(Mishnah): We pass seven ingredients over a Kesem -- Tefel (tasteless) spit, Mei Grisim, urine, nitre, Boris, Kemunia and Ashleg. (Most of these will be explained. Nowadays the law of our Mishnah does not apply, because we are not certain of the identity of some ingredients - Shulchan Aruch.)
(One who wears or moves a garment with Dam Nidah becomes Tamei.) If one immersed a garment with a Kesem (and touched or wore the garment and touched Taharos), and then applied the ingredients and the Kesem persisted, it is (not blood, rather,) dye. The Taharos are Tehorim, and the garment need not be immersed again. (Rashi (Sanhedrin 49b) - it is Vadai not blood. She is permitted to her husband. Tosfos - perhaps it is dye. Rambam -- she is permitted to her husband unless we see that it is blood (the next clause).)
If the ingredients caused the Kesem to pass or change, it is a (proper) Kesem. The Taharos are Teme'im, the garment must be immersed again.
Spit is Tefel if the person did not taste anything (all day);
Mei Grisim is chewed shelled beans (Rambam - they are mixed with saliva; Aruch - one pours water over them).
The urine must be putrefied.
Each ingredient must be rubbed three times (on the Kesem);
If one applied the ingredients out of order or at the same time, this has no effect.
(Gemara - Beraisa): The nitre is of Alexandria, and not of Antifteris.
(Rav Yehudah): This is aloe.
Question (Beraisa): Boris and aloe...
Retraction: Rather, Boris is sulfur.
Question (Beraisa): Chachamim added the following (they also have Kedushas Shemitah) -- ha'Leveitzin (bulb of ornithogalum), Le'unin (garden-orache), Boris and aloe...
Shemitah does not apply to sulfur!
(Beraisa): Shemitah applies to things that have roots (in the ground), and to nothing else.
Answer (and defense of Rav Yehudah): Rather, Boris is aloe.
Question (Beraisa): Boris and aloe...
Answer: These are two kinds of aloe.
(Rav Yehudah): This is Shelof Dotz (a type of grass used for washing hands).
(Shmuel citing seafarers): This is found in holes in gems. It is extracted using iron prongs.
THE TEST THAT REMOVES KESAMIM
(Mishnah): If one immersed a garment (and touched Taharos)...
(Beraisa #1): If one applied the seven ingredients and the Kesem persisted, then he applied soap and the Kesem passed, the Taharos are Teme'im.
Objection: (If the seven ingredients did not remove the Kesem,) surely it is dye! (Tosfos - even if it is blood, it is so deeply absorbed that it is Batel, as if it was dye.)
Correction: Rather, if one applied six ingredients and the Kesem persisted, then he applied soap and the Kesem passed, the Taharos are (Safek) Teme'im. Perhaps also the seventh ingredient would have made it pass!
(Beraisa #2): If one applied the seven ingredients and the Kesem persisted, then he applied them again and the Kesem passed, the Taharos are Tehoros.
(R. Zeira): This refers only to Taharos touched between the first and second laundering. Taharos touched after the second laundering are Teme'im, for (by repeating the process) he showed that he cares about the stain. (Therefore, it is not Batel.)
Question (R. Aba): Does the Tum'ah depend on his concern?!
Answer (Rav Ashi): Yes!
(Beraisa - R. Chiya): If one applies the seven ingredients to Vadai Dam Nidah, he is Mevatel it. (Now, it is Tahor.)
Question: The blood is still there!
Answer: Since he does not care about it, it is Tahor.
Summation of Answer (h): Here also, the Tum'ah depends on what he cares about!
(Mishnah): If a Kli Cheres absorbed Mashkim (this will be explained) of a Zav and fell into an oven, if the oven was ignited it is Tamei, for the Mashkim will ultimately leave the Cheres (due to the fire. It is as if they already left.)
(Reish Lakish): This is only if the Mashkim were Kalim (Rishonim l'Tum'ah). If they were Chamurim (Avos ha'Tum'ah, e.g. his urine), the oven is Tamei whether or not it was ignited.
(R. Yochanan): Even if the Mashkim were Chamurim, the oven is Tamei only if it was ignited.
Question (R. Yochanan, against Reish Lakish - Mishnah): If one immersed a garment, (wore the garment and) touched Taharos, applied the seven ingredients and the Kesem persisted, the Kesem is dye, and the Taharos are Tehorim. (If absorbed Tum'ah is Metamei as if it left, we should be concerned lest there is blood inside!)
Answer: Tum'as Kesamim is mid'Rabanan. (Therefore we are Metaher the Safek).
Question (Beraisa - R. Chiya): If one applies the seven ingredients to Vadai Dam Nidah, he is Mevatel it.
Answer (Reish Lakish): The Beraisa is mistaken. If Rebbi did not teach this in a Mishnah (the Mishnah implies that the ingredients Mevatel only Kesamim, but not Vadai blood), how could R. Chiya (his Talmid) know it?!
Question (R. Yochanan, against Reish Lakish - Mishnah): If a Revi'is of blood (of a Mes) was absorbed in (the floor of) a house, (some texts - any Kli in) the house is Tahor. Some say, it is Tamei;
These two opinions do not argue. Before the blood was absorbed, it is Tamei. (If a Kli was brought into the house) after it was absorbed, it is Tahor.
(Continuation of Mishnah): If a Revi'is of blood was absorbed in a garment, it is Metamei b'Ohel only if a Revi'is of blood will come out through laundering. (Even though a Revi'is is absorbed, since it will not come out easily, it is not Metamei!)
Answer (Rav Kahana): (Normally, absorbed Tum'ah is Metamei.) The Mishnah discusses Dam Tevusah. (We are unsure whether it came out before or after death). Since it is Metamei b'Ohel only mid'Rabanan, Chachamim were lenient.
Question (Reish Lakish, again R. Yochanan - Mishnah): Any absorbed Tum'ah that cannot leave is Tahor.
Inference: If it can leave it is Tamei, even before it leaves!
Answer (Rav Papa): Whenever it cannot leave (easily) and one does not care about it, all agree that it is Tahor;
Whenever it can leave and one cares about it, all agree that it is Tamei;
They argue about when it can leave and one does not care about it. Reish Lakish holds that since it can leave, even though he does not care about it, it is Tamei;
R. Yochanan holds that even though it can leave, it is Tamei only if he cares about it.