PREPARING TO EAT MATZAH WITH APPETITE
(Rava): A Mishnah teaches that wine arouses appetite:
(Mishnah): One may drink between these (the first two of the four) cups; one may not drink between the third and fourth cups (it looks like one adds to the enactment of four cups).
If wine satiates, it should be forbidden between the first two cups, lest he eat Matzah Achilah Gasah! (Rashbam - it would be forbidden on account of adding to the enactment, if it did not arouse appetite for Matzah! This does not apply between the third and fourth cups, which are after the Matzah was eaten.)
Conclusion: Rather, wine arouses appetite. (Tosfos - this refers to a large amount, but a small amount satiates.)
Rav Sheshes used to fast every Erev Pesach.
Suggestion: He holds that the Mishnah forbids shortly before Minchah Gedolah, lest the meal get drawn out and he will neglect to offer Pesach, and he holds like R. Oshaya, who says that Ben Beseira is Machshir a Pesach slaughtered in the morning of the 14th;
Also the morning is Kosher for slaughter - the time for Pesach is the entire day;
He explains that Bein ha'Arbayim means between the Erev of the previous day (after the end of the night, i.e. dawn) until the [beginning of] today's Erev.
Rejection: No - Rav Sheshes fasted because his nature was such that if he would eat [even earlier] during the day, he would not have appetite at night.
WHEN IS RECLINING OBLIGATORY?
(Mishnah): Even the poorest Yisrael may not eat until he reclines.
Matzah requires reclining [while eating it, for it symbolizes freedom]; Maror does not (it symbolizes slavery).
Version #1: Rav Nachman holds that wine requires reclining;
Version #2: He does not require reclining for wine.
These versions do not argue - one refers to the first two cups, the other refers to the last two cups.
Version A: The first two cups require reclining, for they begin the [recounting of] freedom; the last two cups do not require reclining, for we already reclined to show freedom.
Version B: The last two cups require reclining, for then [after saying the Berachah of redemption] we are free; the first two cups do not require reclining, for then we say Avadim Hayinu (we were slaves).
Conclusion: Since we are unsure which require reclining, we must recline for all of them.
Lying on one's back is not considered reclining;
Reclining on the right side is not considered reclining (it is inconvenient to eat with one's right hand this way) - further, it is dangerous, lest the food enter the windpipe instead of the esophagus (Rashbam).
A woman [in front of her husband - some delete this from the text] need not recline (his fear is upon her); if she is esteemed, she must recline.
A son in front of his father must recline.
Question: Must a Talmid in front of his Rebbi recline?
Answer: Abaye taught that in Rabah's house, we (Talmidim) would recline on each other's knees; in Rav Yosef's house, he said that we need not recline - the fear of one's Rebbi is like fear of Shomayim.
Question (Beraisa): One reclines in any case, even a Talmid in front of his Rebbi.
Answer: That refers to an apprentice carpenter (he does not fear his teacher).
Question: Must a waiter recline?
Answer: R. Yehoshua ben Levi taught that if a waiter ate a k'Zayis of Matzah while reclining, he was Yotzei.
Inference: If he ate without reclining, he was not Yotzei!
THE FOUR CUPS OF WINE
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Women must drink four cups of wine, for even they were saved by the miracles [of Yetzi'as Mitzrayim, e.g. Kri'as Yam Suf, even though the harshest decrees were against the men - "Im Ben Hu va'Hamiten Oso," "Tichbad ha'Avodah Al ha'Anashim" - Maharam Chalavah; Sefas Emes (Megilah 4A); Rashi - Yetzi'as Mitzrayim was in their merit.]
(Rav Yehudah): The four cups of wine must contain enough wine to mix a nice cup. (Wine used to be very strong; it was normally diluted with two or three times its own volume of water.)
If one drank them undiluted, he was Yotzei; if one drank them at once (Rashi - from one big cup; Rashbam - he did not drink according to the Mishnayos (116A and onwards) - the last three cups must follow Hagadah, Birkas ha'Mazon and Hallel).
If one gave from them to his household to drink, he was Yotzei.
(Rava): If one drank them undiluted, he was Yotzei the Mitzvah of wine, but he was not Yotzei Cherus [the ideal Mitzvah, to drink the way free men drink].
(Rav): If one drank them at once he was Yotzei the Mitzvah of [Simchah on Yom Tov by drinking] wine, but he was not Yotzei the four cups.
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): If one gave from the cup to his household to drink, he was Yotzei - this is only if he drank the majority (Ramban; Tosfos - Malei Lugmav, which for most people is the majority of a Revi'is, the Shi'ur for the cup).
Question (against Rav Yehudah - Beraisa): The four cups must contain a Revi'is, whether it is mixed or undiluted; it can be new or old;
R. Yehudah says, it must have the appearance of wine and the taste of wine (this excludes new wine; Sanhedrin 70A - wine less than 40 days is not addicting).
Summation of question: The Beraisa requires a Revi'is altogether, but Rav Yehudah requires only enough (a quarter Revi'is) to mix a nice cup (a Revi'is) in all! (Rashi; Tosfos - the Beraisa requires a Revi'is in each cup, and Rav Yehudah requires only a quarter Revi'is in each!)
Answer: These are the same - Rav Yehudah means, each cup must have enough to mix a nice cup, in all they hold a Revi'is (Rashi; Tosfos - Rav Yehudah requires each cup to have a Revi'is after it is mixed - the Beraisa also requires this)!
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): It must have the taste and appearance of wine.
(Rava): He learns [about appearance] from "Al Tere Yayin Ki Yis'adam."
(Beraisa): Everyone must drink four cups - men, women and children;
R. Yehudah: Why give wine to children?! (Ran - they do not enjoy it, and it does not show freedom.) Rather, we give to them parched grain and nuts on Pesach night, in order that they will stay awake and ask.
R. Akiva used to do so.