FROM WHOSE PESACH DOES A WIFE EAT?
(Mishnah): When a woman is living with her husband, if her husband and father both slaughtered Pesach for her, she eats from her husband's Korban (we assume that she wanted to be Nimneh on it);
If she went to her father's house the first festival [after Nisu'in], and both slaughtered for her, she eats from whichever she wants.
If overseers of an orphan slaughtered for him, he eats from whichever he wants.
If a slave had two masters and both of them slaughtered for him, he may not eat from either one [unless one master allowed him to be Nimneh with the other];
A half-slave may not eat from his master's Pesach.
(Gemara) Inference: Our Mishnah teaches that Yesh Breirah (things can take effect retroactively - at night she decides which Korban she wants to eat, and it is as if she was Menuyah on it from the time of slaughter)!
Rejection: No - it means that she eats from whichever she wanted [at the time of slaughter].
Contradiction (Beraisa): The first Pesach [after Nisu'in] she eats from her father's Korban; after this, she eats from whichever she wants.
Resolution: The Beraisa discusses a woman who constantly visits her father's house, and the Mishnah discusses a woman who does not;
(R. Yochanan): "Az Hayisi v'Einav k'Motz'eis Shalom" - [Yisrael is to Hash-m] like a Kalah that is found Shleimah (perfect) in her father-in-law's house, and is constantly running to her father's house to recount her praise.
(R. Yochanan): "V'Hayah va'Yom ha'Hu Ne'um Hash-m Tikre'i Ishi v'Lo Tikre'i Li Od Bali" - [Yisrael will be to Hash-m] like a Kalah in her father-in-law's house (i.e. after Nisu'in), not like a Kalah in her father's house [during engagement].
(R. Yochanan): "Achos Lanu Ketanah v'Shadayim Ein Lah" - this is Eilam (the province in which is Shushan), that merited to learn Torah (Daniel and Mordechai were there), but not to teach.
(R. Yochanan): "Ani Chomah" - this is Torah; "v'Shodai ka'Migdalos" - these are Chachamim (they nurture Talmidim and protect the generation like towers);
(Rava): "Ani Chomah" is Keneses (the congregation of) Yisrael; "v'Shodai ka'Migdalos" are synagogues and Batei Medrash.
(Mar Zutri bar Tuvya) Question: What does it mean "Asher Baneinu ki'Nti'im...?"
Answer: This refers to male youths of Yisrael that never sinned;
"Benoseinu ch'Zaviyos" refers to Benos Yisrael that bind their [genital] openings for their husbands (they do not have relations with anyone else);
We learn from "U'Mal'u ka'Mizrak k'Zaviyos Mizbe'ach" (Benos Yisrael are full of desire, but contain it for their husbands), or from "Mezaveinu Mele'im Mefikim mi'Zan."
T"avnis Heichal" - the verse attributes to both of them that it is as if the Heichal was Nivneh (built) in their days.
THE REBUKE OF HOSHE'A
"Devar Hash-m...El Hoshe'a...bi'Yemei Uziyah Yosam Achaz Yechizkiyah" - four prophets prophesized in this period - the greatest was Hoshe'a:
Question: "Techilas Diber Hash-m b'Hoshe'a" - [why is it called the first time Hash-m spoke to a prophet -] there were many Nevi'im between Moshe and Hoshe'a!
Answer (R. Yochanan): He was the foremost of four Nevi'im that prophesized in his time - Hoshe'a, Yeshayah, Amos and Michah.
Hash-m told him 'Your children sinned' - Hoshe'a should have answered 'They are Your children, descendants of your dear ones, Avraham, Yitzchak and Yakov!'
He did not do so - moreover, he said 'Master of the world - the entire world is Yours - switch them with another nation!' (We infer this from what Hash-m commanded him.)
Hash-m: How should I make this Chacham understand [the absurdity of his suggestion]?! I will tell him to have Safek children from a harlot (he will not know whether or not they are really his); afterwards, I will tell him to send her away - if he can do so, I will send away Yisrael!
