PESACHIM 55 (8 Elul) - Dedicated in memory of Esther Miryam bas Harav Chaim Zev and her husband Harav Refael Yisrael ben Harav Moshe (Snow), whose Yahrzeits are 7 Elul and 8 Elul respectively. Sponsored by their son and daughter in law, Moshe and Rivka Snow.

[55a - 48 lines; 55b - 46 lines]

1)[line 1]תנא קולי קולי קתניTANA KULEI KULEI K'TANI- the Tana [of these Beraisos which compare Tish'ah b'Av to Yom Kippur and Ta'aniyos Tzibur] is not listing all differences, but rather] is teaching [only those differences in which Tish'ah b'Av is] more lenient [than that to which it is being compared]

2)[line 2]לא חיישינן ליוהראLO CHAISHINAN L'YUHARA- we do not suspect [one who conducts himself in a way befitting one on a high level of righteousness] of haughtiness

3)[line 4]חתןCHASAN- a groom is exempt from the recitation of Keri'as Shema on the night of his wedding, for fear that he is unable to concentrate properly (Berachos 16b)

4)[line 6]ליטול את השםLI'TOL ES HA'SHEM- to take the name [of one who is unable to bear forgoing the acceptance of the yoke of Heaven for even one night]

5)[line 7]מוחלפת השיטהMUCHLEFES HA'SHITAH- [those quoted and] their opinions have been [mistakenly] interchanged

6)[line 19]הלילהHA'LAILAH- the night [preceding the fourteenth day of Nisan]

7)[line 29]המנכשHA'MENAKESH- one who weeds a field of grain

8)[line 29]ונעקרה בידוV'NE'EKRAH V'YADO- and [a stalk of grain] is [mistakenly] uprooted in his hand

9)[line 29]שותלהSHOSLAH- he [should re]plant it

10a)[line 29]במקום הטיטMEKOM HA'TIT- muddy ground in which it will quickly take root)

b)[line 30]במקום הגרידMEKOM HA'GERID- dry ground

11)[line 31]הרכבהHARKAVAH- grafting (i.e. any attempt to transfer a growing plant from one place to another)

12)[line 31]קולטתKOLETES- (lit. absorb) take root

13)[line 33]והאיכא ארביסר וחמיסרVEHA'IKA ARBESAR- there is what remains of the fourteenth day, and this should be considered one of the three required days based upon the principle of "Miktzas ha'Yom k'Kulo"

14)[line 35]ובהשרשהHASHRASHAH- replanting

15)[line 38]אומניותUMANIYOS- skills, trades

16a)[line 38]החייטיןCHAYATIN- tailors

b)[line 38]והספריםSAPARIM- barbers

c)[line 40]והכובסיןKOVSIN- those who launder clothing

d)[line 40]רצעניןRATZ'ANIN- shoemakers

17)[line 44]צלצול קטןTZALTZUL KATAN- (O.F. bendel) a small belt no wider than three Shesi (warp) threads (Rashi has the Girsa, "Tziltzul")

18)[line 44]שבכהSEVACHAH- (O.F. coife) a head covering (RASHI to Shabbos 57b)

19)[line 46]דזוטריZUTREI- small

20)[line 47]התחלתן זו היא גמר מלאכתןHASCHALASAN ZU HI GEMAR MELACHTAN- [seeing as they take so little time to complete,] starting [work on] them is considered to be part of finishing them


21)[line 12]לא נהגו לאLO NAHAGU, LO- in a place where the custom is not to do Melachah on Erev Pesach, it is not [permitted]

22)[line 13]שלא לצורך המועד לאSHE'LO L'TZORECH HA'MO'ED, LO- if the object is not needed for the Chag, it is not [permitted even to finish it]

23)[line 20]מושיבין שובכין לתרנגוליםMOSHIVIN SHOVECHIN L'TARNEGOLIM- (a) it is permitted to place the hens in the chicken coops on top of eggs so that they will hatch (RASHI); (b) it permitted to fix a place for roosters and hens (ARUCH, MAGID MISHNEH at the end of Hilchos Yom Tov, 1st interpretation of the RAMBAM); [an alt. Girsa is MOSHIVIN SHOVECHIN - it is permitted to place doves of dove-cotes on eggs so that they will hatch (RASHI) - this Girsa appears more appropriate since the word "Shovechin" is usually found in the context of doves (TOSFOS YOM TOV)]

24a)[line 21]גורפין מתחת רגלי בהמהGORFIN MI'TACHAS RAGLEI VEHEMAH- it is permitted to clear excrement from beneath an animal's feet [in order to throw it onto a dung heap]

b)[line 22]מסלקין לצדדיןMESALKIN LA'TZEDADIN- it is permitted to move the excrement aside [but not to throw it onto the dung heap]

25)[line 23]אותובי מותבינןOSOVEI MOSVINAN- we place hens (or doves) upon eggs for the first time

26)[line 23]אהדוריAHADUREI- to return a hen (or dove) to an egg upon which it has already been sitting

27)[line 25]לא פרח צימרא מינהLO PARACH TZIMRA MINAH- the heat of the egg has not left it

28)[line 25]דפסדא לה ביעי לגמריPASDA LAH BEI'EI LEGAMREI- the eggs have become completely unfit for consumption

29)[line 34]בדיק לן רבאBADIK LAN RAVA- Rava tested us

30)[line 39]הכדKAD- jug, pitcher

31a)[line 39]הכדרKADAR- a potter

b)[line 39]הזגגZAGAG- a glazier

c)[line 40]הצבעTZABA- a dyer

32)[line 43]מחוורתא כדשנינן מעיקראMECHAVARTA KED'SHANINAN ME'IKARA- it is clear [that the correct answer is] as we answered originally

33)[line 44]מיחו בידםMICHU B'YADAM- the Chachamim protested against

34)[line 45]מרכיבין דקלים כל היוםMARKIVIN DEKALIM KOL HA'YOM- they would perform a certain type of procedure on palm trees the entire day of Erev Pesach; see the Gemara for a detailed description (56a)

35)[line 45]וכורכין את שמעKORCHIN ES SHEMA- lit. they would bind the reading of Keri'as Shema. (The Gemara (56a) explains what this practice of the people of Yericho entailed.)

36a)[last line]וקוצריןKOTZRIN- they would cut [wheat]. (According to RASHI, this word does not appear in the Mishnah.)

b)[last line]וגודשיןGODSHIN- heap [the wheat]

37)[last line]העומרHA'OMER (KETZIRAS HA'OMER)

(a)It is a Mitzvah to bring the Korban ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall following the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.2, 2.5 or 4.3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is then baked and offered as a Korban Minchah on the 16th of Nisan. (This Korban is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim - Vayikra 2:14-16.)

(b)A lamb is offered as an Olah along with the Minchah, as it states in Vayikra 23:12.

(c)Chadash refers to grain that begins to take root after the Korban ha'Omer is brought on the second day of Pesach. This grain may not be eaten until the following year's Korban ha'Omer is offered, as the Torah states in Vayikra 23:14. When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, Chadash may not be eaten until after the second day of Pesach, which is when the Korban Omer would have been offered.

38)[last line]מתירין גמזיות של הקדשMATIRIN GAMAZIYOS SHEL HEKDESH- they permitted the use of new branches [that had grown on carob and sycamore trees (alt. Egyptian fig trees)] belonging to Hekdesh