(a)Initially, the Gemara interprets the Beraisa ('Ein Ofin Pas Avah') to mean that Beis Hillel permit Matzah a Tefach thick, Beis Shamai forbid it. What is Beis Hillel's source?
(b)Does Beis Hillel permit Matzah more than a Tefach thick?
(c)The Gemara however, rejects this interpretation of 'Pas Avah', because one cannot compare ordinary people to the Kohanim, who were 'Zerizin', and because the dough was particularly well-kneaded. Which other three distinctions does the Gemara cite (one to do with the wood, and two, with the oven) that distinguished the Matzah in the Beis-Hamikdash from our Matzah?
(d)Who is meant by 'Rebbi', when referred to ...
1. ... by Rav Yirmeyahu bar Aba?
2. ... by Rav?
(a)Beis Hillel permit Matzah which is a Tefach thick - because we have a precedent by the Lechem ha'Panim which were a Tefach thick.
(b)They do not permit Matzah that is more than a Tefach thick.
(c)The wood used for Korbanos was particularly dry, and the oven which was in constant use, was exceptionally hot, besides the fact that it was a metal oven (unlike the majority of ovens in those days, which were made of earthenware, and did not therefore attain the heat of the ovens in the Beis Hamikdash.
(d)When Rav ...
1. ... Yirmeyahu bar Aba refers to Rebbi - he means Rav.
2. ... Rav refers to Rebbi - he means Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi.
(a)How does the Gemara therefore re-interpret 'Pas Avah' and why do Beis Shamai forbid it?
(b)Why do they argue specifically by Pesach?
(a)The Gemara interprets 'Pas Avah' to mean a lot of bread, which is Asur according to Beis Shamai because of the excessive trouble in kneading so much dough.
(b)The Machlokes occurs specifically by Pesach - only because the Tana who deals with it happens to have been learning about the Yom-Tov of Pesach, but not because it is confined to Pesach any more than to the other Yamim-Tovim.
(a)The Beraisa permits Pas Nekiyah and Pas Hadra'ah. What is ...
1. ... Pas Nekiyah?
2. ... Pas Hadra'ah?
1. ... Pas Nekiyah - is bread that is made from very white flour (made from wheat kernels that have been soaked).
2. ... Pas Hadra'ah - is coarse bread made from bran.
(a)One is Yotzei with Sarikin ha'Metzuyarin, though initially, it is forbidden to bake them on Pesach. What are 'Sarikin ha'Metzuyarin', and why is it forbidden?
(b)On what grounds did the Chachamim disagree with Baytus ben Zonin, who maintained that as long as one made them quickly, they should be permitted?
(c)Raban Gamliel served Sarikin ha'Metzuyarin on Pesach. Rebbi Tzadok explained to his son, Rebbi Elazar, that Chazal only forbade those that were baked by the bakers, but not if they were baked by private individuals. Why is that, and what is the Gemara's alternative explanation?
(d)What compromise did Rebbi Yosi make with regard to Sarikin ha'Metzuyarin?
(a)Sarikin ha'Metzuyarin - are Matzos with pictures cut into the dough. It is forbidden to bake them, because we are afraid that, due to the delay whilst one is cutting the pictures into the dough, the dough will become Chametz.
(b)Shall we say, asked the Chachamim, that everybody else's Matzos are forbidden, and Baytus' are permitted?
(c)Rebbi Tzadok explained to his son, Rebbi Elazar, that Chazal only forbade those Sarikin ha'Metzuyarin prepared by the bakers, but not those baked by private individuals - because it was the bakers who were fussy to make elaborate pictures on their Matzos; private individuals took far less time over the patterns that they shaped on their Matzos. Alternatively, it was the private individuals' Sarikin ha'Metzuyarin that Chazal forbade - because, not being as expert as the bakers, they took longer over them than the bakers did.
(d)Rebbi Yosi permitted making thin wafer Matzos (like ours), but not thick ones.
(a)Sponge and honey cakes that are made with a soft dough and Chalas ha'Maseres are Patur from Chalah. Resh Lakish attributes this to the fact that they are baked, not in an oven, but on a pan. What does Rebbi Yochanan say?
(b)Meduma is also Patur from Chalah. What is Meduma, and why is it Patur?
(c)How does Resh Lakish explain the Beraisa 'ha'Sufganin ... As'an b'Ilfas, Chayavin, b'Chamah Peturin', which appears to support Rebbi Yochanan's opinion?
(a)Rebbi Yochanan maintains that all bread that is baked in an oven or on a stove in a pan (even if it is made from a soft dough) is Chayav Chalah, and that it is only bread that is baked in the sun which is Patur.
