OTHER STRINGENCIES OF KODSHIM
Support (#2 for R. Yirmeyah - Rav Simi Bar Ashi - Mishnah): After a [Tamei] person immersed, he is Tahor regarding Ma'aser; after nightfall he is Tahor regarding Terumah.
Inference: He is Tahor regarding Terumah, but not regarding Kodshim [if he is Mechusar Kipurim].
Question: Why is he forbidden to eat Kodshim - he is Tahor!
Answer: This is a stringency regarding Kodshim [mid'Oraisa. Old texts of Rashi omit the word 'Rabanan'];
Likewise, we are stringent here [mid'Rabanan, regarding Zeri'ah of Terumah]!
Support (#3 for R. Yirmeyah - Rav Ashi - Beraisa): "Veha'Basar [Asher Yiga b'Chol Tamei Lo Ye'achel]" includes wood and frankincense [of Hekdesh, one is liable for eating them b'Tum'ah. See note 20 in Appendix]
Question: Wood and frankincense are not Mekabel Tum'ah (they are not Kelim or foods)!
Answer: This is a stringency regarding Kodshim.
Likewise, we are stringent here!
WHAT MATZAH MAY BE MADE FROM
(Mishnah): One is Yotzei (fulfills his obligation to eat Matzah on the first night) with Matzah of wheat, barley, Kusmin, Shiboles Shu'al or Shifon (these will be defined);
One is Yotzei with Demai (doubtfully tithed produce), Ma'aser Rishon from which Terumah was taken, or Ma'aser Sheni or Hekdesh that was redeemed;
Kohanim are Yotzei with Terumah or Chalah (a portion of the dough that Yisraelim mjut give to Kohanim, i.e. if it was baked into Matzah).
One is not Yotzei with Tevel, Ma'aser Rishon from which Terumah was not taken, or Ma'aser Sheni or Hekdesh that was not redeemed;
If one made Matzos for Lachmei (bread brought with Korban) Todah or Rekikei (wafers brought with Korbanos) Nazir for himself, he is not Yotzei with them;
If he made them to sell them [for these Korbanos but was not Makdish them], he is Yotzei with them.
(Gemara - Beraisa): Kusmin is a subspecies of wheat (Rashi - therefore, one may separate Terumah from one to exempt the other; Tosfos - they alwn join to comprise a Shi'ur to obligate separating Chalah), Shiboles Shu'al and Shifon are subspecies of barley;
Kusmin is spelt, Shiboles Shu'al is the grain (oats) whose stalks which look like [the tail of] a Shu'al (fox), Shifon is rye.
Inference: One is Yotzei with these grains, but not with rice or millet.
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer (Reish Lakish): "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz Shiv'as Yomim Tochal Alav Matzos" - Matzah must be made from something that can become Chametz; rice and millet cannot become Chametz - they merely decay.
Our Mishnah is unlike R. Yochanan ben Nuri - he holds that rice [and millet] are grains [that can become Chametz], and one is Chayav Kares for eating such Chametz on Pesach.
(Beraisa - R. Yochanan ben Nuri): One may not eat [cooked] rice or millet [during Pesach], for they are Karov (this will be explained) to become Chametz.
Question: Does 'Karov to become Chametz' mean that they become Chametz quickly - or, do they become like Chametz, but not proper Chametz?
Answer (Beraisa - R. Yochanan ben Nuri): Rice is a grain; if it became Chametz one is Chayav Kares for eating it on Pesach; one may be Yotzei with rice Matzah;
Similarly, R. Yochanan ben Nuri requires separating Chalah from Karmis.
Question: What is Karmis?
Answer (Abaye): It is Shitznisa.
Question: What is Shitznisa?
Answer (Rav Papa): It is rye grass that is found among poppies.
(Reish Lakish): One is not Chayav Kares for a dough kneaded with wine, oil or honey.
Question (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua): What is his reason?
Answer #1 (Rav Papa): "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz...[Tochal Alav Matzos]" - one is liable for Chametz only if one could have been Yotzei Matzah with it [had it been baked in time];
One is not Yotzei with such Matzah, since it is Matzah Ashirah (of affluence - the Torah requires "Lechem Oni" (of poverty), it is kneaded only with water).
Objection (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua - Beraisa): If one soaked bread in water [until it became liquidy] and drank it [on Pesach]:
If the bread was Chametz, he is Chayav Kares; if it was Matzah, he did not fulfill the Mitzvah (this is not considered eating).
He is liable for Chametz even though one could not have been Yotzei Matzah with it!
