1)

THICK MATZAH

(a)

(Beraisa - Beis Shamai): One may not bake thick bread on Pesach;

(b)

Beis Hillel permit.

(c)

Question: What is considered thick bread?

(d)

Answer #1 (Rav Huna): It is a Tefach thick, like Lechem ha'Panim (see note in Appendix).

(e)

Objections (Rav Yosef): Lechem ha'Panim was made by Zerizim, was worked greatly (the dough was rolled 300 times and beaten 500 times), was baked using dry wood in a [periodically] hot oven of metal, therefore it could be so thick;

1.

We cannot be as lenient regarding people who are not Zerizim, do not work it so much, use wet wood in a Cheres oven that is [usually] cold!

(f)

Answer #2 (Rav or Rebbi): 'Thick' bread refers to a large quantity [of loaves];

1.

It is called thick because the dough is thick during kneading [before it is separated into loaves].

2.

Alternatively, a large quantity is called 'thick' in the Tana's locale.

(g)

Question: Why is it forbidden?

1.

If it is on account of excess exertion, this applies to every Yom Tov, not only Pesach!

(h)

Answer: Indeed, this is true - the Tana mentioned Pesach because he was discussing Pesach.

(i)

Support (Beraisa - Beis Shamai): One may not bake thick bread on Yom Tov;

1.

Beis Hillel permit.

2)

MATZAH WITH DESIGNS

(a)

(Beraisa): One is Yotzei with bread that is clean, coarse, or has designs, even though it is forbidden to bake Matzah with designs on Pesach.

(b)

R. Yehudah says, Chachamim told Baisus ben Zunin that it is forbidden because a woman delays [while making the designs], and it is prone to become Chametz. (It is clear from Tosefta 2.12 that the text must say R. Yehudah.)

1.

Baisus: It is possible to make a mold [so there will be no delay]!

2.

Chachamim: Will we say that all designed Matzah is forbidden except for yours (others do not have molds)!?

3.

R. Eliezer bar Tzadok: I once saw designed Matzah brought in front of R. Gamliel during Pesach - I asked my father, 'didn't Chachamim forbid this'?

4.

Version #1 - R. Tzadok: It is forbidden only for [professional] bakers, regular people are permitted (they are not so particular about the design, so there is not a large delay).

5.

Version #2 - R. Tzadok: It is permitted for bakers (they are proficient to make it quickly, and they have molds), it is forbidden for regular people.

(c)

R. Yosi says, one may make designs in wafers, but not in buns (because they are thick, even a small delay can cause Chimutz).

3)

FROM WHAT MUST CHALAH BE SEPARATED?

(a)

(Mishnah): The following are exempt from Chalah - Sufganim (spongy bread), bread fried in honey, wafers made from a thin dough, 'Chalah of a [frying] pan' (this will be explained)', and Meduma (Terumah mixed with [less than 100 times its own volume of] Chulin - it is forbidden to Zarim).

(b)

Question: What is 'Chalah of a pan'?

(c)

Answer (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): It is scalded bread of regular people.

(d)

(Reish Lakish): These [first four breads in the Mishnah] are made in a pan (Chalah is separated only from what will be baked in an oven).

(e)

(R. Yochanan): Chalah is taken even from things made in a pan - the Mishnah exempts things baked in the sun.

(f)

Question (Beraisa): If the following were made in a pan, Chalah must be taken - Sufganim, bread fried in honey and wafers made from a thin dough;

1.

If they were made in the sun, they are exempt.

2.

Reish Lakish is [seemingly] refuted.

(g)

Answer (Ula, on behalf of Reish Lakish): The Beraisa discusses when the pan was heated and then the dough was stuck to it (this is like baking in an oven).

(h)

Inference: If the dough was stuck to it and then the pan was heated, it would be exempt.

(i)

Question: Why does the Seifa exempt when they were made in the sun - it should distinguish within the case of a pan, and exempt when the dough was stuck first!

