(a)Raban Shimon ben Gamliel encourages everyone to desist from work on Tish'ah b'Av - like Talmidei-Chachamim; the Chachamim forbid it. What is the basis of their Machlokes?
(b)What do the same Tana'im and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel say with regard to a Chasan reciting the Shema on the first night after his marriage?
(c)Rebbi Yochanan reconciles their opinions by saying 'Muchlefes ha'Shitah'. Rav Shisha Brei d'Rav Idi reconciles the opinions as they stand. Why, in his opinion, are the Rabanan more stringent by Tish'ah b'Av than they are by a Chasan?
(d)And why is Raban Shimon ben Gamliel more lenient by Tish'ah b'Av than by a Chasan?
(a)Raban Shimon ben Gamliel encourages everyone to desist from work on Tish'ah b'Av (like Talmidei-Chachamim); the Chachamim forbid it - because they are worried that a person may become vain if he behaves like a Talmid-Chacham, when really he is not; Raban Shimon ban Gamliel is not.
(b)With regard to a Chasan reciting the Shema on the first night after his marriage - the Chachamim permit him it, and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel forbids it (seemingly reversing their opinions here),
(c)According to Rav Shisha Brei d'Rav Idi, the Rabanan are more stringent by Tish'ah b'Av than they are by a Chasan - because in our case, all the town's residents are doing work and he is not, whereas in the case of the Chasan, he is saying the Shema together with everybody else (and it is being aloof from the community that is conducive to vanity, not acting in concert with them).
(d)Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, on the other hand, is more lenient by Tish'ah b'Av than by a Chasan - because whereas a Chasan on the night of his wedding stands out as being different than other Chasanim (and is therefore subject to Mar'is ha'Ayin), and people will talk about him; a person who desists from work on Tish'ah b'Av, on the other hand, does not stand out, since there are many people who do not work for a variety of reasons (so there is no Mar'is ha'Ayin involved). Note: The Chachamim and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel appear to have different reasons for the prohibition of differing from the community: the Chachamim are worried about a person becoming proud, whereas Raban Shimon ben Gamliel is concerned about Mar'is ha'Ayin.
(a)The Chachamim in the Mishnah here disagree with the Tana of the Mishnah at the beginning of the Perek, who learns that whether one may do work on Erev Pesach morning is a question of Minhag. What do they say?
(b)The eve of the fourteenth is a Machlokes between Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel. What do they say?
(c)Who is the author of ...
1. ... the first Mishnah?
2. ... the second Mishnah?
(a)The Chachamim in the Mishnah here maintain that working on Erev Pesach morning is not a question of Minhag, but a Machlokes between the Bnei Yehudah, who did, and the Bnei Galil, who did not.
(b)Regarding the eve of the fourteenth - Beis Shamai maintained that whoever forbade the fourteenth morning, forbade also the night before; whereas according to Beis Hillel, the night before is permitted according to everyone.
(c)The author of ...
1. ... the first Mishnah - is Rebbi Meir.
2. ... the second Mishnah - Rebbi Yehudah.
(a)If someone who is weeding on the thirteenth, pulls out some of the grain, Rebbi Yehudah says in a Beraisa that he should re-sow it in a damp place, and not in a dry one. Why is that?
(b)What does the Gemara deduce from the fact that Rebbi Yehudah says 'on the thirteenth', that contradicts what he just said?
(c)How long before the Omer (on the sixteenth of Nisan) must one sow, for the crops to be permitted by the Omer (and to avoid waiting another year)?
(d)Why can we not answer that Rebbi Yehudah said the thirteenth, because otherwise, one will not have three full days till the Omer?
(a)Rebbi Yehudah says that if someone who is weeding on the thirteenth, pulls out some of the grain, he should re-sow it in a damp place, and not in a dry one - in order that the seeds should quickly take root before the Omer; otherwise, it will mean waiting until the following Omer before they will be permitted to be eaten.
(b)From the fact that Rebbi Yehudah says 'on the thirteenth' - we can deduce that it would be forbidden to do so on the fourteenth. But did we not just say that, according to Rebbi Yehudah, work is on principle, permitted on the fourteenth?
(c)One needs to sow three days before the Omer for the crops to be permitted by that Omer.
(d)We cannot answer that Rebbi Yehudah said the thirteenth, because otherwise, one will not have three full days till the Omer - because one does not require three full days, and part of the first (the fourteenth), the entire second day (the fifteenth) and part of the third day (the sixteenth - until the Omer is brought), will suffice; ('Miktzas ha'Yom k'Kulo').
