The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

[8a - 51 lines; 8b - 37 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 8a [line 9]:

"Amar Lei bar Kapara, Mah Bavli Omer b'Davar Zeh"

(a) This phrase should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #4. (This is also the Girsa of Rashi DH Hadar (unlike the Bach #6), Shitah Mekubetzes citing the Rosh (#5) and Rabeinu Gershom.) Rebbi Hoshiya asked Bar Kapara two questions. When answering the first question, Bar Kapara called Rebbi Chiya "Iya"; when answering the second question he called him "Bavli."

(b) It appears from the words of the Shitah Mekubetzes and Rabeinu Gershom that after the second question of Rebbi Hoshiya their text did not include the words "Ishtik Rebbi Hoshaya v'Lo Amar Klum"

(c) The words "Tzerichin l'Divrei Iya"

should be "Tzerichin Anu l'Divrei Iya" (Shitah Mekubetzes and Rabeinu Gershom; see further below, entry #2)

[2] Gemara [line 23]:

The words "Amar Rava Amai Ukimta..."

should be "Amar Rava b'Mai Ukimta..."

[3] Gemara [line 44]:

The words "Tanu Rabanan... O Chamesh Leidos Vadai v'Chamesh Leidos Safek, Mevi'ah Shenei Kinim" ...

should be "Tanu Rabanan... O Chamesh Zivos Vadai v'Chamesh Leidos Safek, Mevi'ah Shnei Kinim" ... (as the Bach #4 points out)

(a) This is the correct Girsa; two Korbanos must be brought since the women have two different types of Tum'os, as we find in the Tosefta (1:3) and Gemara 9b. This, likewise, is the intention of Rashi DH Im Yesh, who mentions "mi'Min ha'Safek" (unlike the understanding of the Bach #9 and Shitah Mekubetzes #29, who emended Rashi's words). This, too, is the Girsa of the Rosh (Shitah Mekubetzes #18).

(b) The Girsa of our texts is clearly incorrect, as pointed out by Rebbi Akiva Eiger in Gilyon ha'Shas, and as is changed by the notes in the lower margin of the Gemara, #5. The mistaken Girsa was also copied into our texts of the Rambam (Mechusrei Kaparah 1:10) and should be corrected there as well (Rashash, Ben Aryeh; see Insights)

(c) The main cause for this confusion is that the printer did not realize that Rashi DH Hachi Garsinan is quoting words from a Tosefta concerning the end of our Beraisa, and not the words of the Beraisa itself. (M. KORNFELD)

[4] Gemara [line 47]:

The words "Shel Safek Im Yesh Vadai Beineihem"

should be "Al Safek Im Yesh Vadai Beineihem"

[5] Gemara [line 47]:

"Rebbi Akiva Omer, Bein Al ha'Vadai, Bein Al ha'Safek, Tomar Al Achas me'Hen v'Tipater" Rashi's text did not include the word "v'Tipater." However, above, in the words of Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri (DH Al ha'Vadai), his text did include it. The Shitah Mekubetzes #19 quotes Gilyon ha'Rosh in which this word does not appear with regard to Vadai but only with regard to Safek Leidos. See Shitah Mekubetzes (ibid.), quoting Rabeinu Elchanan, for a clear explanation as to why these words apply to Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri's statement but not to Rebbi Akiva's statement.

[6] Rashi 8a DH Tomar Al ha'Acharonah (at the end) : "

"v'Tipater Al ha'She'ar"

(a) Rashi writes below (DH bed'Rebbi Akiva) " that the word "v'Tipater" should not appear in the words of Rebbi Akiva. Also, Rashi later (8b DH Chamishah Ashamos) explains the possibility of Peshi'ah in an entirely different manner from the way he explains it here.

