MUST SHALMEI SIMCHAH BE SLAUGHTERED AT THE TIME OF SIMCHAH?
Support (Beraisa): "V'Hayisa Ach Some'ach" is extra - it includes [in the Mitzvah of Simchah] the last night (Rashi; Tosfos - and day) of Yom Tov (Shemini Atzeres).
Question: Perhaps it includes the first night of Yom Tov! (If both are equally reasonable, we may learn both!)
Answer: "Ach" always limits.
Suggestion: We do not include the first night of Yom Tov for Simchah is not possible then (a Korban slaughtered before Yom Tov is invalid for Simchah)!
Rejection: No - the Beraisa itself explains why:
(Beraisa) Question: Why do we include the last night and exclude the first night?
Answer: This is because Simchah applies before the last night, but not before the first night (see note in Appendix).
Question (Rav Yosef - Beraisa): One may fulfill the Mitzvah of Simchah through the Chagigah of the 14th, but not the Mitzvah of [Stam] Chagigah.
One fulfills Simchah even though it was slaughtered before the time of Simchah!
Answer (Rav Idi bar Avin): The case is, an animal was Hukdash for Chagigah of the 14th, but he did not slaughter it until the 15th.
Support (Rav Ashi): Surely this is the case - Ben Teima taught this Beraisa, and he disqualifies Chagigah of the 14th at dawn [of the 15th, when the Mitzvah of Simchah begins - it does not apply to the first night]!
Question (Rava - Mishnah): Hallel and Simchah apply for eight days.
If slaughter must be at the time of Simchah, it is not always eight days, i.e. when Yom Tov is on Shabbos (one may not slaughter before the second day! Rather, we must say that one may slaughter on Erev Yom Tov.)
Answer #1 (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehudah): One may fulfill Simchah [on the first day] through the Chatas offered with Musaf.
Objection #1 (Rava): On Shabbos, it may be eaten only Chai - one cannot fulfill Simchah [during the day] with meat that is Chai (raw - it may not be cooked at all until night - Rashi; R. Chananel - it is half-roasted on Shabbos, so Kohanim can eat on Shabbos to Mechaper for Yisrael - Simchah requires properly roasted meat).
Objection #2 (Rava): Only Kohanim may eat from the Chatas (surely, the Mishnah teaches that Simchah applies to Yisrael for eight days)!
Answer #2 (Rav Papa): [Since it is impossible to eat Shelamim on the first day,] one may fulfill Simchah through clean clothing and old wine.
(Ravin): If one slaughtered a Shelamim before Yom Tov, he fulfills Simchah, but not Chagigah:
He fulfills Simchah, for we do not require slaughter at a time of Simchah;
He does not fulfill Chagigah, because an obligatory Korban must be brought from Chulin.
Question (Beraisa): "V'Hayisa Ach Some'ach" - this includes the last night of Yom Tov.
Question: Perhaps it rather includes the first night of Yom Tov!
Answer: "Ach" divides.
Suggestion: We do not include the first night of Yom Tov for Simchah is not possible then!
Answer: No - the Beraisa explains why:
(Beraisa) Question: Why do we include the last night and exclude the first?
Answer: This is because Simchah applies before the last night, but not before the first night.
THE TIME LIMIT FOR CHELEV AND MEAT OF CHAGIGAH
(Rav Kahana) Question: What is the source that Chelev of Chagigah of the 15th becomes Pasul overnight?
Answer: Right after "V'Lo Yalin Chelev Chagi Ad Boker" it says "Reishis," to teach that "Boker" refers to the first morning.
Objection (Rav Yosef): Had it not said "Reishis," would we say that it refers to the second morning?! We never find that the meat becomes Pasul at night [of the 17th] and the Chelev is permitted [longer,] until morning!
Answer (Abaye): R. Elazar ben Azaryah holds that meat of Pesach is Pasul after midnight, yet the Chelev is Kosher all night!
