[41a - 28 lines; 41b - 49 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi.
 Rashi 41a DH Hachi Nami Mistabra (the second one) : ד"ה הכי נמי מסתברא
The words "mideka'Tani ha'Rove'a veha'Nirba" מדקתני הרובע והנרבע are the beginning of a new Dibur
1)[line 11]ולדות קדשים בהוייתןVELADOS KODSHIM B'HAVAYASAN HEN KEDOSHIM
There is an argument among the Tana'im as to whether the offspring of animals of Kodshim become themselves sanctified when they emerge from their mother's womb ("b'Havayasan"), or whether they become sanctified as soon as they are formed in the womb ("b'Me'ei Iman").
2)[line 15]"... מן הבהמה, מן הבקר, ומן הצאן תקריבו את קרבנכם""… MIN HA'BEHEMAH, MIN HA'BAKAR, U'MIN HA'TZON TAKRIVU ES KORBANCHEM."- "[Speak to the people of Yisrael, and say to them, 'If any man of you brings an offering to HaSh-m, you shall bring your offering] from the farm animals, from the cattle, and from the flocks [of sheep and goats].'" (Vayikra 1:2) - The words "Min ha'Behemah," "Min ha'Bakar," "Min ha'Tzon" and "u'Min ha'Tzon" are four Mi'utim (words that exclude items from a group), that exclude certain animals from being offered as Korbanos.
3)[line 18]הנוגחHA'NOGE'ACH (SHOR HA'NISKAL)
(a)The term Shor ha'Niskal refers to any animal or bird that is stoned to death by Beis Din. Such an animal is Asur b'Hana'ah after the death sentence is issued. One of the instances of Shor ha'Niskal is an animal that killed a person, as described in Shemos 21:28-31 and in Sanhedrin 2a (see also Background to Kidushin 56:8).
(b)Only if two witnesses saw the incident is the animal stoned by Beis Din and Asur b'Hana'ah. If only one witness saw it, or if there were no witnesses but the owner told Beis Din of the incident, the animal is not stoned and is Mutar b'Hana'ah but is unfit to be brought as a Korban.
(c)Our Gemara refers to a Noge'ach, a bull that gored and killed a person, which may not be used as a Korban.
4)[line 19]"שור או כשב או עז [כי יולד והיה שבעת ימים תחת אמו ומיום השמיני והלאה ירצה לקרבן אשה לה']""SHOR O CHESEV O EZ [KI YIVALED, V'HAYAH SHIV'AS YAMIM TACHAS IMO, UMI'YOM HA'SHEMINI VA'HAL'AH YERATZEH L'KORBAN ISHEH LA'SH-M.]"- "[When] a bull or a sheep or a goat [is born, it will be under [the care of] its mother for [at least] seven days. And from the eighth day and onward it will be acceptable as a fire-offering to HaSh-m.]" (Vayikra 22:27) - The words "Shor O Chesev" indicate distinct species, and not forbidden mixtures of two species. "O Ez" teaches that both the parents and the offspring should have the appearance of the same species.
A Nidmeh is an animal that does not appear to be of the same species as its mother or father, e.g. the parents are goats and the offspring has the appearance of a sheep.
6)[line 5]מקור מקומו טמאMAKOR MEKOMO TAMEI- the place of the Makor (the womb) is Tamei and makes any blood that passes through it Tamei, even the blood of a wound
7)[line 12]מדוהMADVEH- flow
8)[line 17]"יען השפך נחושתך (ותגלי) [ותגלה] ערותך""YA'AN HISHAFECH NECHUSHTECH (VA'TIGLI) [VA'TIGALEH] ERVASECH"- "Because your extremity (your womb) was poured out, and your nakedness was revealed" (Yechezkel 16:36) - Even if a piece of the womb becomes dislodged and is discharged, it is still termed "Ervah" by this verse, as if it were in its original place; therefore it is Tamei.
9)[line 19]אלא לטומאת ערבELA L'TUM'AS EREV- that is, not only is blood that touched the Makor Tamei, but even the Makor that touches the woman herself as it falls from her body makes her Tamei
10)[line 27]גלוי הוא אצלשרץG ALUY HU ETZEL SHERETZ (TUM'AS BEIS HA'SETARIM)
(a)"Tum'as Beis ha'Setarim" refers to an object that is Tamei that comes into contact with the concealed part of a person or object. Under such circumstances, the object cannot make a person Tamei by Maga (touching), but it can make him Tamei by Masa (carrying). For example, if a piece of a Sheretz (see Background to Nidah 28:22a) was found in the folds of a person's skin (i.e. in his armpit or elbow), he is Tahor because a Sheretz is only Metamei through Maga. If, however, he had a Neveilah in the folds of his skin, he is Tamei, because a Neveilah is also Metamei through Masa.
(b)Our Gemara states that a woman who has marital relations is only Teme'ah because of a Gezeiras ha'Kasuv, a "decree of the verse" (from Vayikra 15:18), since the Shichvas Zera touches her in a Beis ha'Setarim. Accordingly, the only reason that a woman has to immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah after marital relations is because of the words "v'Rachatzu ba'Mayim" (ibid.).
11)[last line]אזלה איהי בכרעהAZLAH IHI B'CHAR'AH- that is, while walking, it is very common for a woman to expel Shichvas Zera. Therefore, when the woman walks away from the Mikvah, we must assume that she becomes Teme'ah all over again through expelling Shichvas Zera. The Gemara questions this assertion: If we are so sure that she expelled Shichvas Zera when she walked, then perhaps it was all expelled while walking towards the Mikvah, before the Tevilah. The Gemara therefore retracts its suggestion and maintains that if the woman walked to the Mikvah, she indeed remains Tehorah after the Tevilah.
12)[last line]בהדי דקאזלה שדיתאBAHADEI DEKA'AZLA SHADISA- while she was walking, she expelled it from her body