(b) It therefore seems clear that this entire Dibur (from the words "Chaishinan l'Peshi'ah" until the end) was not written by Rashi, but is a later, marginal addition that was written to explain the words of the Gemara (8b), "uv'Chosheshin l'Peshi'ah ka'Mipalgi" . (The interpretation of Peshi'ah suggested in this Dibur appears to be consistent with the second interpretation that Rashi mentions in that Sugya (DH v'Rebbi Akiva " , which is also the interpretation of Rabeinu Gershom there), which Rashi strongly rejects. -M. KORNFELD)

[7] Rashi DH v'Al ha'Vadai Tomar " :

The Dibur ha'Maschil should be "Al ha'Vadai Tomar"

[8] Rashi DH Im Yesh Vadai " :

The words "mi'Min ha'Safek, d'Amar"

should be "mi'Min ha'Safek, Tomar" (Rashash, unlike the Bach)

[9] Gemara 8b [line 12]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #4

[10] Gemara [line 35]:

The words "Yesh Leimar" (older editions of the Gemara, where the letter Vav is truncated)

should be "Yesh Lomar"

[11] Gemara [last line]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #22

[12] Rashi 8b DH mi'Besaro : "

"mi'Ko'ach Eivaro umi'Tokef Yitzro"

Perhaps this should read "mi'Ko'ach Eivaro v'Lo mi'Tokef Yitzro" (see Rashash); see, however, the Likutim printed in Mishnayos Nazir 9:6


1)[line 9]BAVLI- "the Babylonian"; Rebbi Chiyah, who came from Bavel

2)[line 11] TZERICHIN L'DIVREI IYA- As we explained in the Girsa section (Girsa #1), Rebbi Hoshiya asked Bar Kapara two questions. To the first, Bar Kapara replied, "What does Iya say about that?" (mocking Rebbi Chiya, who could not pronounce the letter "Ches," see Megilah 24b). The second time, Bar Kapara replied, "What does the Bavli say about that?" again refusing to mention Rebbi Chiya by name. There are two ways to explain what exactly transpired at the conclusion of this dialogue:

(a) The simplest explanation is that Bar Kapara, who could not answer either of the questions, capitulated and admitted, "We have no choice but to rely on 'Iya,'" since Rebbi Chiya knew many Beraisos and would undoubtedly be able to draw on his vast storehouse of knowledge in order to answer these questions. (ROSH, quoted by Shitah Mekubetzes #5, suggests a similar explanation.)

(b) RABEINU GERSHOM explains that after Bar Kapara was stumped by Rebbi Hoshiya twice, Rebbi Hoshiya retorted to him, "You see, Bar Kapara, that we have no choice but to rely on that 'Iya' whom you mocked a moment ago" (since he will undoubtedly know the answer based on his great knowledge, even though you do not).

3)[line 11] NACHZOR AL HA'RISHONOS- that is, "We learned above...." The Gemara means to say that we just learned that Rebbi Hoshiya was in doubt as to whether Beis Hillel was of the opinion that night is considered Mechusar Zeman. We will now attempt to show that this is actually a Tanaic argument.


(a)A Zav (Vayikra 15:1-15), a man who emits Zov two or three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah (the Tum'ah generated by a Zav is discussed in Background to Chulin 123:20). Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter. A man who emits Zov one time is Tamei like a Ba'al Keri (see Background to Zevachim 32:21) and must immerse and wait for nightfall to become Tahor.

(b)A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked" in seven ways to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If this discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. The seven ways are: 1. eating too much;

2.drinking too much;

3.carrying a heavy load;


5.being sick;

6.(a) seeing a frightening sight (RASHI to Nazir 65b); (b) seeing a woman, even without having unclean thoughts (ROSH to Nazir ibid.);

7.having unclean thoughts.

(c)A Zav must count seven "clean" days ("Shiv'ah Nekiyim") in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).

(d)If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. Even if the first time was b'Ones, as long as the second emission was not, he is Tamei. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor (on the eighth day) in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

(e)In the case of three emissions, he is only obligated in a Korban if the first two were not b'Ones. The third emission may come about b'Ones according to the Rabanan. According to Rebbi Eliezer, he is only obligated in a Korban if all three emissions are not b'Ones (Nazir 65b). However, if the Zav had an emission during Shiv'ah Nekiyim, even b'Ones, all agree that this emission stops his count, and he must start counting again (Zavim ibid.; RAMBAM, Hilchos Mechusrei Kaparah 3:1).

