[16a - 51 lines; 16b - 46 lines]
1)[line 1]פרקיםPERAKIM- periods
2)[line 2]בעצרתATZERES- Shavuos
3)[line 3]כבני מרוןBNEI MARON- The Gemara (18a) gives three interpretations of these words, all of which carry the connotation of passing in a single file.
4)[line 4]"[ממכון שבתו השגיח אל כל ישבי הארץ.] היצר יחד לבם המבין אל כל מעשיהם""[MI'MECHON SHIVTO HISHGI'ACH, EL KOL YOSHEVEI HA'ARETZ.] HA'YOTZER YACHAD LIBAM, HA'MEVIN EL KOL MA'ASEIHEM"- "[From his dwelling place He oversees all inhabitants of the earth.] He Who fashions their hearts together, Who comprehends all of their deeds." (Tehilim 33:14-15) - The Gemara (18a) explains the derivation from these verses.
5)[line 5]ובחגCHAG- Sukos
6)[line 5]היHAI- which
7)[line 6]דקיימאD'KAIMA- that is currently standing [waiting to be harvested]
8a)[line 7]כל הני הרפתקי דעדו עלהKOL HANI HARPATKEI D'ADU ALAH- all of those events that have already befallen it
b)[line 7]אימת איתדון?EIMAS ISDUN?- when were they decreed?
9)[line 8]דמזדרעאD'MIZDAR'A- that will be planted [in the coming fall season]
10)[line 8]דחד דינא מתדנאD'CHAD DINA MISDENA- that [each crop of grain] is judged at a single time
11)[line 9]שאירע בה קריSHE'IRA BAH KERI- that [a natural disaster such as hail] occurred to it
12a)[line 10]נידונית לשעברNIDONIS LESHE'AVAR- it had been decreed on [the Yom ha'Kipurim] that had just passed
b)[line 10]נידונית להבאNIDONIS LEHA'BA- it had been decreed on the [Pesach] following [its planting]
13)[line 13]תרי דיני מתדנאTREI DINEI MISDANA SHASA- the year['s crop of grain] is judged at two times
14a)[line 13]כי חזי אינש דמצלח זרעא אפלאKI CHAZI INISH D'MATZLACH ZAR'A AFLA- if one notices that the grains that mature slowly [such as wheat and spelt (Shemos 9:32), which must be planted early in the winter] are doing well
b)[line 15]ליקדים וליזרע חרפאLIKDIM V'LIZRA CHARFA- he should hurry and plant grains that mature quickly [such as barley (Shemos 9:31), which may be planted later in the winter]
15a)[line 15]דעד דמטי למדייניהAD D'MATI L'MIDYANEI- before the time of judgment (that is, the following Pesach) has arrived
b)[line 15]קדים סליקKADIM SALIK- it has already grown [somewhat, and a more serious transgression would be necessary for HaSh-m to decree that it should be ruined]
16a)[line 17]נידוניםNIDONIM- judged preliminarily
b)[line 17]וגזר דיןGEZAR DIN- the sealing of judgment
17)[line 19]נחתםNECHTAM- sealed
18)[line 23]"[מה אנוש כי תגדלנו וכי תשית אליו לבך.] ותפקדנו לבקרים לרגעים תבחננו""[MAH ENOSH KI SEGADELENU, V'CHI SASHIS ELAV LIBECHA;] VA'TIFKEDENU LI'VEKARIM, LI'REGA'IM TIVCHANENU."- "[What is man, that You raise him to great heights, and turn Your attention to him;] that You recall him every morning, and observe him every moment?" (Iyov 7:17-18)
19)[line 34]עיוני בעלמאIYUNEI B'ALMA- merely an inspection
20)[line 35]"...לעשות משפט עבדו ומשפט עמו ישראל דבר יום ביומו""... LA'ASOS MISHPAT AVDO U'MISHPAT AMO YISRAEL DEVAR YOM B'YOMO" - "[And may these words of mine that I have supplicated before HaSh-m be near to HaSh-m, our G-d, day and night, that He may grant] the just due of His servant and the just due of His people Israel, [each day's need in its day]." (Melachim I 8:59) (THE PRAYER OF SHLOMO HA'MELECH UPON THE COMPLETION OF THE BEIS HA'MIKDASH)
(a)Having completed the construction of the Beis ha'Mikdash, Shlomo ha'Melech beseeched HaSh-m to always be receptive to the prayers of Klal Yisrael (as well as those of other nations). His main concern was that the Beis ha'Mikdash should draw Klal Yisrael close to HaSh-m, and that this relationship should express itself in a higher quality of Mitzvah observance. Shlomo then expressed his desire that "... all the nations of the earth should know that HaSh-m is G-d; there is no other."
