1)

SLAUGHTERING FOR A WIFE AND A SLAVE (Yerushalmi Halachah 1 Daf 57b)

משנה האשה בזמן שהיא בבית בעלה שחט עליה בעלה תאכל משל בעלה

(a)

If a woman is in her husband's house, if he slaughtered [the Korban Pesach] for her, she may eat from his portion.

הלכה רגל הראשון לעשות בבית אביה שחט עליה אביה שחט עליה בעלה תאכל ממקום שהיא רוצה

(b)

If she went to spend the first festival (of their marriage) in her father's house, if both her father and her husband slaughtered for her, she may eat from whichever she wishes.

יתום ששחטו עליו אפיטרופין יאכל ממקום שהוא רוצה

(c)

If [two] guardians slaughtered for an orphan, he may eat from whichever he wishes.

עבד של שני שותפין לא יאכל משל שניהם

(d)

A slave owned by two masters may not eat from the Pesach of either master.

חציו עבד וחציו בן חורין לא יאכל משל רבו

(e)

A slave who is half freed (e.g. if he had been owned by two masters and one master had freed his portion of the slave), he may not eat from the Pesach of his current master.

גמרא א"ר יוחנן ארבעה מחוסרי כפרה מפרישין עליהן חוץ מדעתן ואלו הן זב וזבה ויולדת ומצורע שכן אדם מפריש על בנו הקטן והוא נתון בעריסה

(f)

R. Yochanan: One may separate a sacrifice on behalf of four types of people (that require the atonement of that sacrifice) without their knowledge - a Zav, a Zavvah, a lady who gave birth and a person with Tzora'as; as a person may separate a sacrifice for his young son who sleeps in a crib.

ניחא זב וזבה ומצורע ויולדת. ויש קטנה יולדת

(g)

Question: The cases of Zav, Zavvah and Metzorah are understandable; but a lady who gave birth - can a child give birth?

לא כן אמר רבי רדיפה ר' יונה בשם רב חונה

(h)

Proof of question: Did R. Redifah/ R. Yonah not quote R. Chunah as saying -

עיברה וילדה עד שלא הביאה שתי שערות היא ובנה מתים

1.

If a girl conceived and gave birth before she had brought two pubic hairs (which is a sign of adulthood), she and her child will [certainly] die.

משהביאה שתי שערות היא ובנה חיים

2.

If it happened after she brought two hairs, she and her son will live.

עיברה עד שלא הביאה שתי שערות וילדה משהביאה שתי שערו' היא חיה ובנה מת

3.

If she conceived before she had brought two hairs but gave birth after bringing two hairs, she will live but her son will die?!

מיי כדון שכן אדם מפריש על בתו קטנה. מכיון שהשיאה לא כבר יצאת מרשות אביה.

(i)

Conclusion of question: If so, what is R. Yochanan's source to say that one may separate a sacrifice for a Metzorah without his knowledge - as in the case of a daughter, when she is still a child she cannot give birth and when she is an adult, she is no longer in the domain of her father)?!

אלא שכן אדם מפריש על אשתו חרשת

(j)

Answer: As a person may separate a sacrifice for his wife who is a deaf-mute.

וכאן סוטה קטנה אין את יכול דאמר רבי זעירה ר' יוסה בשם רבי יוחנן קטנה שזינתה אין לה רצון ליאסר על בעלה

(k)

R. Yochanan did not list the case of a sacrifice of a Sotah (a woman who is suspected of committing adultery) as R. Zeira./R. Yosa quoted R. Yochanan as saying that the consent of a minor who committed adultery does not prohibit her to her husband; consequently, she does not drink from the Sotah water.

וחרשת אין את יכול דכתיב (במדבר ה) ואמרה האשה אמן אמן

(l)

And also a deaf-mute wife does not drink the Sotah water, as the Pasuk states (Bamidbar 5, 22), "And the woman will say Amen Amen" - and a mute woman is not able to say it.

אמר רבי אבין שנייא היא דכתיב (דברים יד) [דף נח עמוד א] ושמחת אתה וביתך

(m)

R. Avin explains: Sotah is different as the Pasuk states (Devarim 14, 26), "And you and your household shall rejoice" - since he cannot rejoice without his wife, her Korban is considered to be like his; however, Korbanos of others cannot be separated without their consent.

2)

SEPARATING AND SLAUGHTERING WITHOUT THE OWNER'S KNOWLEDGE (Yerushalmi Halachah 1 Daf 58a)

ר' ירמיה בשם רבי יוחנן אדם קובע על חבירו קרבן נזיר שלא מדעתו אבל אינו מפרישו אלא מדעתו

(a)

R. Yirmiyah quoting R. Yochanan: If a person separated a Nazir's Korban with his consent, he may sacrifice it for the Nazir without his knowledge. But he may not separate a Korban for the Nazir without his knowledge.

