[71a - 46 lines; 71b - 36 lines]
1)[line 1]בשעת שמחהB'SHA'AS SIMCHAH- at the time of rejoicing; that is, Yom Tov
2)[line 2]וכל דבר שבחובה אינו בא אלא מן החוליןKOL DAVAR SHEB'CHOVAH EINO BA ELA MIN HA'CHULIN
(a)When a person is required to bring a Korban, he must verbally designate an animal to be offered for that particular obligation. Prior to being so designated, this animal must have the status of Chulin (it is not already consecrated to Hekdesh). This means that an animal which has been set aside for a voluntary Shelamim, etc., or an animal which is automatically Kadosh such as Ma'asar Behemah, cannot be used to fulfill one's obligation. This qualification applies whether the obligation to bring the Korban has been placed upon him by the Torah such as a Korban Pesach, Chatas, Asham, etc., or whether it has been voluntary accepted by the person himself, such as one who vows to offer a Korban Olah, Shelamim, or Todah (Menachos 81b).
(b)If one vows to bring a Korban and specifies at the time of the vow that the Korban may be designated from that which is already Kadosh due to its status as Ma'asar Behemah, he may fulfill his obligation with such an animal (ibid.).
3)[line 5]לילי יום טוב הראשוןLEILEI YOM TOV RISHON- [that a Korban Shalmei Simchah must be slaughtered on Erev Yom Tov to be eaten on] the first night of Yom Tov
4)[line 6]אך חלק"ACH" CHALAK- [the word] "Ach" (from the phrase "Ach Same'ach" (Devarim 16:15), which refers to the Mitzvah of Simchas Yom Tov) divides (that is, it excludes something, as every instance of the word "Ach" or "Rak" in the Torah is written as an exclusion)
5)[line 6]מאי טעמהMEI TAIMA- what is the reason [that given an exclusion, the Beraisa chose to exclude the first night of Yom Tov]?
6)[line 17]בן תימא הא פסלה לה בלינה!BEN TEIMA HA PASLAH LAH B'LINAH!- [if the Beraisa is referring to a Chagigas Arba'ah Asar that has been slaughtered on the night of the fourteenth,] Ben Teima is of the opinion that it is disqualified [the next morning] due to Linah (see below, entry #11) (since he maintains that it may only be eaten on the night of the fourteenth, similar to the Korban Pesach)
7)[line 19]ההללHALEL- recitation of the unabridged Halel
8)[line 20]זמנין סגיאיןZIMNIM SAGI'IN- [there are] many times
9)[line 23]בשעירי הרגליםSE'IREI HA'REGALIM
(a)Among the additional Korbanos offered on the festivals is a Sa'ir (male goat) offered as a Korban Chatas (Bamidbar 28:16-29:38). As with all Korbenos Chatas, it has the status of Kodshei Kodashim, and is eaten by male Kohanim on the day it is slaughtered as well as the following night.
(b)This Korban is offered even on Shabbos. When offered on Shabbos, however, the Sa'ir may not be cooked until nightfall. Kohanim who wish to eat it raw before that time may do so.
10)[line 39]לאימוריEIMUREI- entrails of
11)[line 39]בלינהLINAH (PESULEI KORBAN: LINAH)
(a)Linah - literally resting overnight - is the term used to describe part of a Korban left off of the Mizbe'ach beyond the time that the Korban may be consumed (either by people or the Mizbe'ach). Such pieces are disqualified and may no longer be placed on the Mizbe'ach.
(b)Rav Kahana, in our Sugya, brings a proof that although a Korban Chagigah may be eaten for the entire day following its slaughter, those parts of it which must be burned upon the Mizbe'ach become disqualified due to Linah with daybreak.