(Rav): "Kach Lecha Eshes Zenunim v'Yaldei Zenunim...;" "Va'Yelech va'Yikach Es Gomer" - she is called Gomer because everyone was Gomer (fulfilled his lust) with her;
"Bas Divlayim" (plural) - she and her mother were both evil;
(Shmuel): "Divlayim" teaches that she was sweet in everyone's mouth like a Develah (pressed fig);
(R. Yochanan): "Divlayim" teaches that everyone threshed (an allusion to relations) with her, like Develah.
(Rav Yehudah): She is called Gomer because they (Nochrim) sought to finish off the money of Yisrael in her days.
(R. Yochanan): They looted and finished off the money of Yisrael - "[Lo Hish'ir li'Ho'achaz...] Ki Ibdam Melech Aram va'Ysimem ke'Afar Ladush."
She bore a son to him - Hash-m said 'call him Yizre'el, for soon I will punish Beis Yehu [and Zore'a (plant) Yisrael in exile] to avenge the blood of [Achav, who was killed in] Yizre'el';
She bore a daughter to him - Hash-m said 'call him Lo Ruchamah, for I will not have mercy on them again - will I bear their sin?!'
She bore another son to him - Hash-m said 'call him Lo Ami, for you are not My nation, and I am not yours'.
After this, Hash-m said 'separate from her - you should have learned from Moshe, who separated from his wife after I spoke with him!' (See note in Appendix.)
Hoshe'a: I have children from her, I cannot expel or divorce her!
Hash-m: You cannot leave your harlot wife and her children, even though you cannot be sure that they are yours - all the more so I cannot switch another nation for Yisrael My sons, the sons of those I tested, the sons of Avraham, Yitzchak and Yakov, one of four [things so important that I call them the] acquisitions I made in My world:
Torah - "Hash-m Konani Reishis Darko;" Heaven and earth - "Kone Shomayim va'Aretz;" the Beis ha'Mikdash - "Har Zeh Konsah Yemino;" Yisrael - "Am Zu Konisa."
Hoshe'a realized that he had sinned; he asked Hash-m to forgive him.
Hash-m: Before you ask Me to forgive you, ask forgiveness for Yisrael - I made three decrees about them [when giving names to your children] on account of you!
Hoshe'a asked forgiveness for Yisrael; Hash-m annulled the decrees and blessed them:
"V'Hayah Mispar Benei Yisrael k'Chol ha'Yam...bi'Mkom Asher Ye'amer Lahem Lo Ami Atem Ye'amer Lahem Benei Kel Chai," "V'Nikbetzu Benei Yehudah u'Venei Yisrael Yachdav," "U'Zratiha Li ba'Aretz v'Richamti Es Lo Ruchamah v'Omarti l'Lo Ami Ami Atah." (Radak (1:2) - Hoshe'a never actually married a harlot - this entire account was merely a prophecy to help him understand his mistake.)
HASH-M'S MERCY NEVER CEASES
(R. Yochanan): Woe to authority - it causes early death! Every Navi [of the four] outlived four kings - "Chazon Yeshayah...[bi'Mei Uziyah Yosam Achaz Yechizkiyahu Malchei Yehudah]."
(R. Yochanan) Question: Why did Yarav'am ben Yo'ash, a king of Yisrael, merit to be listed with Malchei Yehudah?
Answer: This is because he did not accept Lashon ha'Ra about Amos.
Question: Where do we find that he is listed with Malchei Yehudah?
Answer: "Devar Hash-m...El Hoshe'a...bi'Mei Uziyah Yosam Achaz Yechizkiyahu Malchei Yehudah uvi'Mei Yarav'am ben Yo'ash Melech Yisrael."
Question: Where do we find that he did not accept Lashon ha'Ra?