Rejection (Rava): Rav Yosef asks, without any verse, the Tana [of the coming Beraisa] assumes that "Boker" regarding eating means the first morning, whereas Rav Kahana needs a verse for Chelev, which is more stringent (it is never permitted for two days, whereas some Korbanos may be eaten for two days)!
(Beraisa): "V'Lo Yalin Min ha'Basar Asher Tizbach ba'Erev ba'Yom ha'Rishon la'Boker" - this teaches that Chagigah of the 14th may be eaten for two days and a night.
Suggestion: Perhaps it is permitted only for one day and a night!
Rejection: "Ba'Yom ha'Rishon" teaches that [it may be eaten the entire first day], hence "la'Boker" refers to the second morning (the 16th).
Suggestion: Perhaps it really refers to the first morning! (We shall explain this suggestion below.)
Question: But it was taught that Chagigah may be eaten for two days [and a night]!
Answer: This would apply to other Chagigos.
Rejection: "V'Im Neder O Nedavah [...ba'Yom Hakrivo Es Zivcho Ye'achel umi'Macharas]" permits Chagigah of the 14th for two days.
Question: After the Beraisa proved that 'Boker' refers to the second morning, why did it suggest that it refers to the first?
Answer: Perhaps the verse alludes to two Chagigos, of the 14th and of the 15th, and each may be eaten until its [first] morning;
The Tana then asked, this contradicts the Halachah, that Chagigah may be eaten for two days, for we suggest that both Chagigos may be eaten only for one day and a night!
He concludes that "V'Im Neder..." permits Chagigah of the 15th for two days; "Ba'Yom ha'Rishon..." discusses only Chagigah of the 14th, and permits for two days.
Reformulation of Rav Yosef's question: The Tana says that "la'Boker" refers to the second morning only because it says "Ba'Yom ha'Rishon" - without this, he assumes that it means the first morning! (This is not answered.)
LIABILITY FOR SLAUGHTERING A PASUL PESACH
(Mishnah): If [on Erev Pesach on Shabbos] one slaughtered Pesach Lo Lishmah (it is Pasul) he is Chayav Chatas [for Chilul Shabbos];
If he slaughtered any other Korban l'Shem Pesach [on this day]:
If the animal was unfit for Pesach (e.g. a bull or a female), he is Chayav;
If it was fit for Pesach, R. Eliezer is Mechayev Chatas, and R. Yehoshua exempts [because he tried to do a Mitzvah and erred].
R. Eliezer: It is permitted to slaughter Pesach Lishmah, nevertheless, if he slaughtered it l'Shem anything else he is Chayav - all the more so, he is liable for other Korbanos Lo Lishmah, for even Lishmah they are forbidden!
R. Yehoshua: You cannot learn from Pesach which was slaughtered l'Shem something forbidden to offer on Shabbos, to slaughtering Korbanos l'Shem something permitted (Pesach)!
R. Eliezer: Korbanos Tzibur (Tamid and Musafim) disprove this - they are permitted Lishmah, yet if one slaughtered another Korban l'Shem them, he is liable!
R. Yehoshua: Those are different, for there is a limit how many must be offered (it is unreasonable to err and offer another) - but everyone offers Pesach (even if he already offered his, perhaps he saw an animal in the Azarah and assumed that it is also a Pesach - nothing else is offered after the Tamid)!
R. Meir says, even one who slaughters l'Shem Korbanos Tzibur is exempt.
If he slaughtered Pesach for the following, he is liable - Lo l'Ochlav, Lo li'Mnuyav (people that do not own a share), Arelim or Temei'im;
If he slaughtered l'Ochlav and Lo l'Ochlav, li'Mnuyav and Lo li'Mnuyav, for Mulim and Arelim, or for Temei'im and Tehorim he is exempt (the Korban is Kosher).
If he slaughtered it and then found that it has a blemish, he is liable (he should have examined it beforehand);
If he found that it has an internal [problem that makes it] Tereifah, he is exempt (he could not have known before slaughter).
If he slaughtered it and then found that the owners withdrew and were Menuyim on a different Pesach, or died, or became Temei'im, he is exempt, for [this is Ones,] he was allowed to slaughter.