רבי זעירא בשם ר' יוחנן אדם קובע על חבירו חטאת חלב שלא מדעתו אבל אינו מפרישו אלא מדעתו

(b)

R. Zeira quoting R. Yochanan: If a person separated any Korban Chatas with the owner's knowledge, he may sacrifice it without his knowledge. But he may not separate any Korban Chatas for the owner without his knowledge.

ר' זעירא בשם ר"א אדם שוחט פסחו של חבירו שלא מדעתו אבל אינו מפרישו אלא מדעתו

(c)

R. Zeira quoting R. Elazar: If a person separated a Korban Pesach with the owner's knowledge, he may sacrifice it without his knowledge. But he may not separate a Korban Pesach for the owner without his knowledge.

אמר ר"א מתניתא אמרה כן האשה בזמן שהיא בבית בעלה שחט עליה אביה שחט עליה בעלה תאכל משל בעלה

(d)

Proof (R.Elazar): Our Mishnah teaches - If a woman is in her husband's house, if he slaughtered [the Korban Pesach] for her, she may eat from his portion.

מה נן קיימין אם בממחין סתם האשה ממחה לומר אצל בעלי אני אוכל אלא בשאינו ממחין

(e)

Clarification: What is the case? If the woman protested, why did the Mishnah teach that she may eat from her husband's portion?! Can a woman usually be assumed to wish to eat from her husband's Korban? Rather, one can assume that she did not protest, and the Mishnah states that she may eat from his portion, even though it was slaughtered without her knowledge!

מתניתא בממחין אתא

(f)

Rejection: The Mishnah is referring to when she protested but was teaching a case of "Regel Redufin" (the first festival after their marriage when it is customary to stay in her father's house).

ר' ירמיה בשם ר' יוחנן מתניתא בממחין לה

(g)

R. Yirmiyah also quoted R. Yochanan: The Mishnah is referring to when she protested (and it was a case of Regel Redufin).

הדא פליגא על דר' אלעזר דר"א אמר אדם שוחט פסחו שלא מדעתו אבל אינו מפרישו שלא מדעתו

(h)

Question: This disagrees with R. Elazar who said (above in (c)) that if a person separated a Korban Pesach with the owner's consent, he may sacrifice it without his knowledge. But he may not separate a Korban Pesach for the owner without his knowledge.

שנייא היא פסח שנייה היא חטאת. פסח לכשתגדיל ראוי הוא להתכפר בו חטא' לכשתגדי' אינו ראוי להתכפר בה

(i)

Answer: Pesach is different from Chatas - The Pesach can bring him atonement if he became an adult between the separation and the slaughtering, but the Chatas cannot.

אמר ר' יוחנן ברגל רדופין שנו. אי זהו רגל רדופין אמר רבי יוסה בי רבי בון זה רגל ראשון שאביה רודפת לבית בעלה

(j)

R' Yochanan said that the Mishnah is referring to a case of Regel Redufin - What is that? R. Yosa bei R. Bun said that it is the first festival after their marriage on which it is customary to be in her father's house. (The father must chase her back to her husband's house after the festival, hence the name 'Regel Redufin' - 'the festival of chasing')

לא הלכה רגל הראשון. רגל השני מהו שיעשה רגל רדופין

(k)

Query: If she did not visit her father's house for the first festival, does the second festival receive the law of Regel Redufin?

לעולם יש לה רגל רדופין

(l)

Answer: Yes, there will always be a Regel Redufin.

אלמנה מהו שיהא לה רגל רדופין

(m)

Query: Does a widow have a Regel Redufin?

נישמעינה מן הדא הלכה רגל הראשון לעשות בבית אביה. אי הדא אמרה לעולם יש לה רגל רדופין אי הדא אמרה אלמנה יש לה רגל רדופין

(n)

Suggestion: Our Mishnah can prove it - "If she went to spend the first festival (of their marriage) in her father's house...she may eat from whichever she wishes" - the contrast of this sentence with the early part of the Mishnah teaches that the law applies to the first festival that she visits (even if it is not the first festival after their marriage), or it teaches that the law applies also to a widow.

א"ר יוסה בי רבי בון תיפתר שיש לה בנים ואין לה בעל וסתם האשה ממחה לומר אצל בני אני רוצה

(o)

Rejection (R. Yosa bei R. Bun): No. Really the case is where she has children but no husband and one can assume that she would prefer to be with her children.

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