Answer: "Va'Yishlach Amatzyah...El Yarav'am...Koshar Alecha Amos...; Ko Amar Amos ba'Cherev Yamus Yarav'am;"
Yarav'am: Heaven forbid that that Tzadik would say so (I am the third generation from Yehu - Hash-m promised four generations of kings from him)! And if he said so, Hash-m told him to say so (perhaps the promise was conditional, and will not be fulfilled on account of sin - Maharsha)!
(R. Elazar): Even when Hash-m is angry, He remembers mercy - "Ki Lo Osif Od Arachem Es Beis Yisrael" (which can be read 'I will not continue; I will again have mercy' - had it said 'Lerachem', it could only be read 'I will not continue to have mercy').
(R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): We learn from "Naso Esa Lahem" (even though it was said in astonishment, the simple reading is 'I will bear their sin').
(R. Elazar): Hash-m exiled Yisrael among the nations in order that converts will added onto them - "U'Zratiha Li ba'Aretz" - one plants a Se'ah only because he expects to reap many Korim (a Kor is 30 Sa'im. See note in Appendix)
(R. Yochanan): We learn from "V'Richamti Es Lo Ruchamah [v'Omarti l'Lo Ami Ami Atah]" - people that were not My nation will become my nation.
(R. Yochanan) Question: What do we learn from "Al Talshin Eved El Adonav Pen Yekalelcha v'Oshamta; Dor Aviv Yekalel v'Imo Lo Yevarech?"
Question: Because the generation curses its father and does not bless its mother, therefore one should not slander it [to Hash-m]?!
Answer: Rather, one should not slander even such a generation.
Question: What is the source to say this?
Answer: We learn from Hoshe'a.
YISRAEL WAS EXILED TO BAVEL AND ALL PLACES
(R. Oshaya) Question: What do we learn from "Tzidkos Pizrono b'Yisrael"?
Answer: Hash-m did Tzedakah by being MeFaZeR (spreading) amidst the nations [so they could not wipe out Yisrael]:
A [Nochri] heretic [to R. Chanina]: We are better than you - "Shisha Chodoshim Yoshav...Yisrael Ad Hichris Kol Zachar be'Edom" (in six months you annihilated Edom) - you have been by us many years, and we did not do anything to you!
R. Chanina: If you want, a Talmid will answer you.
R. Oshaya: You did not do anything to us because you did not know what to do!
You cannot wipe us out - not all of Yisrael is in your nation;
You would not want to wipe us what is amidst you - then you would be called a truncated kingdom [that killed many of its subjects]!
The heretic swore that indeed, this is constantly on their minds.
(R. Chiya) "Elokim Hevin Darkah v'Hu Yoda Es Mekomah" - Hash-m knew that Yisrael could not endure the vicious decrees of Edom, so he exiled [most of] them to Bavel instead [after the first Churban];
(R. Elazar): Hash-m exiled Yisrael to Bavel only because it is as deep as Gehinom [from which He promised to redeem them] - "MiYad She'ol Efdem mi'Maves Eg'alem."
(R. Chanina): He exiled Yisrael to Bavel because its language (Arame'ic) is similar to Lashon ha'Kodesh [this helps to remember Torah].
(R.Yochanan): He exiled them to their motherland (Maharsha - it is where Avraham was saved from Nimrod's furnace and grew in Emunah; Gilyonei ha'Shas - it is the origin of Chavah, who was created from Adam's Tzela);
This is like a man who gets angry at his wife - he sends her to her mother's house.
(R. Alexandri): Three things returned to their source - Yisrael, the money [Yisrael took] from Mitzrayim, and the writing on the Luchos:
Yisrael returned to Bavel, like R. Yochanan explained;
The money of Mitzrayim returned - "...Alah Shishak Melech Mitzrayim Al Yerushalayim; ...V'Es ha'Kol Lokach;"
The writing on the Luchos returned [to Shomayim] - "Va'Ashabrem l'Eineichem" (a wonder which captures the eyes);
(Beraisa): The tablets were broken, and the letters flew [in the air].