12)[line 40]וסמיך ליה ראשיתV'SAMICH LEI "REISHIS"- and [the verse] "Reishis [Bikurei Admascha...]" (Shemos 23:19) immediately follows
13)[line 42]דבשר איפסיל ליה מאורתאD'BASAR IFSIL LEI ME'ORTA- that the meat [of the Korban] may no longer be eaten from the onset of nightfall
14)[line 45]דאלו תנא לבשר לא בעי ראשיתD'ILU TANA L'VASAR LO BA'I REISHIS- that the Tana (on 71b) regarding the meat [of a Korban - which is less stringent than the innards of the Korban --] does not require [the proximity of] "Reishis" [in order to know that "Boker" refers to the next morning, but rather assumes so automatically]
15)[last line]"לא ילין מן הבשר אשר תזבח בערב ביום הראשון לבקר" "[...V']LO YALIN MIN HA'BASAR ASHER TIZBACH BA'EREV BA'YOM HA'RISHON LA'BOKER"- "... and do not leave overnight from the meat which you have slaughtered in the evening until the morning of the first day (i.e. the fourteenth of Nisan)" (Devarim 16:4). This verse cannot be referring to the Korban Pesach, as other verses already deal with this prohibition regarding the Pesach. The Tana of this Beraisa therefore understands it to be referring to the Chagigas Arba'ah Asar, which is offered together with the Korban Pesach in the evening of the fourteenth.
16)[line 2]כשהוא אומר ביום הראשון הרי בקר שני אמורKESHE'HU OMER "BA'YOM HA'RISHON" HAREI BOKER SHENI AMUR- The Beraisa understands "ba'Yom ha'Rishon" to mean that the Korban may be eaten during the first day following its offering. The word "la'Boker" then teaches that it may not be left over until the following morning.
17)[line 4]ומה אני מקיים...U'MA ANI MEKAYEM...- The Beraisa is aware of a Derashah from the verse which states, "Im Neder O Nedavah" (as is quoted immediately; see following entry), which teaches that a Korban Chagigah may be eaten for two days and the intervening night.
18)[line 6]"אם נדר או נדבה [זבח קרבנו ביום הקריבו את זבחו יאכל וממחרת]""[V']IM NEDER O NEDAVAH [ZEVACH KORBANO, B'YOM HAKRIVO ES ZIVCHO YE'ACHEL UMI'MACHARAS]"- "And if the offering of his Korban consists of a voluntarily consecrated animal, he may eat it on the day that it is offered and the next." (Vayikra 7:16)- This verse refers to a Korban Shelamim. The word "Im" is extraneous; the Beraisa derives from it that there is an obligatory Shelamim that may be eaten for two days and the intervening night as well. This is the Korban Chagigas Arba'ah Asar.
19)[line 12]וזו לבוקרה וזו לבוקרהV'ZU L'BOKRAH V'ZU L'BOKRAH- and this one (the Chagigas Arba'ah Asar, referred to at the beginning of the Pasuk) [may only be eaten] until its [first] morning (as is assumed from that which it is offered on the previous evening), and this one (the Chagigas Chamishah Asar, referred to by the words "ba'Yom ha'Rishon"; i.e. that which is offered on the first day of Pesach) [may be eaten only] until its [first] morning (inferred from the word "la'Boker")
20)[line 16]אלא האי לחגיגת ט''וELA HAI L'CHAGIGAS CHAMISHAH ASAR- that is, even if we were to say that it is the Chagigas Chamishah Asar which is referred to by the Derashah of "Im Neder O Nedavah" since it is more lenient than the Chagigas Arba'ah Asar which is brought together with the Korban Pesach, we still must conclude that the Chagigas Arba'ah Asar may be eaten for two days and the intervening night. This is because the entire verse of "v'Lo Yalin Min ha'Basar..." would then be referring to the Chagigas Arba'ah Asar only, and the Beraisa has already stated that in such a case we may derive that it may be eaten for two days and the intervening night.
21)[line 22]שלא לשמוSHE'LO LISHMO- not for its sake; i.e., with intent that it be a Shelamim or other (non-Pesach) Korban
22)[line 24]אם אינן ראוייןIM EINAN RE'UYIN- if they are not fit [to be offered as a Korban Pesach]
23)[line 25]רבי אליעזר מחייב חטאת ורבי יהושע פוטרREBBI ELIEZER MECHAYAV CHATAS V'REBBI YEHOSHUA POTER (TO'EH B'DVAR MITZVAH)
(a)If one transgresses a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he is liable to receive the punishment of Kares (see Background to Pesachim 32:16) b'Mezid (intentionally), he must offer a Korban Chatas. One who commits certain other sins, such as benefiting from Hekdesh b'Shogeg (Me'ilah; see Background to Yoma 58:25) must offer a Korban Asham.
