WHEN MAY WE BE TOLEH THAT THERE IS NO TUM'AH?
(Mishnah): If three women slept in a bed and blood was found under the middle woman, all of them are Teme'os (one of the long sides of the bed is against a wall);
If blood was found under the woman on the inside, she and the middle woman are Teme'os, and the outer woman is Tehorah;
If blood was found under the outer woman, she and the middle woman are Teme'os. the inner woman is Tehorah;
This is if they entered the bed from its foot. If they entered from the outside, all are Teme'os (for everyone passed over the place of blood).
If one of them checked (Ra'avad - within Shi'ur Veses after finding the blood; Ba'al ha'Ma'or - even after this) and found that she is Tehorah, she is Tehorah, and the others are Teme'os;
If two of them checked and found themselves Tehoros, they are Tehoros, and the third is Teme'ah;
If all of them checked and found themselves Tehoros, all are Teme'os.
R. Meir says, this is like a heap containing Tum'as Mes that became confused with two Tahor heaps. If one of them was checked and found to be Tahor, it is Tahor, and the others are Teme'im;
If two of them were checked and found to be Tehorim, they are Tehorim, and the third is Tamei;
If all of them were checked and found to be Tehorim, all of them are Teme'im.
R. Meir says, anything Muchzak to be Tamei keeps its Chazakah until we know where the Tum'ah went;
Chachamim say, one digs until finding a big rock or virgin soil. (We are not concerned for Tum'ah underneath.)
(Gemara) Question: Why does our Mishnah distinguish under which woman the Tum'ah was found, but the previous Mishnah did not?
Version #1 (most Mefarshim) Answer (R. Ami): In the previous Mishnah, the women overlapped. (Therefore, we are concerned no matter where the blood was found. In our Mishnah, they were separated.)
Version #2 (Eliyahu Rabah) Answer (R. Ami): In our Mishnah, the women were on the bed at the same time. (In the previous Mishnah, they were on it one after the other. No woman was on the inside or outside. The previous Mishnah discusses only one woman checking herself, for only the last woman (who found the Kesem) was able to check within Shi'ur Veses.) (end of Version #2)
(Mishnah): If one of them checked... (R. Meir says, this is like a heap...)
Question: Why does the Mishnah give a parable?
Answer: R. Meir asks Chachamim 'why do you agree with me concerning blood, and argue with me about a heap?'
Chachamim hold that we can be Metaher all the heaps, for perhaps a raven removed the Tum'ah. We cannot be Metaher all the women, for the blood came from one of them!
(Beraisa - R. Meir): A case occurred in which Tum'ah was Muchzak near a certain tree. People checked and did not find it. In the end, a wind uprooted the tree, and a skull was found inserted in its trunk!
Chachamim: That was because they had not checked very well.
(Beraisa - R. Yosi): A case occurred in which Tum'ah was Muchzak in a certain cave. They checked until reaching virgin soil as smooth as a fingernail, and did not find it. Once, workers entered to escape the rain. They found a hollow (shaped like a mortar) full of bones.
Chachamim: That was because they had not checked very well.
(Beraisa - Aba Sha'ul): A case occurred in which Tum'ah was Muchzak in a certain area. It was too big to check. R. Yehoshua took sheets, soaked them in water, and spread them over the area. The ground was wet in the place of the Tum'ah (the earth had been dug up. It was softer, so it absorbed the water) and dry elsewhere. (Alternatively, the sheet was dry in the place of Taharah and wet elsewhere.)
BEING CONCERNED FOR LASHON HA'RA
(Beraisa): This episode was in the pit that Yishmael ben Nesanyah filled with corpses -- "veha'Bor Asher Hishlich Sham Yishmael... Anashim Asher Hikah b'Yad Gedalyah";
Question: Gedalyah did not kill them. Yishmael killed them!
Answer: Because Gedalyah should have been concerned for the words of Yochanan ben Korach (that Yishmael seeks to kill Gedalyah), and he did not, the verse attributes to him as if he killed the people.
(Rava): Even though one may not accept (believe) Lashon ha'Ra, he should be concerned lest it is true.
There were rumors that some Galileans had killed someone. They asked R. Tarfon to hide them.
