[42a - 42 lines; 42b - 55 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi.

[1] Rashi 42a DH Amar Lei ד"ה אמר ליה:

The words "Shapir Amar Lach:" שפיר אמר לך

should be "Shapir Amrei Lach:" שפיר אמרי לך

[2] Rashi 42b DH Ifrik ד"ה איפריק:

"Lo Metamya Ad Hashta she'Yetzei" לא מטמיא עד השתא שיצא

The word "Hashta" השתא appears to be unnecessary


1)[line 3]מתהפכתMIS'HAPECHES- a woman who turns over (a) after Tevilah (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) after Tashmish (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

2)[line 9]פולטת שכבת זרעPOLETES SHICHVAS ZERA- a woman who expels Shichvas Zera

3)[line 24]אבעלי קריין בסיניA'BA'ALEI KERYIN B'SINAI- this is referring to a woman who expels Shichvas Zera (and not to a man who emits Shichvas Zera) TOSFOS DH mid'Achmir. The Gemara is suggesting that at the time of Matan Torah the entire camp of Bnei Yisrael had a Din of Machaneh Leviyah, where Ba'alei Keryin (and Poltos Shichvas Zera) were prohibited from entering.

4)[line 30]כולכו ברוקא חדא תפיתוKULCHU B'ROKA CHADA TAFISU- lit. you all grasped the same spit; i.e., you all heard the same ruling

5)[line 35]לחייLECHAYEI- it is good, understandable (i.e. the Halachah about Nidah, Zavah and Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom mentioned in the Beraisa makes sense)

6)[line 39]בירידהטמאהB I'YERIDAH TEME'AH- that is, because the blood does not become Tahor through her Tevilah; therefore, it remains an Av ha'Tum'ah, and makes her a Rishon l'Tum'ah when it touches her. (According to this, the reason the Beraisa says "Yoledes" is that the only woman who can be Toveles immediately after experiencing bleeding is a Yoledes. A Zavah Ketanah must wait a day to make sure she experiences no bleeding and a Nidah is Toveles at night after her seven days of Nidah. If a Nidah experienced bleeding that night, she is Toveles only the following day. The only case where blood before a Tevilah can cause Tum'as Erev is a Yoledes.

7)[line 40]טומאה בלועהTUM'AH BELU'AH

Tum'ah Belu'ah ("swallowed Tum'ah") refers to an object that is Tamei that is inside a living creature. While it is there, the object is neither Metamei by Maga (touching), nor by Masa (carrying). After it comes out, it will be Metamei in its normal manner (see Background to Chulin 117:31a). This is unlike Tum'as Beis ha'Setarim. Tum'as Beis ha'Setarim refers to an object that is Tamei that comes into contact with the concealed part of a person or object. Under such circumstances, the object cannot make a person Tamei by Maga, but it can make him Tamei by Masa. For example, if a piece of a Sheretz was found in the folds of a person's skin, he is Tahor because a Sheretz is only Metamei through Maga. If, however, he had a Neveilah in the folds of his skin, he is Tamei, because a Neveilah is also Metamei through Masa.

8)[line 41]אסברית ניהליהASBERIS NIHALEI- I explained it to him

9)[line 41]כרכיש לי ברישיה בי מדרשאKARKISH LI B'REISHEI BEI MIDRASHA- and he nodded his head to me [in approval] in the Beis ha'Midrash

10)[last line]נבלת עוף טהורNIVLAS OF TAHOR

(a)Normally, items that are Tamei spread Tum'ah through touching them or carrying them ("Maga" or "Masa"). The only object that is Metamei mid'Oraisa while being eaten is Nivlas Of Tahor (the carcass of a kosher bird). Nivlas Of Tahor is a kosher bird that died or was killed without Shechitah. (This includes a bird that is unfit to be brought as a Korban upon which Melikah was performed.) It is only Metamei while in the Beis ha'Beli'ah (throat), during the process of being swallowed.

(b)A Nivlas Of Tahor is Metamei the person eating it, as well as any clothes or utensils that he is touching at the time that it is in his throat, giving them the status of "Rishon l'Tum'ah." (Once it is swallowed, the person remains Tamei, but is only Metamei food and drinks, i.e. he is a Rishon l'Tum'ah).

(c)At this point, the Gemara compares the Tum'ah Belu'ah of a Yoledes to that of the Nivlas Of Tahor, which is Metamei only while it is being swallowed.


11)[line 2]ליטמיLITMEI- it will be Metamei

12)[line 5]שמעתין איפריקSHEMAITIN IFRIK- [the question regarding] the teaching (of Rebbi Zeira) has been resolved

13)[line 7]לידה יבשתאLEIDAH YEVEISHTA- a birth with no bleeding

14)[line 9]פרוזדורPROZDOR- the cervical canal

15a)[line 15]אימא לי איזיEIMA LI, EIZI- Tell me, my close friend, (MAHARSHAL to Bava Metzia 70a)

b)[line 15]גופא דעובדא היכי הוהGUFA D'UVDA HEICHI HAVAH- what was the actual incident?

16a)[line 16]שמעית ולדSHAM'IS VLAD- I heard the child

b)[line 17]צויץTZAVEITZ- crying

c)[line 17]אפניא דמעלי שבתאA'PANYA D'MA'ALEI SHABATA- towards evening on Erev Shabbos

17)[line 21]אותו מקום של אשהOSO MAKOM SHEL ISHAH- Bayis ha'Chitzon (mentioned above)

18)[line 22]בלועBALU'A / BEIS HA'SETARIM

See above, entry #7.

19)[line 23]כזית נבלהK'ZAYIS NEVEILAH (NEVEILAH: TUM'ASO)

(a)A Neveilah is a carcass of a Kosher animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering (or that was slaughtered improperly). The Torah states, "You shall not eat anything that dies by itself (Neveilah). You shall give it to the stranger who is in your gates, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a Nochri, for you are a holy people to HaSh-m, your Elokim." (Devarim 14:21).

(b)A person who eats a k'Zayis of Neveilah is liable to Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 4:1) and a k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes a person or an object Tamei through Maga (contact). It is Metamei a Keli Cheres (an earthenware utensil) if it enters the utensil's interior and is Metamei a person with Tum'as Masa (by carrying it) to cause him, in turn, to be Metamei the clothes that he is wearing (RAMBAM Hilchos She'ar Avos ha'Tum'ah 1:1).

(c)If a person became Tamei through Tum'as Neveilah, he can immediately go to the Mikvah. He becomes Tahor at sundown and may eat Terumah or Kodshim.

20)[line 44]"נבלה וטרפה לא יאכל לטמאה בה""NEVEILAH U'TEREIFAH LO YOCHAL L'TAM'AH VAH"- "He shall not eat a Neveilah or a Tereifah [lest he] become Tamei through it" (Vayikra 22:8) - This verse refers to a Nivlas Of Tahor (see above, entry #10), which is the only Tum'ah that comes about only through eating, not Maga (touching). Nivlas Behemah does become Tamei through Maga (see previous entry).

21)[line 50]"והאוכל מנבלתה יכבס בכדיו""VEHA'OCHEL MI'NIVLASAH YECHABES BEGADAV"- "and one who eats from its dead body must immerse his clothes [in a Mikvah]" (Vayikra 11:40) - Even though a Nivlas Behemah is not Metamei a person while he is eating it (but rather before, when he touches it), the verse uses the phrase "veha'Ochel" to establish an amount that is Metamei, namely a k'Zayis, as our Gemara explains.

22)[line 52]קומטוKUMTO- the folds (O.F. fronces) of his skin, e.g. in his armpit or elbow