Answer #2 (Rav Idi bar Avin) One is not Chayev Kares for it because Mei Peiros (fruit juice) does not Mechametz (make proper Chametz - it makes Nuksheh, an inferior Chametz - Rashi 36A; R. Tam - pure Mei Peiros are not Mechametz at all; if water is added, a Lav forbids the resulting Chametz).
WHAT MATZAH MAY BE MADE FROM (cont.)
(Mishnah): One is Yotzei with Demai...
Question: It is forbidden to eat Demai (one cannot fulfill a Mitzvah by transgressing! Alternatively, one is Yotzei with Matzah only if [had it become Chametz] it would have forbidden only on account of Chametz.)
Answer: Since if he would make all his possessions Hefker (he would be poor), it would be permitted to him, even if he did not Mafkir, it is considered proper bread for him (Tosfos is unsure if he is Yotzei l'Chatchilah or b'Di'eved):
(Mishnah): We may feed Demai to an Oni or to soldiers [whom the city must feed. Rashi - the soldiers are Yisraelim - one who is not home is considered an Oni; Tosfos - they are Nochrim].
(Rav Huna - Beraisa - Beis Shamai): We may not feed Demai to an Oni or to soldiers.
Beis Hillel permit.
(Mishnah): [One is Yotzei with] Ma'aser Rishon from which Terumah was taken...
Question: This is obvious! After Terumah was taken, it is Chulin!
Answer: The case is, a Levi received Ma'aser Rishon from sheaves and separated Terumas Ma'aser from it, but Terumah Gedolah was not taken.
(R. Avahu): If a Levi received Ma'aser Rishon from sheaves, it is exempt from Terumah Gedolah - "Va'Haremosem Mimenu Terumas Hash-m Ma'aser Min ha'Ma'aser" - a Levi must separate [only] Ma'aser Min ha'Ma'aser (Terumas Ma'aser), not Terumah Gedolah and Terumas Ma'aser.
Question (Rav Papa): If so, the verse should exempt even if he received Ma'aser Rishon from a Kri (pile of grain)!
Answer (Abaye): In this case we apply "Mi'Kol Matnoseichem Tarimu."
Question: Why not exempt Ma'aser from a Kri and obligate Ma'aser from sheaves?
Answer: We obligate Ma'aser from a Kri because it is considered Degen (grain, from which Terumah must be given), sheaves are not considered Degen.
(Mishnah): Ma'aser Sheni or Hekdesh that was redeemed.
Question: This is obvious!
Answer: The case is, the principal was given, the Chomesh was not given;
The Mishnah teaches that the redemption is valid even without the Chomesh.
(Mishnah): Kohanim are Yotzei with Terumah or Chalah.
Objection: This is obvious!
Answer: One might have thought that we require Matzah permitted to everyone - the Mishnah teaches that this is not so - it says "Matzos" (plural) to include [Matzah permitted only to Kohanim].
MATZAH WITH WHICH ONE IS NOT YOTZEI
(Mishnah): One is not Yotzei with Tevel...
Question: This is obvious!
Answer: The Mishnah disqualifies even if it is [exempt mid'Oraisa and] Tevel mid'Rabanan, e.g. it grew in a flowerpot without a hole (it does not nurture from the ground).
(Mishnah): Ma'aser Rishon from which Terumah was not taken.
Question: This is obvious (if Terumas Ma'aser was not taken, one is Chayav Misah bi'Yedei Shamayim for eating it, just like for Tevel)!
Answer: The case is, a Levi received Ma'aser Rishon from a Kri (Terumas Ma'aser was taken but Terumah Gedolah was not taken);
One might have thought [that it is exempt from Terumah Gedolah] like Rav Papa's question [above] - the Mishnah teaches, this is not so, like Abaye's answer.
(Mishnah): Ma'aser Sheni or Hekdesh that was not redeemed.
Question: This is obvious!
Answer: The case is, they were redeemed, but improperly;
Ma'aser Sheni was redeemed on an Asimon (a blank coin) - the Torah requires "V'Tzarta ha'Kesef b'Yadecha," a [minted] coin with a Tzurah (form).
Hekdesh was redeemed onto land, not money;
It says that one will give the money "V'Kam Lo" (then the Hekdesh will be redeemed, and hence his).
(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps one is Yotzei with Tevel that was not fixed!
Objection: Tevel is [by definition produce that was] not fixed!
Correction: It means that, Tevel that was not totally fixed - Terumah Gedolah was taken but not Terumas Ma'aser, or Ma'aser Rishon was taken but not Ma'aser Sheni, or even Ma'aser Oni!
Rejection: "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz [...Tochal Alav Matzos]" - one is Yotzei with Matzah that [had it become Chametz] would be forbidden on account of Chametz, but not with something which is forbidden on account of Tevel.