MUST ONE TOIL TO ARRIVE FOR PESACH?
Answer (Ula, for Rav Yehudah): He expounds that we do not we slaughter for a Tamei Sheretz - it says "Ish Ish Ki Yihyeh Tamei la'Nefesh;"
This discusses a Tamei Mes even on his seventh day, which is Erev Pesach [who did not immerse yet] - this is just like a Tamei Sheretz, and the Torah detains him to Pesach Sheni! (Ula himself explains that this is after he immersed.)
(Beraisa) Suggestion: If someone was outside Modi'im and it is possible to arrive in time if he will ride on horses or mules, perhaps he is Chayav Kares [if he did not]!
Rejection: "Uv'Derech Lo Hayah" - this person was away.
Suggestion: If someone was within Modi'im and cannot arrive on account of camels and wagons in the way (they obstruct his children, who are with him; alternatively, he cannot come with the camels and wagons carrying his children), perhaps he is exempt!
Rejection: "Uv'Derech Lo Hayah" - this person was not away (he could have left his children and come alone).
THE SIZE OF THE WORLD
(Rava): The world is 6000 Parsah (Rashi - the trajectory of the sun from sunrise until sunset; a Parsah is four Mil); the thickness of the Raki'a (first firmament, or sky) is 1000 Parsah. (The Raki'a is a thick dome; the sun passes through it between dawn until sunrise, and between sunset and Tzeis ha'Kochavim.)
One of these (the former) is a tradition; the other is reasoning (derived from it).
He holds like Rabah bar bar Chanah, who says in the name of R. Yochanan that a person can walk 40 Mil from dawn until Tzeis ha'Kochavim;
He walks five Mil from dawn until sunrise, and five from sunset until Tzeis ha'Kochavim [and 30 from sunrise to sunset];
It follows that the time from dawn until sunrise is one sixth of the length of a day - therefore, the Raki'a's thickness is a sixth [of the sun's trajectory. We assume that the sun travels at the same speed the entire time.]
Question (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): The thickness of the Raki'a is a tenth of the [sun's trajectory during a] day [from dawn until Tzeis]:
We know this, for a person can walk 40 Mil in a day, and he walks four Mil from dawn until sunrise, and four from sunset until Tzeis.
Rava is refuted (it follows from the Beraisa that the thickness of the sky is an eighth of 'Rava's' day [from sunrise until sunset, for a person walks 32 Mil in this time]);
Ula is refuted (he holds that one walks five Mil from dawn until sunrise).
Suggestion: Also R. Yochanan is refuted!
Rejection: No - R. Yochanan only said that a person walks 40 Mil in a day - Ula and Rava said that five Mil are from dawn until sunrise, they started too early (before actual dawn) and ended too late (after Tzeis; alternatively, they did not realize that the 40 Mil are from sunrise to sunset - see note in Appendix for 93B).
Suggestion: Also R. Chanina is refuted (he said that Lot went five Mil from dawn until sunrise)!
Rejection: No - "Va'Ya'itzu," he was pressured to walk quickly - normally, a person walks only four Mil in this time.
Question (Beraisa): Mitzrayim is 400 Parsah by 400 Parsah; it is one 60th of the size of Kush (Ethiopia), Kush is one 60th of the size of the world, the world is one 60th of the size of the Gan [in Eden], the Gan is one 60th of the size of Eden [itself], Eden is one 60th of the size of Gehinom;
The entire world is like a pot cover for (i.e. tiny in comparison to) Gehinom. (Ben Yehoyada - [the lower] Gan Eden is literally in this world - we must say that it fits in the world miraculously, just like the Aron did not occupy space in the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim. Perhaps we can defend Rava like this - he calculated the length of the sun's trajectory - perhaps our world miraculously fits underneath, even though it is much bigger - PF.)
Rava is refuted (the world is much more than 6000 Parsah).
Question (Tana d'vei Eliyahu - Beraisa): The entire [inhabited] world is under (smaller than any) one star - the proof is, if a person looks at a star [and notes its direction and its angle above the horizon], wherever he goes in the world it will be in the same direction and angle.
Rava is refuted (each star is at least 1000 Parsah (the size of the inhabited world); thousands of stars fit above the entire world [including the ocean], so the entire world must be much more than 6000 Parsah).
Question (Beraisa): The Calf is always seen in the north, and Scorpion is always seen in the south (Rashi - these are two of the 12 major constellations; Tosfos - they are not); [the latitude of] the entire inhabited world is between them [and there are many more than six stars between them, each at least as big as the inhabited world]!
Also - the sun traverses [the longitude of] the inhabited world within one hour (a half hour before noon it is east of everyone, a half hour after noon it is west of everyone - this assumes that it is noon at the same time for everyone) - it follows that the trajectory of the sun is at least 12 times as big!
Rava is refuted.
