[3a - 47 lines; 3b - 67 lines]
1)[line 1]המפלתHA'MAPELES- [a woman] who miscarries
2)[line 2]מקרבןKORBAN (KORBAN YOLEDES)
(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8, the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages:
1.During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom - see Background to Nidah 71:23b), and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.
2.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b)Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).
(c)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even if she experiences bleeding during the period of Dam Tohar - see Insights to Nidah 25a.)
(d)If a woman has more than one child within the period before she must bring a Korban (referred to as "Melos" - completion - from the wording of the verse which requires her to bring the Korban), she need not bring more than one set of Korbanos. This holds true whether she was carrying multiples or whether she conceived after the first term described above (after going to the Mikvah), and then miscarried before the 40- or 80-day period was completed. The Machlokes in the Mishnah brought by our Gemara is in a case in which a woman gave birth to a girl, and then conceived following her immersion in the Mikvah after the first 14-day period. She then miscarried during the night following the eightieth day after her birth, which is after Melos, but before she may bring her Korbanos (since a Korban may not be brought at night).
3)[line 4]אם שיוה לו לטומאהIM SHIVAH LO L'TUM'AH- if they are the same as far as the laws of Tum'ah are concerned (see above, entry #2b)
4)[line 8]יכול יהא נאכל אור לשלישיYACHOL YEHEI NE'ECHAL OR L'SHELISHI (KORBAN SHELAMIM)
(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as the Torah states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37), or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b)Korbenos Shelamim which are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows, or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and therefore may be slaughtered anywhere in the Azarah (and are not limited to the northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner places his hands on the head of his animal and leans on it with all of his might (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is sprinkled on the lower half of the Mizbe'ach at the northeastern and southwestern corners only (Shetayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (meal offerings consisting of flour, oil, and a wine libation) are brought along with the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach, and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine required depends upon the animal offered (see Bamidbar ibid.).
(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim are given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban are offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban within the borders of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion, and may be eaten for two days and the intervening night. The Beraisa brought in our Gemara details the source for the prohibition to eat it on the second night.
5)[line 8]זבחיםZEVACHIM (KORBAN TODAH)
(a)The Todah (thanksgiving offering) is a form of Shelamim (see above, entry #4) which is eaten for only one day and one night (Vayikra 7:15).
(b)An animal sacrificed as a Todah is offered along with forty loaves of bread; ten of each of the following:
1.Chalos Matzos - Matzos mixed with oil;
2.Rekikin - flat Matzos saturated with oil;
3.Soles Murbeches - Matzos made of boiled flour mixed with oil;
4.Loaves of leavened bread (Vayikra 7:12-13).
(c)One loaf of each type of bread is given to the Kohen who performed the Zerikas ha'Dam of the Todah (Vayikra 7:14). (This is known as Terumas Lachmei Todah.) In all other respects the Todah is similar to the Shelamim, except that it may be eaten only on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night.
(a)Any meat of a Korban which remains after the time in which it may be eaten must be burned, as it states in Vayikra (19:6), "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel umi'Macharas, veha'Nosar Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref" ("It shall be eaten on the day that you slaughter it and on the next, and that which remains until the third day shall be burned in fire").
(b)One who eats Nosar intentionally is Chayav Kares, as it states (ibid. 19:8), "... v'Ochlav Avono Yisa... v'Nichresah ha'Nefesh ha'Hi me'Ameha" ("... and one who eats it shall bear his sin... and that soul will be cut off from its nation"). If he eats it unintentionally, he must bring a Korban Chatas. (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 215)
7)[line 15]תיכף לאכילהTEIKEF L'ACHILAH- immediately following [the period of time during which] the eating [of the Korban is permitted]
8)[line 22]מעין שמונה עשרME'EIN SHEMONAH ASAR
Me'ein Shemonah Asar refers to "Havineinu," a shortened version of the daily Shemoneh Esreh prayer. The first and last three blessings, which consist of praises to HaSh-m, remain unchanged. The middle thirteen blessings, which consist of requests to HaSh-m based on our many needs, are condensed into one single blessing which ends in the words "Shome'a Tefilah" (Berachos 29a). It was employed mainly by travelers forced to pray on the road in situations which did not allow for the presence of mind necessary for the entire Tefilah, and yet posed no life-threatening danger. There is a difference of opinion among Halachic authorities as to whether it has been abolished in current times, or if it may still be used.