(b)From Shlomo's request that his own judgment to be carried out separately from that of the rest of the nation, it is clear that a king is judged prior to the common populace. In the global sense, our Gemara considers Klal Yisrael to be a king relative to the other nations of the earth.
21a)[line 38]לאו אורח ארעאLAV ORACH AR'A- it is not proper conduct (this is the Aramaic translation of Derech Eretz)
b)[line 38]למיתב מלכא אבראיL'MEITAM MALKA AVRA'I- to make a king stand outside
22)[line 39]מקמי דליפוש חרון אףMEKAMEI D'LEIFUSH CHARON AF- [it is best for Klal Yisrael to be judged] before the wrath [of the judge] increases [as a result of viewing the sinful ways of the nations of the world]
23)[line 39]כמאן מצלינן האידנאK'MAN MATZLINAN HA'IDNA- according to whose opinion do we currently pray
24a)[line 39]אקציריKETZIREI- sick individuals
b)[line 39]ואמריעיMERI'EI- weak Talmidei Chachamim
25)[line 42]עומרOMER (KORBAN HA'OMER)
See Background to 7:36.
26)[line 44]שתיהלחםS HTEI HA'LECHEM
See Background to 7:37.
27)[line 46]נסכו מיםNISCHU MAYIM (NISUCH HA'MAYIM)
(a)A Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai teaches us that on Sukos in the Beis ha'Mikdash there is a Mitzvah of Nisuch ha'Mayim (lit. pouring of the water). Three Lugim (approx. 1.5 liter) of water are drawn from the Shilo'ach spring, which is located to the south of the Temple Mount. This water is then brought to the Azarah amidst a joyous procession, in fulfillment of the Pasuk, "u'She'avtem Mayim b'Sason ..." - "and you shall draw water with rejoicing..." (Yeshayah 12:3).
(b)The Kohen who is chosen to pour the water ascends the Mizbe'ach and pours the water from a golden flask into one of the Sefalim (silver libation pipes located in the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach). The Nisuch ha'Mayim takes place each day of Sukos at the time of the morning Tamid sacrifice amidst much rejoicing.
(c)Every night of Sukos, the nation gathered at the Beis ha'Mikdash to sing HaSh-m's praises. The Leviyim played more musical instruments than they usually did. The greatest Torah Scholars and Tzadikim danced, juggled, or otherwise celebrated. Many torches and fires were lit, until the streets of Yerushalayim were bright as they were during the day. This celebration, called the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah, continued all night long until it was time to draw the water in the morning. The Mishnah (Sukah 51a) states that "one who has not seen the rejoicing of the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah has never seen rejoicing in his life!"
28)[line 47]מלכיות זכרונות ושופרותMALCHIYOS ZICHRONOS V'SHOFAROS- [thirty verses, ten of which deal with each of the following three topics: the] Kingship [of HaSh-m], [the] Remembrance [of HaSh-m], and [the] Shofar [during Musaf]
29)[last line]מריעיןMERI'IN- do we blow a Teru'ah
30)[last line]כשהן יושביןKASHE'HEN YOSHVIN- when they are sitting (it is permitted to sit for the first thirty Shofar blasts on Rosh Hashanah)
31)[line 1]כדי לערבב השטןK'DEI L'ARBEV HA'SATAN- in order to confuse the Satan [(a) when he sees that Klal Yisrael love the Mitzvah of Shofar so much that they perform it more than necessary (RASHI); (b) since he will interpret the second sounding of the Shofar as the sounding of the "great Shofar" announcing the arrival of Mashi'ach (see Background to 11:39) (TOSFOS DH Kedei, RABEINU CHANANEL)]
32)[line 2]שאין תוקעיןSHE'EIN TOK'IN- that they do not blow [the Shofar due to an unavoidable circumstances; this does not apply to Shabbos (TOSFOS DH she'Ein)]
33)[line 3]מריעיןMERI'IN- they treat badly (i.e., bad things will occur)
34)[line 4]שרשהRASHAH- [Klal Yisrael view themselves as] lacking [in good deeds and therefore undeserving]
35)[line 7]"[ארץ אשר ה' אלקיך דרש אתה תמיד עיני ה' אלקיך בה] מרשית השנה [ועד אחרית שנה]""[ERETZ ASHER HASH-M ELOKECHA DORESH OSA; TAMID EINEI HASH-M ELOKECHA BAH,] ME'REISHIS HA'SHANAH [V'AD ACHARIS SHANAH.]"- "[A land whose welfare HaSh-m your G-d shall seek; the eyes of HaSh-m your G-d are constantly turned to it,] from the beginning of the year to its end" (Devarim 11:12).