(a)Rava answers the previous Kashya 'be'Galil Shanu'. What is the answer, and why (without explaining that Rebbi Yehudah holds like Beis Shamai) can he not sow on the night of the fourteenth?
(b)Ravina establishes Rebbi Yehudah even in Yehudah. According to him, why does Rebbi Yehudah give the date as the thirteenth? Why not the fourteenth?
(a)'be'Galil Shanu' - means that when Rebbi Yehudah permits sowing on the thirteenth, and forbids it on the fourteenth, is referring to the Galil, who forbid working on the fourteenth; nor does he contend with the night of the fourteenth, not because it is forbidden to work then, but because people do not tend to do work such as weeding at night-time.
(b)According to Ravina - Rebbi Yehudah insists that the re-sowing is done on the thirteenth, not because it is forbidden to work on the fourteenth, but because the required three-day period may include one part of a day, it cannot include two ('Chad Miktzas ha'Yom k'Kulo' Amrinan, Trei ... Lo Amrinan').
(a)Rebbi Meir permits finishing on the fourteenth any Melachah that was begun before the fourteenth. Does it make any difference whether the job can be finished before Yom-Tov or not?
(b)Which three craftsmen do the Chachamim permit to work on the fourteenth under any circumstances?
(c)Which craftsman does Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah add to the list?
(a)According to Rebbi Meir, it is forbidden to begin any Melachah on the fourteenth - irrespective of whether he can finish it before Yom-Tov or not.
(b)The Chachamim permit a tailor, a barber and a laundry-man - to work on the fourteenth under any circumstances.
(c)Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah adds a cobbler to the list.
(a)What are the three possible interpretations of Rebbi Meir's Din?
(b)How does the Gemara attempt to resolve the She'eilah from the Beraisa, where Rebbi Meir forbids beginning even making a little belt? How did it initially explain 'even'?
(c)What else could we infer from the word 'even' (Afilu) that will refute that proof?
(d)In a second Beraisa, Rebbi Meir permits l'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed provided he began before the fourteenth; otherwise 'Lo Yaschil Bah b'Arba'ah-Asar Afilu Tziltzul Katan' ... . Is there a proof from here that even the completion of a Melachah which is not l'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed on the fourteenth is prohibited?
(a)Either Rebbi Meir restricts even the completion of a job on the fourteenth to one that is Tzorech ha'Mo'ed, but beginning one is forbidden even then; or he permits completing a job even if is not l'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed, but if it is, then one is even permitted to begin it; or completing a job is permitted under all circumstances, whereas beginning one, is forbidden under all circumstances.
(b)The Gemara initially thought that when Rebbi Meir forbids beginning even making a little belt - he means even a little belt which is l'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed; from which we can infer that to complete the job is forbidden, provided it is l'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed - but not if it is not.
(c)We could also infer from the word 'even' - that one may not even begin such a small thing as a belt, which will be finished the same day (before Yom-Tov), only to complete it even if it was begun before the fourteenth (and then even if it is not l'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed).
(d)There is no proof from the second Beraisa (where Rebbi Meir permits l'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed provided he began before the fourteenth; otherwise 'Lo Yaschil Bah b'Arba'ah-Asar Afilu Tziltzul Katan' ... ) - that even the completion of a Melachah which is not l'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed on the fourteenth is prohibited, only that one may not begin a Melachah even if it is l'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed.
(a)The Chachamim permit tailors, barbers and laundry-men to work on the fourteenth under any circumstances. Why is that?
(b)Why does Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah add cobblers to the list?
(c)And why do the Rabanan disagree with him?
(a)The Chachamim permit tailors, barbers and laundry-men to work on the fourteenth under any circumstances: tailors - because everyone is permitted to sew in an inexpert manner on Chol ha'Mo'ed (and, seeing as Chol ha'Mo'ed is more stringent than the fourteenth of Nisan, whatever has the slightest Heter on it, is absolutely permitted on the fourteenth); and barbers and laundry-men - because someone who comes from overseas or who is released from prison, is permitted to have a haircut and to wash his clothes on Chol ha'Mo'ed.
(b)Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah adds cobblers to the list - because people who arrive in Yerushalayim for the Shalosh Regalim are permitted to repair their shoes on Chol ha'Mo'ed.
