THE LAST TIME FOR HAVDALAH
Version #1 (Rava): The Halachah is, if one ate, he is Mekadesh; if one ate, he is Mavdil;
If one did not say Kidush on Shabbos night, he says it any time during the day, until Motza'ei Shabbos.
If one did not make Havdalah on Motza'ei Shabbos, he is Mavdil any time during the week;
Version #2 - Ameimar - (Rava): The Halachah is, if one ate, he is Mekadesh; if one ate, he is Mavdil;
If one did not say Kidush on Shabbos night, he says it any time during the day.
If one did not make Havdalah on Motza'ei Shabbos, he is Mavdil any time during the day. (end of Version #2)
Rav Chisda sons: Once, Ameimar visited us, and we did not have wine; we gave him beer, but he did not Mavdil - he spent the night without eating;
The next day we toiled and obtained wine for him - he was Mavdil and ate.
The following year he visited us, and we did not have wine; we gave him beer - he said, this shows that it Chemar Medinah (the [substitute for] wine in the locale, the most esteemed drink) - he was Mavdil over it and ate.
We learn three things from this:
One who says Havdalah in Shemoneh Esre must say Havdalah over a cup;
It is forbidden to eat before Havdalah;
If one was not Mavdil on Motza'ei Shabbos, he is Mavdil any time during the week. (Really, the episode only shows that he is Mavdil during the day - it says 'the whole week' (i.e. until Wednesday) because this is the Halachah. Rashbam - we also learn that Chemar Medinah may be used in place of wine, but we count only things related to the Chiyuv and time to say Havdalah. Alternatively, when there is no wine around this is obvious!)
MAY ONE MAKE KIDUSH ON BEER?
Question (Rav Chisda): May one say Kidush on beer?
Rav Huna: Regarding beer made from barley, figs or berries of a bush, I asked Rav, who [had] asked R. Chiya, who asked Rebbi, and he did not answer - do you ask about standard [date] beer, which is less esteemed?! (It is definitely invalid.)
Assumption: One may not use it for Kidush, but it may be used for Havdalah.
Rejection (Rav Chisda citing Rav and Rav Tachlifa bar Avimi citing Shmuel): No - just like one may not use it for Kidush, he may not use it for Havdalah.
Levi sent to Rebbi beer made by pouring water on dates 13 times (new dates each time); Rebbi found it to be extremely tasty - he said that it is fit to make Kidush on it and say over it all songs and praises;
At night he had pain (diarrhea) - he said, it afflicts and entices [people to drink it, through its taste - R. Chananel; Rashi - it afflicts, but at the time of drinking it is fit to appease Hash-m (say Kidush over it); Rashbam - is it fit to appease with something that pains like this?]!
(Rav Yosef): I will take a vow in public (he holds that such a vow cannot be annulled) not to drink beer.
(Rava): I would sooner drink water in which flax was soaked (it is extremely putrid, even washing in it is painful - Nedarim 80B) than beer.
(Rava): One who makes Kidush on beer should [be punished with poverty and] have only beer to drink.
Rav Huna saw Rav Mekadesh on beer. He suggested 'Did you start to profit through beer [and therefore you prefer it?]'
(Beraisa): One may say Kidush only on wine; one blesses only on wine.
Objection: Surely, one blesses sheha'Kol Nihyah bi'Dvaro even on beer and water!
Answer (Abaye): It means that, we say Birkas ha'Mazon only over a cup of wine.
(Beraisa): One may not make Kidush on beer;
R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon permits.
It suffices to taste any amount of the wine [of Kidush];
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah says, one must drink Malei Lugmav (enough to fill one cheek when he puts the liquid on one side).
(Rav Huna, and Rav Gidal of Narash's Beraisa): One who makes Kidush is Yotzei only if he drinks Malei Lugmav.
Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak: The Beraisa was not said by Gidul bar Menasiya or Gidul Bar Minyomi, rather, by Gidul Stam (his father's name was not mentioned).
Question: What difference does it make?
Answer: We must know who said it in order to ask a contradiction from something else that he said.
THE ISUR TO EAT ON EREV PESACH
(Mishnah): From shortly before Minchah [on Erev Pesach one may not eat...]
Question: Does this mean shortly before Minchah Gedolah (the longer period during which one may pray Minchah - it starts at six and a half hours of the day), or shortly before Minchah Ketanah (the shorter period for Minchah - it starts at nine and a half hours)?
If it means before Minchah Gedolah, it is forbidden [to eat then] on account of Pesach, lest the meal get drawn out, and he will neglect to offer Pesach;
If it means before Minchah Ketanah, it is forbidden on account of Matzah, lest he will be stuffed, and eating Matzah at night will be Achilah Gasah (gorging himself)!
Answer (Ravina - Beraisa): Even Melech Agripas, who normally ate (began his first meal) during the ninth hour, may not eat until dark.
If it means before Minchah Ketanah, we understand why it says even Agripas (even though he has not eaten yet, and it is before the forbidden time, he may not begin because his meal will extend to when it is forbidden);
But if it means before Minchah Gedolah, why does it say even Agripas (it is already forbidden to eat, surely he may not begin)!
Conclusion: It means before Minchah Ketanah.
Question: Still, why does it say 'even'? His meal will extend to when it is forbidden (in such a case no one may begin)!
Answer: One might have thought that nine hours for Agripas is like four hours (the meal time) for common people (i.e. he can eat at his usual time and will be able to eat Matzah at night with appetite) - the Beraisa teaches that this is not so.
(R. Asi): One may not eat a meal [with Matzah] then, but he may dip and eat Targima (produce; alternatively, Mezonos or other foods).
R. Yitzchak used to eat dipped vegetables at this time [to arouse his appetite for Matzah].
Support (Beraisa): A servant [preparing the food for the night] may eat from the intestines [of animals other than Pesach] and give to guests (Rashbam - this helps arouse appetite).
There is a hint, not a proof, of this - "Niru Lachem Nir v'Al Tizre'u El Kotzim" (plowing helps the field properly absorb the seeds - likewise, eating things that do not satiate expand the intestines and enable one to eat with appetite).
Rava used to drink wine every Erev Pesach to arouse his appetite, in order to eat much Matzah.