R. Tarfon: If I will not hide you, perhaps you will be found (and executed);
I cannot hide you. Chachamim taught that one must be concerned for Lashon ha'Ra. (Tosfos - if you really killed, the kingdom will want to kill me for hiding you)!
Go hide yourselves!
Question: "Va'Yomer Hash-m El Moshe Al Tira" (implies that Moshe feared Og). Why did he fear Ogeres (even after he killed Sichon), but he did not fear Sichon?
It was taught that Sichon and Og were (brothers,) the sons of Achiyah bar Shemchazai (an angel).
Answer (R. Yochanan): He feared that the merit of (what Og did for) Avraham would help Og. "Va'Yavo ha'Palit va'Yaged l'Avram" refers to Og, who remained from the generation of the flood.
A KESEM LOST IN A GARMENT
(Beraisa): If a Kesem was lost in a garment (and we want to be Metaher the garment), we wash it with seven ingredients to be Mevatel (nullify) it;
R. Shimon ben Elazar says, one checks a small area at a time.
If semen was lost in a new garment (Rashi; Me'iri - the semen came recently), we check it with a needle. (The place of absorbed semen is hard. The needle is slow to penetrate there);
If semen was lost in an old garment (Rashi; Me'iri - the semen is old), we check it in the sun. (The place of semen is more opaque.)
(Beraisa): The small area (that one may check at a time) is no less than three (by three) fingers.
(Beraisa): If Sha'atnez was lost in a garment, one may not sell it to a Nochri (lest he resell it to a Yisrael) nor make it into a saddle, but one may use it for shrouds.
Inference (Rav Yosef): (We are not concerned that the Mes will be wearing Kil'ayim when he is revived.) This shows that the Mitzvos will cease!
Question (Abaye): R. Yanai taught that we may dress the Mes in such shrouds at the time of eulogies, but we may not use them for burial!
Answer (Rav Yosef): R. Yochanan permits them even for burial. This is as he expounds:
(R. Yochanan): "Ba'Mesim Chofshi" teaches that once someone dies, he is (permanently) exempt from Mitzvos.
(Rafram bar Papa citing Rav Chisda): If Sha'atnez was lost in a garment, one dyes it and it is permitted.
Question (Rava): What is his source for this?
Answer (Rafram - Mishnah - Chachamim): One digs until he finds a big rock...
If Tum'ah is not found, we assume that ravens took it. Likewise, (if the dye is absorbed uniformly) we know that the Kil'ayim fell out, for wool and linen do not absorb dye equally!
(Mar Zutra): If one sewed a linen thread into a wool garment, pulled it out and is unsure whether or not (all of) it came out, it is permitted.
Question: What is the reason?
Version #1 (Tosfos) Answer: "Sha'atnez" teaches that the Torah forbids only (if the wool and linen were each) Shu'a (combed), Tavi (spun) and Nuz (twined, and then they were connected. Mar Zutra discusses a linen thread that was not twined);
Chachamim forbid (even if it was not twined) if a thread is Vadai there. They did not forbid a Safek.
Version #2 (Rashi) Answer: "Sha'atnez" teaches that the Torah forbids only (if the wool and linen were together) Shu'a (combed), Tavi (spun) and Nuz (woven); (end of Version #2)
Chachamim forbid if a thread is Vadai there, even though the wool and linen are only woven together. They did not forbid a Safek.
Question (Rav Ashi): Perhaps the Torah forbids even if the wool and linen were (Rashi - together) Shu'a, Tavi or Noz!
Answer: The Torah taught all of these in one word, to teach that all are required.
The Halachah follows Mar Zutra.
KESAMIM ON COLORED GARMENTS
(Beraisa): Tum'as Kesamim applies to colored garments;
R. Nasan bar Yosef says, it does not. The enactment to wear colored garments was in order to be lenient about Kesamim!
Objection: There was no enactment to wear colored garments!
Correction: Rather, the Heter (allowance) to wear colored garments was in order to be lenient about Kesamim.
Inference: It would be forbidden to wear colored garments if not for Kesamim!
(Mishnah): During Vespasian's siege of Yerushalayim (before the second Churban), Chachamim decreed against crowns of Chasanim and bells with one surface (on which the clapper bangs);
Chachamim considered forbidding colored garments. They decided that it is better to allow them, to be lenient about Kesamim.