(f)If, however, the third time that he emitted Zivah occurred during his Shiv'ah Neki'im, the Zav is not required to bring a Korban. Rather, he begins a new count of Shiv'ah Neki'im. Even if he emits Zivah three times consecutively during Shiv'ah Neki'im, he need not bring a Korban (RAMBAM ibid. 3:4). Following this reasoning, a Zav will never be required to bring a Korban unless he emits Zivah three times during three or less consecutive days.

(g)Other Rishonim rule that our Gemara means that emissions on the last day of Shiv'ah Neki'im do not require a Zav to bring a Korban, but emissions during the other clean days do require him to bring a Korban. (SHITAH MEKUBETZES #10)

5)[line 26] LO PESIKA- it cannot be stated in an unqualified manner

6)[line 28] AMAR RAV YOSEF, TEDA D'ACHAS B'LAILAH...- Rebbi Yochanan (mentioned in the Gemara above) essentially teaches two points: (a) If some, but not all, of the Re'iyos of the Zav were on the eve of the 8th day, we follow the Rov (majority) to determine whether the Re'iyos need a separate Korban or not. (b) We combine Re'iyos of the night and the day to make a Zav bring a Korban, even though the night is considered part of the previous Zivah and the day is a new Zivah. Rav Yosef is addressing this second teaching of Rebbi Yochanan.

7)[line 30] SHICHVAS ZERA B'ALMA- the first emission of Zav is no more severe than an emission of Shichvas Zera

8)[line 40] ' SAFEK CHAMESH LEIDOS- five questionable births (for which she is not certain whether she must bring a Korban)

9)[line 40]ZIVOS (ZAVAH)

(a)The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah (see Background to Erchin 8:1:a) are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, whether the bleeding is b'Ones (due to an external cause, see above, entry #4:b) or not, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.

(b)If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.

(c)If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her eleven days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count "Shiv'ah Neki'im," seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Vayikra 15:25-30).

10)[line 42] HA'MA'ON HA'ZEH- [I vow in the Name of the One Who resides in] this dwelling (the Beis ha'Mikdash)

11)[line 44]RIV'ASAYIM- two fourths of a silver Dinar




(a)There are three stages in the Taharah (purification) process of a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes, and Metzora (see next four entries):

1.Tevilah (immersing in a Ma'ayan for a Zav, or a Mikvah for the others),

2.He'erev Shemesh (nightfall after the Tevilah),

3.a Korban.

(b)The above Teme'im may not eat Terumah until nightfall after the Tevilah. They may not eat Kodshim until they have brought their Korbanos the following morning. A Tamei who has only immersed is called a Tevul Yom until nightfall. After nightfall he is called a Mechusar Kaparah (lit. one who is lacking atonement) until he brings his Korban.

13)[line 10]HA'ZAV

See above, entry #4.

14)[line 10]HA'ZAVAH (HA'ZAVAH)

See above, entry #9.

15)[line 10]HA'YOLEDES (YOLEDES)

See Background to Kerisus 7:16.

16)[line 10]HA'METZORA (METZORA)


(a)When a Jew develops a mark on his body the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) that looks like the skin disease of Tzara'as, a Kohen must be summoned to ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. (Depending on the type of mark, this is determined by different factors see (b) below.) The Kohen inspects the mark during the day, but not in bright sunshine and not under conditions that obstruct the sunlight, such as a cloudy day or a darkened room. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen pronounces him Tamei, initiating a one or two-week period of quarantine or "Hesger" (depending on the type of blemish). During this period, he is known as a Metzora Musgar. If no "Simanei Tum'ah" (signs of Tum'ah; see below, c:1-4) appear in the mark during that time, the Kohen pronounces the Metzora Musgar to have become Tahor.

