(Mishnah): Spit is Tefel if...
(Beraisa): If one did not taste anything since (last) night (his spit is Tefel).
(Rav Papa): This means, he did not eat all night.
Rejection (Rava): It does not say "at night," rather, "since (last) night." We exclude one who rose to eat (before dawn, but not one who ate last night. Sleep adds potency to spit. Eating weakens it.)
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): Spit is Tefel if the person was asleep at midnight.
Inference: The law depends on sleep.
Question (Beraisa): (Even) if one slept the entire day, his spit is not Tefel. If he was awake the entire night, his spit is Tefel.
Answer: (It depends on sleeping at night.) The Beraisa discusses one who dozed at night.
Question: What is considered dozing?
Answer (Rav Ashi): He is half asleep, and half awake. If one calls to him, he responds, but he cannot give an answer that requires reasoning. When one reminds him (what he heard), he remembers.
(Beraisa): If one woke up and taught, his spit is not Tefel. (Talking weakens spit.)
Question: How much must he teach (in order that his spit will not be Tefel)?
Answer (Rav Yehudah bar Shila): If he spoke for the majority of three hours, his spit is not Tefel.
CONDITIONS OF THE TEST
(Mishnah): Mei Grisim (is chewed shelled beans).
Suggestion: This supports Reish Lakish:
(Reish Lakish): Tefel spit must accompany each of the ingredients.
Rejection: No, perhaps he must chew them in order to warm them.
Our Mishnah is unlike R. Yehudah:
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Mei Grisim must be boiling, "Over" (before it is weakened through) adding salt.
Question: What is the source that "Over" means "before"?
Answer #1 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): We learn from "... va'Ya'avor Es ha'Kushi."
Answer #2 (Abaye): We learn from "v'Hu Avar Lifneihem."
Answer #3: We learn from "va'Ya'avor Malkam Lifneihem va'Shem b'Rosham."
(Mishnah): Urine that putrefied.
(Beraisa): Urine is considered putrefied after three days.
(R. Yochanan): Other factors affect the seven ingredients:
The potency of urine depends on whether it came from a child or elder, if it was exposed or covered, if it was in winter or summer (the latter of these is more potent), or of a man or woman.
(Mishnah): Each ingredient must be rubbed three times (on the Kesem).
Question (R. Yirmeyah): Does rubbing back and forth count like once, or like twice?
This question is not resolved.
(Mishnah): If one applied the ingredients out of order or at the same time, this has no effect.
(Beraisa #1): If one applied latter ingredients before earlier ingredients, the latter count, but the earlier ones do not count. (Only the earlier ones must be applied again.)
Contradiction (Beraisa #2): The earlier ones count, but the latter do not count.
Resolution (Abaye): Both Beraisos agree that only the latter ingredients applied count;
Beraisa #2 means that the ingredients that come earlier in the order of the seven, which were applied last, count.
KINDS OF VESTOS
(Mishnah): If a woman has a Veses, Dayah Sha'atah. (She is Teme'ah from when she sees blood and onwards, but not retroactively);
The following are Vestos -- she sees blood after stretching or sneezing (there are various opinions about these words, including belching or passing gas. Rosh - all of the explanations are Divrei Elokim Chayim. All are Vestos), a pain in her stomach or womb, she spurts (blood) (this will be explained), or is gripped by chills, or anything similar;
Anything that happened three times (before she saw) is a Veses.
(Gemara) Question: We already learn this from another Mishnah!
(Mishnah): Any woman with a Veses is Dayah Sha'atah.
Answer: That refers to a Veses of days (she normally sees the same day every month, or a certain number of days after her previous period). our Mishnah discusses Vestos ha'Guf (based on her body) -- after stretching...
Question (Mishnah): She spurts (blood. Rashi - since she spurts every day, this is not a Veses!)
Answer (Ula brei d'Rav Ilai): She spurts a Tahor color of blood, and amidst this sees a Tamei color of blood.
(Mishnah): She is gripped by chills (or anything similar).
Question: What does this come to include?
Answer (Rabah bar Ula): This includes one whose sees blood after her head or limbs feel heavy, or after she trembles (Rambam - gets hot) or yawns.
(Shmuel): I heard that a Veses of days is established after two sightings. Veses ha'Guf requires one sighting. Vestos that Chachamim did not list require three sightings.
Question (Shmuel): What are these Vestos which Chachamim did not list?