9)[line 26]אלמא אור אורתא הואALMA OR URTA HU- we see that "Or" means night. This is from the fact that the law ruled upon in this Beraisa is the same law as our Mishnah - which uses the word "Or" - and the Beraisa states clearly that the search must be conducted on the night of the fourteenth.
10)[line 29]לישנא מעליאLISHNA MA'ALYA- lit. a higher speech; a more refined manner of speaking
11)[line 30]עקםIKEM- lit. twisted; in this context, added
12)[line 31]אשר איננה טהורהASHER EINENAH TEHORAH- instead of simply stating "ha'Teme'ah"
13)[line 31]אשר איננה טהורהASHER EINENAH TEHORAH- Rabeinu Yonah explains that the application of Lishna Ma'alya applies here only because these words were said to Noach. At the time of Noach, it was permitted to eat animals that were Teme'im (non-Kosher animals), but it was forbidden to sacrifice them. It would therefore have been disgraceful to degrade those which were fit for human consumption by calling them "Teme'im" (SHA'AREI TESHUVAH 3:23).
14)[line 33]וי''ו דטהורVAV D'TAHOR- Rav Papa did not include the Vav in the word Tahor as part of his accounting, since the Torah could have written the word without that letter. Ravina contends that the fact remains that the Torah chose to include the letter Vav in this particular instance.
15)[line 34]"ולא דבר שאול מאומה ביום ההוא כי אמר מקרה הוא בלתי טהור הוא כי לא טהור""V'LO DIBER SHAUL ME'UMAH BA'YOM HA'HU, KI AMAR MIKREH HU, BILTI TAHOR HU KI LO TAHOR" - "But Shaul said nothing that day, because he thought that it was a coincidence; he must be impure, for he has not yet been cleansed" (Shmuel I 20:26) (DAVID AND YONASAN TEST SHAUL HA'MELECH)
(a)David narrowly escaped from Shaul and his men after their attempt to capture him. David met with his staunch friend and ally, Shaul's son Yonasan, and aired his frustration at the fact that the king was constantly hounding him. The two friends devised a plan to test Shaul, to find out the extent of his jealousy and anger towards David.
(b)Avner (Shaul's commander-in-chief) and David regularly ate the Rosh Chodesh meal together with Shaul and Yonasan. Avner sat on one side of the king, and David on the other, between Shaul and Yonasan. The following day was Rosh Chodesh, and, in accordance with their plan, David absented himself from the king's table. Assuming that David was Tamei, Shaul said nothing about his absence. On the following day, however, when David again was absent, the king asked Yonasan about his whereabouts. The latter replied that David requested permission to attend a family sacrificial offering and to celebrate with them, and that he had granted his request.
(c)It was after Shaul warned Yonasan that as long as David lived, the throne that Yonasan was destined to inherit was not safe. Shaul ordered Yonasan to bring David before him and have him killed. Yonasan responded with the words, "Why should he die? What did he do wrong?" At that moment, the king took his spear and threatened Yonasan with it. Yonasan then realized the extent of the danger which David faced.
(d)As they had arranged, Yonasan made his way to the field where David was hiding, waiting to hear from his loyal friend about what had transpired. Using their prearranged method of clandestine communication, Yonasan informed David that his life was in danger, and David was once again forced to flee.
16)[line 35]שהרי... ובאשה קראו מושבSHE'HAREI... UV'ISHAH KAR'O MOSHAV- When categorizing that which a Zav or Zavah sat upon as Tamei, the Torah uses the word "Merkav" when referring to that which a Zav sat upon and "Moshav" when referring to that which a Zavah sat upon. "Moshav" means that which is sat upon; "Merkav" means that which is ridden. As riding implies a form of sitting with a leg on either side of that which is being ridden, it is less modest to use such a term when referring to a woman.
17)[line 36]"ותבחר לשון ערומים""V'SIVCHAR LESHON ARUMIM"- "And you shall choose the wording of the crafty" (Iyov 15:5). This is the translation of RAMBAN and METZUDAS DAVID. RASHI to Iyov and RAV MOSHE KIMCHI translate the Pasuk along the lines of our Gemara as, "And you should choose (i.e. it is a Mitzvah to choose - RASHI here) the wording of the wise.
