IF PESACH WAS OFFERED FOR SOMEONE B'DERECH RECHOKAH (cont.)
Support (Rav Sheshes, for himself - Beraisa - R. Akiva): The Torah equates Tamei and Derech Rechokah - just like Tamei had the ability to bring Pesach [b'Tum'ah] but the Torah disallows, also Derech Rechokah.
Rejection (Rav Nachman): R. Akiva holds that we do not slaughter and Zorek for a Tamei Sheretz, even though he could eat at night, therefore he also says that we do not slaughter for Derech Rechokah, even if he could [get to Yerushalayim to] eat at night;
I hold that we slaughter and Zorek for a Tamei Sheretz, therefore we also slaughter for Derech Rechokah, if he will be able to eat at night.
(Beraisa #1): One brings Pesach Sheni if on Pesach Rishon he [or she] was a Zav, Zavah, Metzora, Nidah, Bo'el Nidah, Yoledes, Shogeg, Ones, Mezid, Tamei, or b'Derech Rechokah.
Question: Since the law is the same, why does the Torah specify Tamei?
Objection: Obviously, it needed to specify Tamei to teach that he may not bring Pesach Rishon!
Correction: Rather, why does the Torah specify Derech Rechokah?
Answer: This is to exempt him from Kares.
This is like Rav Nachman (if the Tana held that Derech Rechokah may not bring, he would be just like Tamei! Rav Sheshes is not refuted - he holds like R. Akiva.)
THE OBLIGATION TO BRING PESACH SHENI
Contradiction: Beraisa #1 lists women that [must] bring Pesach Sheni - but another Beraisa exempts!
(Beraisa #2) Question: We know that one who was Tamei Mes or b'Derech Rechokah brings Pesach Sheni - what is the source for a Zav or Metzora or Bo'el Nidah]?
Answer: We learn from "Ish Ish" (we do not include females)!
Resolution: Beraisa #1 is like R. Yosi [who says that Pesach Sheni is obligatory for women - 91B], Beraisa #2 is like R. Yehudah and R. Shimon [who, respectively, say that it is Reshus or does not apply to her].
(Beraisa - Rebbi): One is Chayav Kares for Pesach Rishon; one is Chayav Kares for Pesach Sheni;
R. Noson says, one is Chayav Kares for Pesach Rishon; one is exempt for Pesach Sheni;
R. Chananya ben Akavya says, one is not Chayav Kares even for Pesach Rishon unless he does not bring Pesach Sheni [b'Mezid].
This is like they (Rebbi and R. Noson) taught elsewhere:
(Beraisa - Rebbi): If a Nochri converted or a minor matured between Pesach Rishon and Sheni, he must bring Pesach Sheni
R. Noson says, only those who were obligated to bring Pesach Rishon are commanded about Pesach Sheni.
Rebbi holds that Pesach Sheni is an independent obligation [for anyone who did not bring Pesach Rishon], even for one who was not commanded about Pesach Rishon;
R. Noson holds that it is compensation for the Rishon, but it does not fix [exempt for failure to bring] the Rishon;
R. Chananya holds that it fixes [his failure to bring] the Rishon.
They learn from the same verse - "Veha'Ish Asher Hu Tahor..."
Rebbi holds that "V'Chodal La'asos ha'Pesach v'Nichresah" refers to the Rishon; there is also Kares "Ki Korban Hash-m Lo Hikriv b'Mo'ado" - if he did not bring the Sheni (Ki can mean 'if').
Question: How does he know that "Chet'o Yisa" (the next words) means Kares?
Answer: [The Torah says that Megadef gets Kares -] he holds that Megadef is blasphemy (cursing Hash-m), and it says regarding blasphemy "V'Nosa Chet'o" - we learn Kares for Pesach Sheni from a Gezerah Shavah "Chet'o-Chet'o."
R. Noson holds that "Ki" means 'because' - "V'Chodal La'asos ha'Pesach v'Nichresah (one who does not bring the Rishon gets Kares)... Ki (because) Korban Hash-m Lo Hikriv b'Mo'ado;"
Question: How does he expound "Chet'o Yisa"?