(b)If Simanei Tum'ah do appear in the mark at the end of the first or second week of Hesger, or even when the Kohen first sees the Nega or after the Metzora has become Tahor, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away, after which the Kohen pronounces him to have become Tahor. As long as he is Tamei, he may not enter a settlement (Vayikra 13:46). He must perform Peri'ah and Perimah (see below, entry #20) and inform people that he is Tamei (ibid. 13:45), so that they stay away from him (Moed Katan 5a) and so that they pray for his recovery (Sotah 32b).

(c)There are four types of blemishes that constitute Nig'ei Tzara'as that affect a Jewish person: Nig'ei Basar, Shechin or Michvah, Nesek, Karachas or Gabachas.

1.NIG'EI BASAR refers to Tzara'as that affects normal skin. It appears as a white blotch of one of four bright shades of white, sometimes with some red mixed in. The period of Hesger for Nig'ei Basar is two weeks. A Kohen inspects the Nega at the end of each week, and at the end of the two-week period he declares the Metzora to be either Tahor or Muchlat. The signs of Tum'ah for Nig'ei Basar are:

i.the lesion spreads ("Pisyon");

ii.two or more white hairs ("Se'ar Lavan") grow inside the lesion after it appears on the skin;

iii.a patch of normal looking skin ("Michyah"), measuring two by two hairs or more, appears in middle of the Nega.

2.SHECHIN or MICHVAH refer to the Tzara'as of a boil or a burn. It appears as a white blotch of one of four bright shades of white, sometimes with red mixed in, that develops over a partially healed pustule, boil or blister produced by non-fire heat or by friction (in the case of Shechin), or over a burn produced by the heat of a fire (in the case of Michvah). The period of quarantine for Shechin and Michvah is only one week, after which the Kohen declares the Metzora either Tahor or Muchlat. (The Halachos of Shechin and Michvah are identical. They are distinct only in that a half-Gris of one of them does not combine with a half-Gris of the other to make a person Tamei (Nega'im 9:2). Their signs of Tum'ah are:

i.the mark spreads (Pisyon);

ii.two or more white hairs (Se'ar Lavan) grow inside the mark after the Nega Tzara'as appears.

3.NESEK (pl. Nesakim) refers to Tzara'as that appears beneath the hair of the scalp, beard or eyebrows. According to most Rishonim, a Nesek appears as normal skin that is revealed when a cluster of hair (measuring the size of a Gris) falls out from parts of the scalp or beard that are normally covered with hair, such that a bald spot without even two normal hairs is created (see RAMBAN to Vayikra 13:29). The period of Hesger for a Nesek is two weeks. At the beginning of the Hesger, the Kohen shaves the hair surrounding the Nesek, only leaving a two-hair-thick ring of normal hair around the Nesek. A Kohen inspects the Nesek at the end of each week, and at the end of the two-week period he declares the Metzora to be either Tahor or Muchlat. The signs of Tum'ah of a Nesek are:

i.the Nesek spreads ("Pisyon") that is, more hair falls out around the periphery of the original Nesek;

ii.two or more thin, golden hairs ("Se'ar Tzahov Dak") grow inside the Nesek after it appears on the skin.

iii.Nesek, unlike the other Nega'im, also has a Siman Taharah, which can make it Tahor at any time: If normal, black hairs grow in the Nesek, the Kohen pronounces the Metzora to be Tahor.

4.KARACHAS or GABACHAS refer to Tzara'as that affects a completely bald scalp (which became bald through exposure to a balding agent, or through a normal balding process see RASH to Negaim 10:10 and RAMBAN to Vayikra 13:29), either in the fore part of the head (Gabachas) or the back part of the head (Karachas). Their Halachos are identical to those of Nig'ei Basar (above, 1) that appear on a normal, non-hairy part of the skin, except that it lacks the Siman Tum'ah of Se'ar Lavan (since it is on a part of the body on which hair does not grow). (The Halachos of Karachas and Gabachas are identical. They are distinct only in that a half-Gris of one of them does not combine with a half-Gris of the other to make a person Tamei Negaim 10:10.)