18)[line 36]"ודעת שפתי ברור מללו""V'DA'AS SEFASAI BARUR MILELU"- "And my lips shall utter clear (pure) knowledge" (Iyov 33:3) - The Gemara interprets this verse as well as a requirement to speak wisely.
19)[line 40]ביעתותא דגמליםBI'ASUSA D'GEMALIM- the fear of [falling off of] the camels
20)[line 1]"והיא רוכבת על החמור""V'HI ROCHEVES AL HA'CHAMOR" - "And it was so, as she was riding on the donkey, that she came down by the screen of the hill, and behold, David and his men were descending towards her, and she met them" (Shmuel I 25:20) (DAVID AND AVIGAYIL)
(a)Shmuel ha'Navi had just died, and David, a fugitive from Shaul, found himself and his group of 600 men not far from Carmel, where there lived an extremely wealthy man by the name of Naval ha'Carmeli. Naval, who was a descendant of Kalev ben Yefunah and who was related to David, was hard to get along with and a man of bad deeds. When David heard that Naval was about to sheer his sheep, an occasion that was generally accompanied by extensive festivities, he sent some of his men to him with greetings and with a request for badly needed provisions. Naval bluntly refused, insulting David's emissaries in the process and referring to David as a slave who rebelled against his master, in spite of the fact that David had helped him out with a favor on an earlier occasion.
(b)David considered this an act of treason, and prepared to attack him with 400 men, leaving 200 men to guard the camp. Meanwhile, a servant informed Avigayil, Naval's clever and beautiful wife (who was also one of the seven prophetesses), all that had transpired. He stressed how good David and his men had been to Naval and his workers when, for a short while, they worked together in the field, yet Naval repaid bad for good. Finally, he warned her of the impending danger.
(c)Without delay, Avigayil took 200 loaves of bread, two large casks of wine, five prepared sheep, five Se'ah of parched ears of corn, 100 clusters of raisins, and 200 cakes of dried figs, which she loaded on to donkeys. Without telling her husband, she issued orders to her servants to take the gift to David, and she would follow.
(d)Upon meeting David, she succeeded in convincing him to cancel the attack. She also managed, before leaving, to put in a personal request: that David should not forget her (a hint that, after the death of her husband, he should marry her).
(e)The following morning, after Naval had become sober from the previous night's festivities, Avigayil informed him of all of the above events. The news shocked him, and his heart froze (either out of fear, because he thought that David was about to attack him, or out of his miserliness, on account of the losses that he had just sustained in the form of the gift that his wife had given David to save his life).
(f)In any event, HaSh-m struck him down, and after ten days, he died. The commentaries ascribe the ten days to the seven days of mourning for Shmuel, who just died, plus three days of suffering from the plague. Furthermore, Chazal attribute them to the ten days between Rosh Hashanah, when the illness struck, and Yom Kippur - the Aseres Yemei Teshuvah during which time Naval had the chance to do Teshuvah for what he had done, but did not take advantage of the opportunity. A third opinion attributes the ten days grace to the ten gulps of wine that Naval offered David's emissaries.
21)[line 7]כל היכא דכי הדדי נינהוKOL HEICHA D'CHI HADADI NINHU...- The Torah wrote the exceptions to this rule listed on 3a in order to impart the lesson that it is important to speak in a refined way; everywhere else, the Torah teaches us the importance of teaching lessons in as pithy a manner as possible so that they are easier to remember (RASHI).
22)[line 13]והא רוכבת ויושבת דכי הדדי נינהוV'HA ROCHEVES V'YOSHEVES D'CHI HADADI NINHU- but "Rocheves" (the term used by the verse) and "Yosheves" (the more refined term eschewed by the verse) have the same number of letters!
23)[line 14]רכבת כתיבROCHEVES KESIV- The verse writes the word "Rocheves" Chaser, without a Vav, thereby lessening it by one letter. Whenever the Torah leaves a letter out, it means to teach us something. Therefore, although the word "Yosheves" could just as easily have been written Chaser, there would have been no reason to do so. Now that "Rocheves" is Chaser, however, we see that one should teach in as pithy a manner as possible so that it is easier to remember what is taught (RASHI).