Answer #1(Rav Yosef): Her head or limbs feel heavy, or she trembles or yawns.
Objection (Abaye): What is the Chidush? Rabah bar Ula explained that the Mishnah alludes to these!
Answer #2 (Abaye): It teaches about one who saw after eating garlic, onions, or pepper.
Rav Yosef: I never heard this teaching (of Shmuel. When Rav Yosef became sick, he forgot his learning.)
Abaye: You taught it to us when you explained the following!
(Beraisa): If a woman used to see on the 15th (of the month) and one month she saw on the 20th, both of these are forbidden (to have Bi'ah);
If she saw three consecutive months on the 20th, she is now permitted on the 15th, for she has fixed her Veses on the 20th;
A woman does not fix a Veses until three times.
(Rav Yosef citing Rav Yehudah citing Shmuel): This is like R. Gamliel bar Rebbi in the name of R. Shimon ben Gamliel (who says that Chazakah is established after three times). Chachamim say that (two times establishes a Chazakah,) if she saw, she need not see two or three times.
Question (Abaye): If she need not see two times, there is no need to say she need not see three times!
Answer (Rav Yosef): Once suffices to fix Veses ha'Guf. Twice suffices to fix a Veses of days.
Question: Why didn't Shmuel simply say that the Beraisa is like R. Shimon ben Gamliel?
Answer: He teaches that R. Gamliel bar Rebbi holds like R. Shimon ben Gamliel.
SEEING DURING PART OF A VESES
(Mishnah): If a woman normally sees at the beginning of her Veses (ha'Guf, and she did not check herself until the end, and found herself Teme'ah), Taharos that she touched during the Veses are Teme'im;
If she normally sees at the end of her Veses, Taharos that she touched during the Veses are Tehoros.
R. Yosi says, a Veses can depend on days and hours (this will be explained). If she normally sees at sunrise, she is forbidden only at sunrise;
R. Yehudah says, she is permitted the entire day (but she is forbidden the night before).
(Gemara - Beraisa) Question: What is R. Yosi's Veses of days and hours?
Answer: If she normally sees on the 20th (of the month) during the sixth hour, when the 20th comes:
R. Yehudah forbids Bi'ah during the first six hours;
R. Yosi permits Bi'ah before the sixth hour. She refrains during the sixth hour.
If the sixth hour passed and she did not see;
R. Yehudah forbids Bi'ah the rest of the day;
R. Yosi permits from Minchah (after midday) and onwards.
(Mishnah): If she normally sees (at sunrise... R. Yehudah permits the entire day, but he forbids the entire night).
Contradiction (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): The entire night is permitted (but the entire day is forbidden).
Resolution: In the Mishnah, she normally sees (just before sunrise) at the end of the night. In the Beraisa, she normally sees (just after sunrise) at the beginning of the day.
(Beraisa #1 - R. Yehudah): She is forbidden before her Veses. She is permitted after it;
Contradiction (Beraisa #2 - R. Yehudah): She is forbidden after her Veses, but she is permitted before it.
Resolution: In Beraisa #1, she normally sees at the end of the night. In Beraisa #2, she normally sees at the beginning of the day.
(Rava): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah.
Question: Rava contradicts himself!
(Beraisa - R. Yoshiyah): "V'Hizartem... mi'Tum'asam" forbids a woman shortly before her Veses.
Question: How much in advance is she forbidden?
Answer (Rava): She is forbidden for an Onah (a night or day(time)). (If we say that Rabah taught this (like the text in Shevu'os), we must also say that Rabah ruled like R. Yehudah above (n).)
Suggestion: This means that in addition to the Onah in which she expects to see, she is forbidden another Onah (beforehand).
Answer: No, she is forbidden (only) in the Onah in which she expects to see.
Question: Why did Rava need to teach both (n) and (o:3)?
Answer: Had he taught only (n), one might have thought that this is only regarding Taharos, but not regarding her husband;
Had he taught only (o:3), one might have thought she is forbidden in the Onah in which she expects to see, and an additional Onah.
CHANGING A VESES
(Mishnah): If a woman normally sees on the 15th of the month, and she saw on the 20th (this month), both of these days are forbidden (next month);
If she saw a second time on the 20th, both days are forbidden;
If she saw a third time on the 20th, this is now her Veses, and the 15th is permitted;
A woman does not fix a Veses until three times, she does not lose a Veses until three times.