(j)

Answer: The Beraisa is abbreviated, it means as follows:

1.

This is when the pan was heated and then the dough was stuck to it - but if the dough was stuck first, it is as if it was made in the sun, it is exempt.

(k)

Question (Beraisa): One is Yotzei with Matzah that is Heina (not fully cooked), or with Matzah baked in a pan.

(l)

Answer: Here also, the pan was heated and then the dough was stuck to it.

(m)

Question: What is considered Heina?

(n)

Answer (Rav Yehudah): This is when one cuts it and strands do not extend from one side to the other.

(o)

(Rava): The same applies to Lachmei Todah (slaughter of the Todah is Mekadesh them if they were baked to this extent (Rashi); elsewhere, the Gemara says that Kedushah depends on having formed a crust - these must coincide (Tosfos Menachos). Sefas Emes - the Rambam explains, not having strands is a later degree of baking; it is the final degree of baking required.)

(p)

Question: This is obvious - both of them are called 'Lechem'!

(q)

Answer: Regarding Lachmei Todah it says "V'Hikriv Mimenu Echad mi'Kol Korban" - a full loaf must be taken from each of the four kinds of bread;

37b----------------------------------------37b

1.

One might have thought that because Heina loaves can fall apart, they are considered to be broken - Rava teaches that this is not so.

(r)

Question (Mishnah - Beis Shamai): Ma'isa (this will be explained) is exempt from Chalah;

1.

Beis Hillel obligate it.

2.

Beis Shamai say, Chalitah (this will be explained) is obligated;

3.

Beis Hillel exempt.

4.

Ma'isa is flour put on top of boiling water; Chalitah is boiling water put on top of flour.

5.

R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi exempts both of them;

6.

Some say, he obligates both of them.

7.

Chachamim say, both of them are exempt if they were made in a pan, and obligated if they were made in an oven.

8.

Question: Why does the first Tana distinguish Ma'isa from Chalitah?

9.

Answer (Rav Yehudah and R. Yochanan or R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Indeed, no one distinguishes them - two Tana'im taught the Reisha! (The first Tana taught that Beis Shamai exempt Ma'isa and Beis Hillel obligate - [he holds that] the same applies to Chalitah; the second Tana taught that Beis Shamai obligate Chalitah and Beis Hillel exempt - he says the same about Ma'isa.)

10.

Summation of question: Chachamim exempt both if they were made in a pan, and obligate if they were made in an oven - this refutes R. Yochanan!

(s)

Answer: Tana'im argue about this:

1.

(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps Chalah must be taken from Ma'isa and Chalitah!

2.

Rejection: It says "Lechem."

3.

R. Yehudah says, only something baked in an oven is called 'Lechem'.

4.

Question: R. Yehudah does not argue with the first Tana!

5.

Answer: They argue about something cooked in a pan - the first Tana obligates, and R. Yehudah exempts.

(t)

Rejection: No, all exempt something [only] cooked in a pan - they argue about if it was later baked in an oven:

1.

The first Tana holds that since it was later baked in an oven it is considered bread; R. Yehudah holds that only something baked in an oven from the beginning is bread.

2.

(Rava): R. Yehudah learns from "V'Ofu Eser Nashim Lachmechem b'Sanur Echad" - something is called bread only if it was baked in one oven [and not cooked elsewhere].

(u)

Rabah (to R. Zeira): Ask Ula about a dough that was stuck to the inside (Rashi - of a pan; Tosfos - of an oven) and [the pan or oven was] heated from the outside!

(v)

R. Zeira: He will tell me that this is something cooked in a pan [which R. Yochanan and Reish Lakish argue about]!

1.

Rav Yosef (to R. Zeira): Ask Ula about a dough that was stuck to the inside and was baked facing a flame [above]!

2.

R. Zeira: He will tell me that this is how most poor people bake [to save wood - surely R. Yochanan and Reish Lakish argue about this]!

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