(b)If one transgresses an Aveirah that would normally obligate him in a Korban Chatas or Asham while under the mistaken impression that he was actually performing a Mitzvah (a "To'eh bi'Dvar Mitzvah"), there is a difference of opinion among the Tana'im as to whether or not he must bring a Korban Chatas. Rebbi Eliezer says that such a scenario is included in the definition of "unintentional"; Rebbi Yehoshua maintains that a To'eh b'Dvar Mitzvah is Patur from a Chatas. The case in our Mishnah, in which one was under the impression that he was slaughtering a Korban Pesach, which is a Mitzvah on Shabbos, but in actuality slaughtered an animal which was forbidden to slaughter on Shabbos, is an example of a To'eh b'Dvar Mitzvah.
(c)Within the opinion of Rebbi Yehoshua - who maintains that a To'eh b'Dvar Mitzvah is Patur - there are various opinions among the Tana'im and Amora'im with regard to exactly when this Petur applies and when it does not.
1.There is a Machlokes Tana'im whether Rebbi Yehoshua exempts one from a Korban Chatas only if he actually ends up performing a Mitzvah (Tana Kama), or even if he does not perform an actual Mitzvah through his actions (Rebbi Meir; Pesachim 72a).
2.Some say that the Petur of To'eh b'Dvar Mitzvah only applies when the Mitzvah that he wishes to perform may only be accomplished within a limited time period, and he is therefore rushed ("Zemano Bahul"). If he has the option of performing the Mitzvah at a later date, To'eh b'Dvar Mitzvah will not exempt him from a Chiyuv Chatas. (This is the reasoning of the Gemara Pesachim 72b, opposing the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan.)
3.Rebbi Meir (according to the Gemara's explanation on 72a-b) maintains that Rebbi Yehoshua exempts one from a Chatas only if he was still required to perform the Mitzvah at the time when he thought he was doing so. If he had already performed the Mitzvah earlier - even if he was unaware of doing so - he must offer a Chatas. (For more details of this Halachah, see the discussion of the Gemara in Pesachim 72a-73b.)
24)[line 29]ששינהו בדבר אסורSHE'SHINEHU B'DVAR ASUR- that he altered them to that which is prohibited [to offer on Shabbos]
25)[line 30]אימורי ציבורEIMUREI TZIBUR- Korbanos offered on Shabbos (such as the Korban Tamid and the Korban Musaf)
26)[line 31]והשוחט לשמןVEHA'SHOCHET LISHMAN- and one who slaughters [other animals] as public sacrifices
27)[line 31]שיש להן קצבהSHE'YESH LAHEN KITZVAH- that have a fixed amount (that is, since there are not many of them and it is therefore difficult to confuse other animals with them, he is not a To'eh b'Dvar Mitzvah)
28)[line 32]בפסח שאין לו קצבהB'PESACH SHE'EIN LO KITZVAH- about the Korban Pesach which there are many of [and therefore one who slaughters an animal he finds in the Azarah, under the impression that it is a Korban Pesach, with its owners in mind - only to discover that it was not a Korban Pesach at all - is a To'eh b'Dvar Mitzvah]?
29)[line 32]רבי מאיר אומר...REBBI MEIR OMER...- from the Gemara on Daf 72a it is apparent that Rebbi Meir is explaining what he considers to be Rebbi Yehoshua's opinion.
30)[line 33]שחטוSHACHTO- if he slaughtered it (the Korban Pesach on Shabbos)
31)[line 35]ונמצא בעל מוםV'NIMTZA BA'AL MUM- and it was found to have had a blemish [from prior to the Shechitah]
32)[line 35]ונודע שמשכו הבעלים את ידםV'NODA SHE'MASHCHU HA'BE'A'LIM ES YADAM- and it became known that those designated for this Korban had withdrawn themselves [from this Pesach prior to its Shechitah]