(c)The Rabanan disagree with him - because the Olei Regalim are only permitted to repair their shoes, so how can Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah learn from there to permit cobblers to make new shoes on the fourteenth of Nisan.
(a)The Mishnah writes 'Moshivin Shovchin v'Tarnegolim b'Arba'ah-Asar'. What is the difference between 'Shovchin' and 'Tarnegolim' in this context?
(b)Having said that, on the fourteenth, one may place chicken on the eggs to hatch them, why does the Tana need to add the concession of returning a chicken that ran away? Surely if one may place the chicken l'Chatchilah, one may return it b'Di'eved?'
(c)May one re-place a chicken that died?
(d)What is the difference between the fourteenth and Chol ha'Mo'ed with regards to clearing away the dung from in front of the animals in the stable?
(a)'Shovchin' - refers to placing dove-cots for the doves to alight and settle; 'Tarnegolin' - to placing the chickens on the eggs to hatch.
(b)On the fourteenth, one may place chicken on the eggs to hatch them l'Chatchilah; when the Tana adds the concession of returning a chicken that ran away b'Di'eved, he is referring to Chol ha'Mo-ed (when placing it l'Chatchilah is forbidden).
(c)One may re-place a chicken that died - even on Chol ha'Mo-ed.
(d)It is permitted to remove the dung completely from in front of the animals in the stable on the fourteenth, but only to sweep it to the side on Chol ha'Mo'ed.
(a)Rav Huna establishes the Heter to re-place the chicken on the eggs on Chol ha'Mo'ed, when 1. it had already sat on them for at least three days, and 2. it is still within three days of its having run away. Why is that?
(b)Rav Ami disagrees with the first condition. According to him, the Mishnah speaks even if the chicken had not yet sat three days on the eggs. What is the basis of their Machlokes?
(a)Rav Huna requires that the chicken must have already sat on the eggs for at least three days - because then the egg is no longer fit to eat, and, in his opinion, re-placing the chicken on Chol ha'Mo'ed is only permitted if not doing so will result in a total loss; he also requires that it should still be within three days of its having run away - because after that, the egg will have become cold and there is no point in re-placing it, since it will no longer hatch.
(b)According to Rav Ami, the Mishnah speaks even if the chicken had not yet sat three days on the eggs - because, even though the egg will not be a total loss, it is nevertheless partially spoilt (since it is people who are not at all finicky who will eat it), and Chazal permitted returning the chicken on Chol ha'Mo'ed even to save from a small loss.
(a)We learned in our Mishnah that on Chol ha'Mo'ed, one may only sweep the dung to the side. Under which circumstances will it be permitted to clear it away completely (according to Rava)?
(a)Rava, faced with a discrepancy in the Beraisa - explains that if the Chatzer becomes as dirty as a stable, then one is permitted to clear away the dung completely.
(a)Rava was testing his Talmidim: How did Rav Papa pass the test, by resolving the discrepancy between our Mishnah, which permits taking vessels to and from the repairman - even when they are not needed for Yom-Tov, and the Beraisa, which permits it only when they are?
(b)In the second answer, Rav Papa differentiates between when the owner trusts the repairman and when he doesn't. Is this distinction substantiated?
(c)Then why does the Gemara reject it?
(d)If the repairman does not have food for Yom-Tov, does that authorize the owner to fetch his article in order to pay him?
(a)Rav Papa explained that our Mishnah, which permits taking vessels to and from the repairman - even when they are not needed for Yom-Tov - is speaking on the fourteenth, whereas the Beraisa, which permits it only when they are - is speaking on Chol ha'Mo'ed.
(b)Rav Papa's distinction between when the owner trusts the repairman and when he doesn't is correct - it is substantiated in the Beraisa, which specifically permits him to fetch his article, should he not trust the repairman.
(c)The Gemara nevertheless rejects Rav Papa's second answer - because how will we then explain taking the vessels to the repairman, which the Tana of our Mishnah also permits?
(d)If the repairman has nothing to eat for Yom-Tov, one may pay him on Chol ha'Mo'ed, but one is obligated to leave the repaired article by him; he may not take it home!
(a)If the owner does not trust the repairman, may he fetch his repaired article on Chol ha'Mo'ed and take it home?
(a)If the owner does not trust the repairman, he may fetch his repaired article from his premises. He may not however, take it home, but is obligated to leave it in the nearest house. If however, he is afraid that it will get stolen from there, then he may discreetly take it home from the repair-shop.