor

44)[last line]אליה וקוץ בהALYAH V'KOTZ BAH- it is a delectable piece of fatty tail meat with a thorn within it; that is, it is an incomplete consolation


45)[line 1]שמשים עצמו כשיריםSHE'MESIM ATZMO K'SHIRAYIM- who makes himself as leftovers; i.e., who carries himself humbly

46)[line 2]"צדיק ה' בכל דרכיו, וחסיד בכל מעשיו""TZADIK HASH-M B'CHOL DERACHAV, V'CHASID B'CHOL MA'ASAV"- "HaSh-m is righteous in all of his ways, and kind in all of his actions" (Tehilim 145:17) - "Tzadik" implies that HaSh-m is exacting in judgment, whereas "Chasid" implies that He is lenient.

47)[line 11]שנתעטףNIS'ATEF- wrapped himself [in a Talis]

48)[line 14]אני הוא קודם שיחטא האדםANI HU KODEM SHE'YECHETA HA'ADAM...- This implies either that HaSh-m remains unchanged in his attitude toward us after we sin, or two different ways of relating to us; see Insights.

49)[line 16]כרותהKERUSAH- forged

50)[line 19]"השמן לב העם הזה ואזניו הכבד ועיניו השע; פן יראה בעיניו ובאזניו ישמע ולבבו יבין ושב, ורפא לו""HASHMEN LEV HA'AM HA'ZEH, V'OZNAV HACHBED, V'EINAV HASHA; PEN YIR'EH V'EINAV UV'OZNAV YISHMA U'LVAVO YAVIN VA'SHAV, V'RAFA LO"- "This nation is fattening its heart, hardening it ears, and sealing its eyes; lest they see with their eyes, hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, repent, and be healed" (Yeshayah 6:10).

51)[line 22]בינתיםBEINTAYIM- between [Rosh Hashanah and Yom ha'Kipurim]

52)[line 22]אילי נביותEILEI NEVAYOS- the rams of Nevayos (Nabateans), an Arab settlement (see Bereishis 25:13) to the south-east of Israel known for its high-quality sheep

53)[line 23]"[ארץ אשר ה' א-לקיך דרש אתה; תמיד] עיני ה' א-לקיך בה [מרשית השנה ועד אחרית שנה]""[ERETZ ASHER HASH-M EL-KECHA DORESH OSA; TAMID] EINEI HASH-M EL-KECHA BAH, [ME'REISHIS HA'SHANAH V'AD ACHARIS SHANAH]"- "[A land whose welfare HaSh-m your G-d shall seek;] the eyes of HaSh-m your G-d are [constantly] turned to it, [from the beginning of the year to its end]" (Devarim 11:12).

54)[line 23]עתיםITIM- sometimes

55)[line 25]חזרו בהןCHAZRU BA'HEN- they changed their [evil] ways

56)[line 25]עליהןALEIHEN- on [the small amount of rain that was decreed]

57)[line 30]בהכיB'HACHI- with [the original amount, as described]

58)[line 31]"יורדי הים באניות... ויאמר ויעמד רוח סערה ותרומם גליו... יחוגו וינועו כשכור... ויצעקו אל ה' בצר להם... יודו לה' חסדו...""YOREDEI HA'YAM BA'ANIYOS... VA'YOMER VA'YA'AMED RU'ACH SE'ARAH VA'TEROMEM GALAV... YACHOGU V'YANU'U KA'SHIKOR... VA'YITZ'AKU EL HASH-M BA'TZAR LA'HEM... YODU LA'SH-M CHASDO..."- "Those who go down to the sea in boats... And He commanded and erected a stormy wind and it lifted its waves... The [sailors] reel and stagger like a drunkard... And they cried out to HaSh-m in their suffering, and He delivered them from their distress... Give thanks to HaSh-m for his kindness..." (Tehilim 107:23-31)

59)[line 33]סימניותSIMANIYOS- symbols [that take the shape of upside down letter Nuns in our Sifrei Tehilim (found before verses 23-28 and 40)]

60)[line 33]כאכין ורקין שבתורהACHIN V'RAKIN SHEBA'TORAH- the words "Ach" (but) and "Rak" (only) in the Torah [which always exclude something]

61)[line 35]כיחידין דמוK'YECHIDIM DAMU- are like individuals [presumable since they are in a particularly dangerous situation]

62)[line 36]"[הק-ל הגדל הגבר והנורא] אשר לא ישא פנים [ולא יקח שחד]""[HA'KEL HA'GADOL HA'GIBOR VEHA'NORA] ASHER LO YISA PANIM [V'LO YIKACH SHOCHAD]"- "[The great, strong, and awesome G-d,] Who does not show favoritism [and does not accept bribes]" (Devarim 10:17).

63)[line 36]"ישא ה' פניו אליך [וישם לך שלום]""YISA HASH-M PANAV ELECHA [V'YASEM LECHA SHALOM]"- "HaSh-m shall turn His face to you [and grant you peace]" (Bamidbar 6:26) - This verse is part of Birkas Kohanim.

64)[line 36]נטפל להNITPAL LAH- attended to her [question]

65)[line 37]שנושה בחבירו מנהSHE'NOSHEH B'CHAVEIRO MANEH- who is owed one Maneh (equivalent to one hundred Zuz) by another

66)[line 38]לפייס את המלךL'FAYES ES HA'MELECH- to appease the king [for taking his name in vain]

67)[line 39]עלבוניELBONI- my embarrassment

68)[last line]למקוםMAKOM- lit, the place; HaSh-m