Answer: He holds that Megadef is not blasphemy [rather, it is one who sings to idolatry, so there is no explicit source for Kares for blasphemy] - we learn Kares for blasphemy from the Gezerah Shavah, from Pesach [Rishon].
R. Chananya holds that "Ki" means 'if' - "V'Chodal La'asos ha'Pesach v'Nichresah...Ki Korban Hash-m Lo Hikriv b'Mo'ado," if he did not bring the Sheni.
Question: How does he expound "Chet'o Yisa"?
Answer: It teaches like we said [for R. Noson, to Mechayev Kares for blasphemy].
Therefore, if one did not bring either Pesach:
If he was Mezid both times, all agree that he is Chayav Kares; if he was Shogeg both times, all agree that he is exempt;
If the first was Mezid and the second Shogeg, Rebbi and R. Noson are Mechayev, and R. Chananya exempts;
If the first was Shogeg and the second Mezid, Rebbi is Mechayev, and R. Noson and R. Chananya exempt.
WHAT IS CONSIDERED DERECH RECHOKAH?
(Mishnah) Question: What is considered Derech Rechokah?
Answer #1 (R. Akiva): It is further away than the city Modi'im;
Answer #2 (R. Eliezer): It is outside the threshold of the Azarah.
R. Yosi: There is a dot on the letter 'Hei' [in "Rechokah"], to teach that he need not be truly far, rather, even outside the threshold of the Azarah (dots always detract from the simple understanding).
(Gemara - Ula): It is 15 Mil (a Mil is 2000 Amos, about a kilometer) from Modi'im to Yerushalayim.
He holds like Rabah bar bar Chanah:
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): An average person can walk 40 Mil in a day [of Nisan, when the night and day are equal - see note in Appendix].
He walks five Mil from dawn until sunrise, and five from sunset until Tzeis ha'Kochavim - this leaves 30 Mil from sunrise to sunset, 15 in the morning and 15 in the afternoon.
This is based on what Ula taught elsewhere:
(Ula): Derech Rechokah is one who cannot reach the Azarah at the time of slaughter. (Rashi - if he is past Modi'im at midday, he cannot reach the Azarah by sunset - Dam Kodshim becomes Pasul at sunset. Rambam - if he is past Modi'im at sunrise, he cannot reach the Azarah by midday, which [mid'Oraisa] is the beginning of the time to slaughter.)
Question: We said that a person can walk five Mil from dawn until sunrise - what is the source of this?
Answer: It says "U'Chemo ha'Shachar Alah va'Ya'itzu ha'Mal'achim b'Lot" (Lot left Sedom at dawn), and "Ha'Shemesh Yotzo Al ha'Aretz v'Lot Ba Tzo'arah;"
(R. Chanina): I saw the place - Sedom was five Mil from Tzo'ar.
(Ula): Derech Rechokah is one who cannot reach the Azarah at the time of slaughter.
(Rav Yehudah): It is one who cannot arrive [in Yerushalayim] in time to eat Pesach (before midnight according to R. Elazar ben Azaryah, and before dawn according to R. Akiva, mid'Oraisa. Mid'Rabanan R. Akiva forbids eating after midnight, but this does not affect Derech Rechokah.)
Question #1 (Rabah, against Ula): You say that it is one who cannot reach the Azarah at the time of slaughter - but you yourself say that we slaughter and do Zerikah for one who is Tamei Sheretz, even though he cannot reach the Azarah at the time of slaughter!
Question #2 (Rabah, against Rav Yehudah): He says that Derech Rechokah is one who cannot arrive in time to eat - but he himself says that we do not slaughter for one who is Tamei Sheretz, even though he can reach the Azarah at the time of slaughter!
Answer (Ula, for himself): Derech Rechokah exempts a Tahor [who cannot reach the Azarah at the time of slaughter], it is unlike the exemption of a Tamei [which depends on being unable to eat at night].