PESACHIM 54 (7 Elul) - Dedicated in memory of Esther Miryam bas Harav Chaim Zev and her husband Harav Refael Yisrael ben Harav Moshe (Snow), whose Yahrzeits are 7 Elul and 8 Elul respectively. Sponsored by their son and daughter in law, Moshe and Rivka Snow.

[54a - 55 lines; 54b - 52 lines]

1)[line 6]וכן עמא דברV'CHEN AMA DVAR- and so [is what] people conduct themselves (that is, this is the commonly accepted practice)

2)[line 10]כאן באור ששבת כאן באור היוצא...KAN B'OR SHE'SHAVAS, KAN B'OR HA'YOTZEI...- Rebbi Yochanan ruled that one should make a Berachah only upon a fire which was lit in a permissible way on Yom Kippur. This includes a fire which stayed lit the entire Yom Kippur, as well as one lit on Yom Kippur for a midwife or sick person. The Berachah is made upon such a flame since only now, after Yom Kippur, is benefit derived from it. A Berachah is recited upon a newly created fire, however, only after Shabbos, which is the anniversary of the creation of fire.

3a)[line 15]מפזרןMEFAZRAN- spread them (the Berachos of Havdalah) out [when necessary, sometimes reciting Borei Me'orei ha'Esh immediately and Borei Minei Besamim much later]

b)[line 15]מכנסןMECHANSAN- gathered them together [and recited them over a cup of wine, as we are accustomed to do]

4)[line 17]איברי?IVRI?- was created?

5)[line 18]בארBE'ER- the Well of Miriam (a round stone from which water flowed which rolled after the Bnei Yisrael in the desert)

6)[line 18]והמןHA'MAN- the Man (food which fell from the heavens and sustained the Bnei Yisrael in the desert)

7)[line 18]וקשתKESHES- a rainbow

8)[line 18]כתבKESAV- (a) the sounds of the Hebrew letters; (b) the form of the Hebrew letters upon the Luchos

9)[line 18]ומכתבMICHTAV- (a) the form of the letters upon the Luchos; (b) according to the pronunciation MECHATEV - the stylus with which the Luchos were written

10)[line 19]פתיחת פי האתוןPESICHAS PI HA'ASON- the ability of the donkey of Bil'am to speak (Bamidbar 22:28-30)

11)[line 19]ופתיחת פי הארץ לבלוע את הרשעיםPESICHAS PI HA'ARETZ LIVLO'A ES HA'RESHA'IM- the ability of the ground to open up and swallow Korach and his followers (Bamidbar 16:30-33)

12)[line 20]האורHA'UR- fire

13)[line 20]והפרדHA'PERED- the mule (see Insights)

14)[line 21]האילHA'AYIL- the ram which Avraham sacrificed in place of Yitzchak on Har ha'Moriyah (Bereishis 22:13)

15)[line 21]והשמירHA'SHAMIR- the Shamir (a worm which was able to cut through stone, used by Shlomo ha'Melech in the construction of the Beis ha'Mikdash -Gitin 68a)

16)[line 21]הצבתHA'TZEVAS- tongs (for forging metal utensils)

17)[line 22]הא לאיHA LA'I- truly; therefore it must be

18)[line 23]בדפוסDEFUS- a mold

19)[line 23]ויקבענה כיוןV'YEKAV'ENAH KIVAN- and set it quickly

20)[line 28]"ה' קנני ראשית דרכו""HASH-M KANANI REISHIS DARKO"- "HaSh-m created me before He created the world" (Mishlei 8:22). The Gemara understands that the word "Derech" refers to the Torah.

21)[ line 28]"בטרם הרים יולדו... תשב אנוש עד דכא ותאמר שובו בני אדם""B'TEREM HARIM YULADU... TASHEV ENOSH AD DAKA, VA'TOMER SHUVU VENEI ADAM"- "Before the mountains You were born...; You turn man [from strength] to frailty, and You say, 'Return (i.e. repent), children of man.'" (Tehilim 90:2-3) - "Until frailty" also implies "until man's heart becomes frail before HaSh-m."

22)[line 30]"מקדם""MI'KEDEM"- (lit. "eastward") "beforehand" (Bereishis 2:8)

23)[line 30]"כי ערוך...""KI ARUCH..."- "For its hearth has been prepared long ago; yes, for the king it is in readiness. He has made it deep and large; its bonfire is of much fire and wood. The breath of HaSh-m, like a stream of brimstone, kindles it." (Yeshayah 30:33) Although this prophecy deals with the downfall of the Assyrian king Sancheriv and the destruction of his army during their siege of Yerushalayim in the time of King Chizkiyahu, Chazal interpret this verse to refer as well to the punishment of all sinners in Gehinom.

24)[line 32]"יהי שמו...""YEHI SHEMO..."- "May His name endure forever; may His name continue as long as the sun..." (Tehilim 72:17)

25)[line 32]חללהCHALALAH- its expanse

26)[line 34]אין לו כבייה לעולםEIN LO KEVIYAH OLAMIS- will never be extinguished (that is, the fire of Gehinom)

27)[line 43]מעין דוגמא של מעלהME'EIN DUGMA SHEL MA'ALEH- akin to [the knowledge] of HaSh-m

28)[line 43]וטחנןTACHNAN- ground them

29)[line 45]"הוא ענה...""HU ANAH..."- "He is Anah, who discovered the Yemim in the desert while herding donkeys for his father, Tziv'on." (Bereishis 36:24) - Anah was the first man to mate a male donkey with a female horse, yielding a mule.