(b)Meduma is Chulin into which Terumah fell (a hundredth or more, which does not to become Batel). It is Patur from Chalah because the Torah writes in Korach "Tarimu Serumah" - precluding dough that was already Terumah.
(c)Resh Lakish explains the Reisha of the Beraisa: 'ha'Sufganin ... Ase'an b'Ilfas, Chayavin', when he first heated the pan and then stuck the bread in the pan (which he agrees is Chayav Chalah), and the Seifa: 'be'Chamah Peturin' - by when he first stuck the bread to the pan and then heated it.
(a)'Yotz'in b'Matzah Hina'. What is 'Matzah Hina'?
(b)Rava said 've'Chen Lachmei Todah'. But is it not obvious that what is called 'Lechem" with regard to one, is also called "Lechem" with regard to the other?
(a)Matzah Hina is Matzah that has not been fully baked (like Na by the Korban Pesach).
(b)We might have thought that, even not fully baked Matzah is valid on Pesach, it will not be valid for the Lachmei Todah. Why not? Because the Torah writes in Tzav "v'Hikriv Mimenah Echad" ... 'Echad, she'Lo Yitol Parus', and not fully baked might have been considered to be broken.
(a)Beis Shamai exempts a Me'isah-dough from Chalah, Beis Hillel obligates it. The Tana reverses their opinions by a Chalitah-dough. What is the technical difference between the two?
(b)Is there any reason to draw a distinction between the two? If not, why should Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai switch their opinions from one to the other?
(c)What compromise do the Chachamim in the Beraisa make?
(d)In face of this, how does Rebbi Yochanan justify his opinion, which considers dough that is baked in a pan to be bread?
(a)A Me'isah-dough is made by pouring the flour on to the boiling water - a Chalitah-dough by pouring the boiling water on to the flour.
(b)There is no plausible reason to differentiate between the two doughs. The Tana that obligates the one obligates the other, and the Tana that exempts the one exempts the other. And that applies to Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel too. However, the Beraisa which quotes a difference between them is in fact, quoting two different opinions (what the two Tana'im Do agree is that Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel disagree).
(c)The Chachamim differentiate between the two doughs that were baked on a pan (in which case they are both Patur from Chalah), and that were baked in an oven (in which case, they are Chayav).
(d)Rebbi Yochanan justifies his opinion, which considers dough that is baked in a pan to be bread - because, he says, there are other Tana'im who hold like him, as we shall now see.
(a)Rebbi Yochanan learns that the Tana Kama of another Beraisa, who exempts a Me'isah-dough from Chalah, nevertheless obligates a dough that was baked in a pan. What is the difference between the two doughs?
(b)What does Rebbi Yehudah hold?
(c)Alternatively, even the Tana Kama will agree that a dough baked in a pan is Patur from Chalah (like Resh Lakish). Then what is their Machlokes?
(d)How will we now explain Rebbi Yehudah's statement 'Ein Lechem Ela he'Afuy b'Tanur'?
(a)The Tana Kama of another Beraisa exempts a Me'isah-dough from Chalah, because it was first boiled in water; nevertheless he obligates a dough that was baked in a pan (without having been boiled first) because he considers that to be 'bread'.
(b)Rebbi Yehudah holds that dough only becomes bread when it is baked in an oven (like Resh Lakish).
(c)Alternatively, even the Tana Kama agrees that a dough baked in a pan is Patur from Chalah - and the reason that he renders him Chayav is because it speaks when he subsequently baked it in an oven. He holds that subsequently baking the bread in an oven changes its status to 'bread'.
(d)Rebbi Yehudah maintains that it is only called bread when it is baked in an oven initially. (See also Tosfos DH 'Lechem'.)
(a)Rabah asked Rebbi Zeira to ask Ula whether, if the bread was stuck to the inside of the pan, which was then heated from the outside, there was a Chiyuv Chalah? What was Rebbi Zeira's reply?
(b)And what did he reply when Rav Yosef asked him to ask Ula whether there would be a Chiyuv Chalah if they directed the flame directly on to the dough that was lying in the pan?
(a)When Rabah asked Rebbi Zeira to ask Ula whether, if the bread was stuck to the inside of the pan, which was then heated from the outside, there was a Chiyuv Chalah, he replied - that that is precisely the case over which Rebbi Yochanan and Resh Lakish argue.
(b)And when Rav Yosef asked him to ask Ula whether there would be a Chiyuv Chalah if they directed the flame directly on to the dough that was lying in the pan - he replied that that was the way the poor people would bake their bread (since they had no wood with which to bake), and was a classical case of 'Ma'aseh Ilfas'.