Question (R. Yochanan ben Zakai) Question: When Nebuchadnetzar said "'E'eleh Al Bamasei Av Edameh l'Elyon," what was Hash-m's answer?
Answer: A voice from Heaven said 'Rasha, son of a Rasha, descendant of Nimrod the Rasha, who used his kingship to make the entire world [build the tower of Bavel and] rebel against Me!
"Yemei Shenoseinu Vahem Shiv'im Shanah v'Im bi'Gvuros Shemonim Shanah" - a man lives only 70 years, or 80 if he reaches Gevurah! (Even if you could ascend as fast as people walk on level ground, you could not even reach the lowest of the seven firmaments!) Each of the following is 500 years journey (about 7,300,000 Mil) - from the land to the first firmament; the thickness of each firmament; and between adjacent firmaments! "Ach El She'ol Turad El Yarkesei Vor" (you will descend to Gehinom)!'
Rava is refuted (the world is as long as it is tall).
THE TRAJECTORIES OF THE SUN AND CONSTELLATIONS
(Beraisa): (Each month a different constellation is after the sun, i.e. rises first each night.) Chachamim of Yisrael say that the Galgal (sphere which houses the sun and constellations) is fixed (it rotates simply, like a wheel) - the constellations move slightly on it (this enables a different constellation to follow the sun each month, i.e. to be the first to rise each night);
Chachmei ha'Nochrim say that the constellations are fixed on the Galgal, and the Galgal revolves [along another axis to move them].
Rebbi: We can refute them - Calf was never found in the south, and Scorpion was never found in the north - if the constellations were fixed, each of them would be brought in every direction, just like the sun is!
Objection (Rav Acha bar Yakov): Perhaps [the sun is on an outer or inner Galgal, which revolves independently,] it is like the iron [cylinder] inside a grinder (it revolves independently from the grinder), or like a hinge pin on which a door swings (it revolves, but the lintel does not)!
Chachmei Yisrael say that during the day the sun travels below the Raki'a, and at night it goes above it [to return from west to east]; Chachmei Nochrim say that during the day the sun goes below the Raki'a, and at night it goes below the ground.
Rebbi: It appears as if Chachmei Nochrim are right [but really, Chachmei Yisrael are right - Gilyon ha'Shas] - [underground] springs are cold during the day and warm at night (the sun heats them from below)!
(Beraisa - R. Noson): In summer, the sun goes to the height of the Raki'a - therefore the land is hot and springs are cold;
In winter, the sun goes near the bottom of the dome - therefore the land is cold and springs are hot.
(Beraisa): There are four paths on which the [intensity of the] sun travels:
In Nisan, Iyar and Sivan it goes near mountains to melt snow;
In Tamuz, Av and Elul it goes near settled areas to ripen crops;
In Tishrei, Cheshvan and Kislev it goes by the seas to dry the rivers;
In Teves Shevat and Adar it goes in wildernesses so it will not dry Zera'im [in settled areas].
MUST ONE ENABLE HIMSELF TO BRING PESACH?
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): Outside the threshold of the Azarah [is Derech Rechokah].
Inference: Even though he could enter, we do not tell him 'You must enter [or receive Kares]'.
Contradiction (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): If an Arel Yisrael does not circumcise himself [on Erev Pesach], he is Chayav Kares [for not bringing Pesach, for he could have enabled himself]!
Answer #1 (Abaye): Derech Rechokah exempts a Tahor (he need not exert himself to reach the Azarah at the time of slaughter), it does not exempt a Tamei [or anyone else who could Machshir himself to eat at night from doing so].
Answer #2 (Rava): Tana'im argue about the opinion of R. Eliezer:
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): The Torah is lenient about someone b'Derech Rechokah regarding Pesach, and regarding Ma'aser [Sheni]:
Just like it is lenient about one who cannot eat Ma'aser [he need not toil to bring it to Yerushalayim - he may redeem it], it is lenient about one who cannot eat Pesach [he need not Machshir himself - but one who cannot offer it must enter the Azarah to offer it]!
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah says in the name of R. Eliezer, [just like it is lenient about one who cannot do what should be done with Ma'aser, i.e. eat it,] it is lenient about one who cannot do (offer) Pesach (he need not enter the Azarah).
Question: Like whom is the following teaching?
(R. Yitzchak bar Rav Yosef): Regarding [determining whether or not Pesach will be brought in] Tum'ah, we follow the majority of people in (i.e. ready to enter - see note 53 in Appendix) the Azarah.
Answer: It is like R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah in the name of R. Eliezer (people outside the Azarah are exempt, hence they are ignored).
(Mishnah - R. Yosi): Therefore [there is a dot on the 'Hei'...]
(Beraisa - R. Yosi ha'Gelili) Question: We should say that "Derech [Rechokah]" connotes one who is two or three days journey away!
Answer: "Uv'Derech Lo Hayah" teaches that even one outside the threshold of the Azarah is called "b'Derech."