36)[line 6]סופה שיש לה אחריתSOFAH SHE'YESH LAH ACHARIS- an end to the year that has a future
37)[line 8]"כי שמע אלקים אל קול הנער באשר הוא שם""KI SHAMA ELOKIM EL KOL HA'NA'AR BA'ASHER HU SHAM" - "[And G-d heard the voice of the lad, and an angel of G-d called out to Hagar from the heavens and said: What troubles you, Hagar? Do not fear,] for G-d has heard the voice of the lad in his current situation." (Bereishis 21:17) (SARAH'S ACCUSATION)
(a)When Sarah Imenu saw that she had not borne a child to Avraham, she gave her maidservant Hagar to her husband as a wife. When Hagar became pregnant soon after marring Avraham, she assumed that the reason for Sarah's infertility must be the result of hidden character faults. Hagar began to look down upon her mistress and to treat her with a lack of respect.
(b)Sarah banished Hagar and her young son, Yishmael. They wandered in the desert, and eventually ran out of water. Unwilling to see Yishmael die of thirst, his mother set him under a tree, walked a bit away, and they both cried. At that point, a Mal'ach appeared to Hagar and told her, "Do not fear, for G-d has heard the voice of the lad in his current situation." Although the nation of Yishmael would persecute Klal Yisrael in the future, at that time Yishmael had done no wrong and was not deserving of punishment. The Mal'ach revealed to them a source of water, and they eventually returned, humbled, to Avraham.
38a)[line 11]קיר נטויKIR NATUY- [walking under] a wall that is tilting [and about to collapse or entering into any other similarly dangerous situation]
b)[line 11]ועיון תפלהIYUN TEFILAH- concentrating intently upon one's prayers [resulting in absolute confidence that this will lead to the fulfillment of his requests to HaSh-m]
c)[line 11]ומוסר דין על חבירוMOSER DIN AL CHAVEIRO- demanding that HaSh-m punish another for wronging him. In all of these three situations, one relies upon his own merits, oblivious to the fact that he may be found lacking. This causes HaSh-m to indeed take a closer look at how deserving he really is (TOSFOS DH v'Iyun).
39)[line 13]"ותאמר שרי אל אברם חמסי עליך""VA'TOMER SARAI EL AVRAM, 'CHAMASI ALECHA'" - "And Sarai said to Avram, 'I am upset with you. [I gave my maidservant to you as a wife, and when she saw that she was pregnant, I became less respected in her eyes. May HaSh-m be the judge between me and you!]'" (Bereishis 16:5) (SARAH IMENU BLAMES AVRAHAM AVINU)
When Hagar, maidservant of Sarah, began to treat her mistress with disrespect, Sarah partially blamed her husband. Sarah's charge was that Avraham had not prayed that he should have children with Sarah, but rather only that he should have children.
40)[line 14]"ויבא אברהם לספד לשרה ולבכתה""VA'YAVO AVRAHAM LISPOD L'SARAH V'LIVKOSAH"- "[And Sarah died in Kiryas Arba, which is Chevron, in the land of Kena'an,] and Avraham came to eulogize Sarah and to cry for her." (Bereishis 23:2)
41)[line 16]מקרעיןMEKAR'IN- rip up
42)[line 17]צעקהTZE'AKAH- crying out [to HaSh-m in prayer]
43)[line 19]"ויצעקו אל ה' בצר להם וממצוקותיהם יוציאם""VA'YITZ'AKU EL HASH-M BA'TZAR LAHEM, UMI'METZUKOSEIHEM YOTZI'EM"- "And they cried out to HaSh-m in their suffering, and He delivered them from their distress." (Tehilim 107:28) - This verse appears four times in Tehilim 107. It refers to those who travel across the desert, those who travel across the ocean, those who are ill, and those who are in captivity.
44)[line 23]"וירא האלקים את מעשיהם [כי שבו מדרכם הרעה] וינחם האלקים על הרעה אשר דבר לעשות להם ולא עשה""VAYAR HA'ELOKIM ES MA'ASEIHEM, [KI SHAVU MI'DARKAM HA'RA'AH,] VA'YINACHEM HASH-M AL HA'RA'AH ASHER DIBER LA'ASOS LAHEM V'LO ASAH" - "And HaSh-m saw their deeds, [that they had repented from their evil ways,] and HaSh-m retreated from the evil that He had foretold to do to them, and He did not carry it out." (Yonah 3:10) (THE GREAT CITY OF NINEVEH REPENTS)
The prophet Yonah was instructed by HaSh-m to inform the great city of Nineveh that due to their numerous sins the city would be overturned in three days' time. The residents of the city took the warning to heart and repented. They organized a public fast wherein men, women, children, and even animals neither ate nor drank. They donned sackcloth and cried out to HaSh-m.