24)[line 16]שויתינן האי שמעתא כגדי מסנקןSHEVISINAN HAI SHEMA'ATA K'DAVAR ACHER MESANKAN- (a) this lesson left us as exhausted as a tired pig (RASHI); (b) this lesson sated us and filled us up like a fat pig (RABEINU CHANANEL)
25)[line 18]אישתעיISHTA'I- speak
26a)[line 22]בוצרין בטהרהBOTZRIN B'TAHARAH- must one use only Tahor vessels when picking grapes
b)[line 22]ואין מוסקין בטהרהV'EIN MOSKIN B'TAHARAH- and yet one need not use only Tahor vessels when picking olives
27)[line 27]הגיעני כפולHIGI'ANI K'FOL- I received [a portion of the Lechem ha'Panim equal to] the size of a bean
28)[line 28]כזנב הלטאהZANAV HA'LETA'AH- a lizard's tail
29)[line 29]שמץ פסולSHEMETZ PESUL- a blemish in his ancestry (i.e. that he was a Chalal)
30)[line 30]אין בודקין מן המזבח ולמעלהEIN BODKIN MIN HA'MIZBE'ACH UL'MA'ALAH- (lit. we do not check from the Mizbe'ach and up) Once a Kohen has performed the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash, his lineage is no longer questioned
31)[line 31]שחץ פסולSHACHATZ PESUL- a blemish of haughtiness, which invalidates him from Divine service
32)[line 32]דאיהו דארע נפשיהIHU D'ARA NAFSHEI- he cast aspersions upon himself (leading Beis Din to reopen an inquiry into his right to the priesthood)
33)[line 33]ארמאהARAMA'AH- an Aramean (a Nochri)
34)[line 35]משופרי שופריSHUFREI SHUFREI- the best of the best
35)[line 36]מי קא ספו לך מאליהMI KA SAFU LACH ME'ALYAH- do they give you a portion from the (fatty) tail?
36)[line 40]לגבוה סלקאL'GAVO'AH SALKA- is offered up to Heaven
37)[line 45]בנציביןNETZIVIN- a city in Bavel
38)[line 45]ומצודתך פרוסהMETZUDASECH PERUSAH- your net is spread. This story is mentioned in our Gemara due to its similarity to the previous story, in that the words a person used caused others to check more deeply into his genealogy.
39)[line 45]רב כהנא חלשRAV KAHANA CHALASH- (the stories that follow are mentioned here because they demonstrate how careful a person must be to speak in a proper fashion)
40)[line 47]מאי דיניהMAI DINEI- what happened with him, how he is
41)[line 48]ואהדריה לקרעיה לאחוריהV'AHADREI L'KAR'EI LA'ACHOREI- he turned his garment so that the tear in his clothes was behind him (and not immediately noticeable, for that would be the equivalent of announcing the news)
42)[line 49]אנא לא קאמינאANA LO KA'AMINA- I did not say it
43)[line 49]"ומוציא דבה הוא כסיל""U'MOTZI DIBAH HU CHESIL"- "And he who speaks ill [of another] is a fool" (Mishlei 10:18). Rebbi Yehoshua Brei d'Rav Idi here translates "Dibah" as bad news.
44)[line 49]חקוקאהCHIKOKA'AH- (a) a nickname (RASHI); (b) the scribe (RABEINU CHANANEL); (c) from the Levite city of Chukok in the north of the land of Israel (TOSFOS)
45)[line 49]נפק לקרייתאNAFAK L'KIRYASA- went out to the villages, where his farmlands were, to take care of his fields
46)[line 51]"והשערים והתבן לסוסים ולרכש יבאו אל המקום אשר יהיה שם איש כמשפטו""VEHA'SE'ORIM VEHA'TEVEN LA'SUSIM VELA'RECHESH, [YAVI'U EL HA'MAKOM ASHER YIHEYEH SHAM ISH K'MISHPATO]" - "... the barley and the straw for the horses and the fast horses [they would bring to wherever they were quartered, each one according to his responsibility]" (Melachim I 5:8) (PROVISIONS FOR THE HORSES OF SHLOMO HA'MELECH)
(a)The king had the twelve commissioners, one each month, whose job it was to provide the king with all the provisions that were needed in the royal palace. This included provisions for the numerous dignitaries and guests who arrived from all over the world to visit the king.
(b)The particular commissioner which this verse discusses was responsible to see to the king's stables, comprised of 40,000 stables for his chariots and 12,000 horsemen. To reconcile this number with the 4,000 mentioned in Divrei ha'Yamim, some commentaries explain that there were a total of 4,000 stables, and each stabled contained ten horses.