(d)The four marks that make a person a Metzora through Nig'ei Basar, Shechin or Michvah and Karachas or Gabachas are:

1.Baheres, which is the color of snow;

2.Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool;

3.Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash;

4.Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an eggshell (RASHI).


(a)On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two Kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar wood, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a new clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields.

(b)The Metzora next shaves with a razor all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He then counts seven days (Yemei Sefiro), and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is then completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see above, entry #12).


(a)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring Korbanos to complete his Taharah. The animal Korbanos are two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, the other as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he could not afford to buy all these animals, he is called a Metzora Ani, a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves) as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still brought as his Asham. An ordinary Metzora or a poor Metzora brings Nesachim with all of his animal Korbanos (Menachos 91a).

(b)The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham with the Log of oil resting upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of the blood is placed on the body of the Metzora: on the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, on his right thumb and on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (TY #18; the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man who donated the brass doors of the gate (see Yoma 38)). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah had the Kedushah of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor only had the Kedushah of Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that the Metzora could stick his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the archway of the gate.

(c)After all of the Korbanos were offered, a Kohen pours some of the oil in his left hand and sprinkles it seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. He must dip his right finger in the oil each time. Oil is also put on the body of the Metzora, on the places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed on the Metzora's head. The rest of the Log which was not poured into the Kohen's hand was given to the Kohanim, and must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (it is one of the Kodshei ha'Kodashim). (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusarei Kaparah 4:2-3)

17)[line 11]GER - a convert is considered "Mechusar Kaparah" until the blood of his Korban is sprinkled for him (GERUS)

When a Nochri converts, a male must be circumcised, and a male and a female must immerse in a Mikvah, and bring an animal or two birds as a Korban Olah (today, when there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, it is not necessary for a Ger to bring a Korban). Three Jews must be present when the convert immerses, and they must inform him of the Mitzvos.

18)[line 14] LO METAMEI B'ONES- a Zav does become Tamei by an emission that was brought about through an external stimulus, e.g. by overeating or overdrinking (see above, entry #4)

19)[line 15] LO METAM'AH BI'RE'IYOS KIV'YAMIM- a Zavah does not become Tamei by having three discharges on the same day, only by having three discharges on three consecutive days (see above, entry #9)

20)[line 20] / PERI'AH / PERIMAH

A Metzora Muchlat (a person whom the Kohen has confirmed to be a Metzora; see above, entry #16) must let his hair grow (Peri'ah), make a tear (Perimah) of at least a Tefach in his clothes and cover his head down to his lips like a mourner, as stated in Vayikra 13:45

21)[line 27]KI'GRIS- the size of a large bean; approx. 3/4 inch or 2 cm in diameter

22)[line 28]MIDA'AM- something

23)[line 29] L'MEI'AL B'KAHAL- to permit him to marry a Jewess; (if he worships Avodah Zarah he has to bring a Korban since he is already obligated to keep the Mitzvos)

24)[line 30] L'MEICHAL ALEI NEZIRUS D'TAHARAH- that is, even Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov would admit that Nazir Tamei does not belong in the list of Mechusrei Kaparah, since he does not bring a Korban to change his status from Tamei to Tahor, or Mutar to Asur, but rather he brings it in order to allow the Nezirus-count that he accepted to begin once again.

25)[line 31]PEREIDAH- bird

26)[line 31] OCHEL B'KODSHIM LA'EREV- he may eat Kodshim in the evening. Actually, as soon as the Ger's Korban is offered he may eat Kodshim immediately. He waits for evening only when he does not know for sure whether or not the Kohanim have as yet offered his Korban. By nightfall, however, he may assume for certain that the Korban was offered. (Shitah Mekubetzes #18, quoting Tosfos and Gilyon)

27)[line 33] OLAH U'SHELAMIM, YATZA- that is, if the Ger offers an Olah with a Shelamim, he has fulfilled his obligation. In fact, even if he offers the Olah alone he has fulfilled his obligation the Shelamim is mentioned here unnecessarily (RASHI). (If the Ger offers only a Shelamim, he has not fulfilled his obligation.)