45)[line 26]דאהניאAHANYA- helped
46)[line 27]להקביל פניL'HAKBIL PNEI- to visit with
47)[line 27]"[ויאמר] מדוע את הלכת אליו היום לא חדש ולא שבת...""[VA'YOMER:] MADU'A AT HOLECHES ELAV HA'YOM, LO CHODESH V'LO SHABBOS..." - "[And he said (to his wife):] Why are you going to him (Elisha) today? It is neither Rosh Chodesh nor Shabbos!" (Melachim II 4:23). (ELISHA RESURRECTS A DEAD CHILD)
(a)A Shunamis woman built a special room containing a bed, a table, a chair, and a lamp to accommodate the prophet, Elisha, when he was in that area. In gratitude, Elisha asked how he could return the favor, but she insisted that she desired no recompense. Elisha's servant, Gechazi, pointed out that she and her husband were childless. Elisha promised them a child, and his promise indeed was fulfilled as a result of his prayers on their behalf.
(b)A few years later, however, the child died of sunstroke. His mother placed him on Elisha's bed and closed the door of the room. She then prepared to set out to Elisha. Her husband was unaware that anything out of the ordinary had occurred, and thus he asked her why she was going to visit the prophet.
(c)From his reaction, the Gemara derives that it is proper to visit one's Rebbi on Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh (and Yom Tov - see Insights).
(d)When he heard what had occurred, Elisha hurried back to the house, prayed to HaSh-m, and miraculously brought the child back to life. The child grew up to become Chabakuk ha'Navi.
48)[line 29]למיזלL'MEIZAL- to go
49)[line 29]לטהר את עצמוL'TAHER ES ATZMO- to purify himself [by immersing in a Mikvah]
50)[line 29]"[מבשרם לא תאכלו] ובנבלתם לא תגעו [טמאים הוא לכם]""[MI'BESARAM LO SOCHELU,] UV'NIVLASAM LO SIGA'U, [TEME'IM HEM LA'CHEM]"- "[Do not eat from their flesh,] and do not come into contact with their carcasses, [they are Tamei to you]." (Vayikra 11:8) - This verse refers to non-Kosher animals.
51)[line 31]מגע נבילהMAGA NEVEILAH (TUM'AS NEVEILAH)
(a)A Neveilah is a carcass of an animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering. A k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes an object Tamei through Maga (contact) and Masa (carrying). At the time that a person is carrying a Neveilah, any clothing or utensils (besides earthenware utensils) that he is touching become Tamei as if the Neveilah itself had touched the clothing or utensils.
(b)If a person becomes Tamei by touching a Neveilah he can immediately immerse in a Mikvah. He becomes Tahor at nightfall and may then eat Terumah or Kodshim.
52)[line 31]"אמר אל הכהנים בני אהרון [ואמרת אלהם לנפש לא יטמא בעמיו]""... EMOR EL HA'KOHANIM, BNEI AHARON, [V'AMARTA ALEHEM, L'NEFESH LO YITAMA B'AMAV]"- "... speak to the Kohanim, sons of Aharon,[ and say to them, 'Do not allow yourselves to become Tamei for a dead body in its nation.']" (Vayikra 21:1) - From this verse we learn that a Kohen should not become Tamei.
53)[line 34]שלשה ספריםSHELOSHAH SEFARIM- three [Heavenly] ledgers [that record the deeds of the living]
54)[line 38]"ימחו מספר חיים ועם צדיקים אל יכתבו""YIMACHU MI'SEFER CHAYIM, V'IM TZADIKIM AL YIKASEVU."- "They shall be erased from the book of the living, and they will not be inscribed with the righteous." (Tehilim 69:29)
55)[line 40]"[ועתה אם תשא חטאתם] ואם אין מחני נא מספרך אשר כתבת""[V'ATAH IM TISA CHATASAM,] V'IM AYIN MECHENI NA MI'SIFRECHA ASHER KASAVTA"- "[And now, if You forgive their sin, then fine;] and if not, please erase [any mention of] me from the scroll that You have written." (Shemos 32:32) - Following the sin of the Golden Calf, Moshe Rabeinu presented HaSh-m with this ultimatum, as it were.
56)[line 43]כתותKITOS- groups
57)[line 43]ליום הדיןYOM HA'DIN- the [future] day of judgment [following the resuscitation of the dead]
58)[line 45]"ורבים מישני אדמת עפר יקיצו אלה לחיי עולם ואלה לחרפות לדראון עולם""V'RABIM MI'YESHENEI AFAR YAKITZU; ELEH L'CHAYEI OLAM, V'ELEH LA'CHARAFOS, L'DIR'ON OLAM"- "And many of those sleeping in the dust of the ground will awaken; some for everlasting life, and some for shame and everlasting disgrace." (Daniel 12:2) - After the battle of Gog and Magog, many of the dead of Yisrael will come back to life - the Tzadikim and the Resha'im as described in this verse - thanks to the efforts of the Mal'ach, Micha'el. The Beinonim are referred to in Zecharyah, as the Gemara will soon relate.