30)[line 46]חמורותCHAMUROS- difficult passages in the Torah

31)[line 47]"אלה בני שעיר החורי""ELEH BNEI SE'IR HA'CHORI..."- "These are the sons of Se'ir from Chor... and Tziv'on and Anah" (Bereishis 36:20)

32)[line 49]דשבור מלכאSHEVOR MALKA- King Shapur, king of Persia at the time. Rava referred to Shmuel by this title since he was an expert in Halachah and the Halachah followed his rulings, as all must follow the directives of the king.

33)[last line]שקדיה ופרחיהSHEKEDEHAH U'PERACHEHA- its almonds and its flowers (see Bamidbar 18:16-24)

34)[last line]המזיקיןHA'MAZIKIN- Sheidim (demons)

54b----------------------------------------54b

35)[line 2]ויום הנחמהYOM HA'NECHAMAH- (a) the day when a person will be comforted from his troubles (RASHI); (b) the day when Bnei Yisrael will be comforted (and redeemed from Galus) (BEREISHIS RABAH 65:12, see MAHARSHA)

36)[line 3]ועומק הדיןOMEK HA'DIN- (a) the final outcome of a court case; (b) how the Heavenly Court will view each person after his death

37)[line 5]ומלכות חייבת מתי תכלהMALCHUS CHAYEVES MASAI TICHLEH- when the kingdom of Rome (Esav) will come to an end

38)[line 7]ואם לא עלו דין הוא שיעלוV'IM LO ALU, DIN HU SHE'YA'ALU- and if they have not yet come to pass, they certainly will (for otherwise, existence is not possible)

39)[line 10]שיצאSHE'YETZEI- that it will be spent

40)[line 11]מלאכהMELACHAH- profit-making ventures

41)[line 15]תענית ציבורTA'ANIS TZIBUR

(a)When a community suffers from lack of rain or some other communal trouble, Beis Din enacts public fasts in order that people should repent and the divine decree be rescinded. In all, thirteen fasts are enacted in groups of three, three, and seven. Only Torah scholars fast on the first set of three fasts (Ta'anis 10a). The next sets of three and seven are observed by the entire community (ibid. 12b).

(b)The groups of three take place in a pattern of Monday-Thursday-Monday. During the last seven, which follow the pattern M-T-M-T-M-T-M, the Shali'ach Tzibur recites a special Shemoneh Esreh prayer consisting of twenty-four Berachos, as specified in Maseches Ta'anis 15a. The six additional Berachos are inserted between the seventh and eighth Berachos of the regular Shemoneh Esreh prayer.

42)[line 17]בין השמשותBEIN HA'SHEMASHOS

(a)Bein ha'Shemashos refers to the length of sunset. It is Halachically unclear whether this period of time is day or night.

(b)There is a disagreement among the Tana'im (Shabbos 34b) as to the exact timing of Bein ha'Shemashos:

1.According to Rebbi Yehudah, Bein ha'Shemashos begins when the sun dips below the horizon and lasts for the time that an average person can walk either two thirds or three quarters of a Mil (depending upon the differing understandings of Rebbi Yehudah's statement in Shabbos 34b).

2.Rebbi Nechemyah explains that Bein ha'Shemashos lasts for the time that it takes an average person to walk half of a Mil. (Rashi to Berachos 2b and Nidah 53a records this opinion as that of Rebbi Yehudah).

3.Rebbi Yosi maintains that Bein ha'Shemashos lasts no longer than the (gentle) blink of an eye. There is a difference of opinion as to whether the Bein ha'Shemashos of Rebbi Yosi occurs after or during the Bein ha'Shemashos of Rebbi Yehudah (Nidah 53a). The Gemara concludes (Shabbos 35a) that the Bein ha'Shemashos of Rebbi Yosi takes place only once the Bein ha'Shemashos of Rebbi Yehudah finishes (meaning that until that point, Rebbi Yosi would consider it day).

43)[line 27]לקביעא דירחאL'KEVI'A D'YARCHA- regarding the proper placement of the first day of the month. Yom Kippur, which is d'Oraisa, must be observed for two days when it is not clear when Rosh Chodesh was, while Tish'a b'Av, which is d'Rabanan, need be observed for only one.

44)[line 29]ומשלימות בוMASHLIMOS BO- complete [the fast] on it (Tish'a b'Av)

45)[line 38]לא מיחזי כיוהראLO MECHZI K'YUHARA- it does not appear as arrogance

46)[line 39]לתפילת נעילהTEFILAS NE'ILAH- Ne'ilah was recited on the last seven Ta'aniyos Tzibur (see above, entry #42; Ta'anis 26a)

47)[line 40]ולואיULEVAI- were it only!

48)[line 43]לעשרים וארבעהESRIM V'ARBA'AH- [the] twenty-four [additional Berachos inserted into the Shemoneh Esreh prayer of the Shali'ach Tzibur on the last seven Ta'aniyos Tzibur] (see above, entry #42)

49a)[line 44]כראשונותK'RISHONOS- like the first [set of (three) public fasts decreed upon the Talmidei Chachamim]

b)[line 44]כאחרונותK'ACHARONOS- like the last [set of (ten) public fasts decreed upon the entire community]

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