NEDARIM 65 (18 Adar) - Dedicated by Harav Shlomo Weinberger of Brooklyn, NY, in memory of his father, Reb Chaim Tzvi ben Reb Shlomo Weinberger, on the day of his Yahrzeit. Reb Chaim Tzvi, who miraculously survived the Holocaust, raised his children with a strong dedication to Torah and its study.

[65a - 31 lines; 65b - 36 lines]

1)[line 6]"ויקח מזרע המלוכה ויכרת אתו ברית ויבא אתו באלה ואת אילי הארץ לקח..." "... וגם במלך נבוכדנאצר מרד אשר השביעו באלקים ויקש את ערפו ויאמץ את לבבו משוב אל ה' אלקי ישראל""VA'YIKACH MI'ZERA HA'MELUCHAH VA'YICHROS ITO BRIS, VA'YAVEI OSO B'ALAH, V'ES EILEI HA'ARETZ LAKACH..." "V'GAM BA'MELECH NEVUCHADNETZAR MARAD, ASHER HISHBI'O B'ELOKIM VA'YAKASH ES ORPO VA'YE'AMETZ ES LEVAVO MI'SHUV LA'SH-M ELOKEI YISRAEL" - "And he (Nevuchadnetzar) took from the seed of the royal family and he entered into a covenant with him, and he made him swear, and he also took some strong men of the land..." (Yechezkel 17:13) "And he also rebelled against King Nevuchadnetzar, who made him swear allegiance by G-d; but he stiffened his neck and hardened his heart, from returning to HaSh-m his G-d." (Divrei ha'Yamim II 36:13) (THE SOLUTION TO YECHEZKEL'S RIDDLE AND TZIDKIYAHU'S OATH)

(a)These verses present the solution to the riddle that Yechezkel was ordered to pose to the people. After describing how Nevuchadnetzar took Yehoyachin and many dignitaries to Bavel, the Navi refers to Nevuchadnetzar's appointment of Tzidkiyahu (Yoshiyahu's son). As the verse records, Nevuchadnetzar entered into a covenant with Tzidkiyahu that he would not rebel, making him swear that he would not rebel. Moreover, he took a number of important dignitaries as a security, whom he threatened to kill should Tzidkiyahu rebel. The oath to which the verse refers seems to refer to one concerning allegiance, as we explained, and this is how the commentaries explain it. It is unclear how the oath discussed in the Gemara fits into this context.

(b)All of Nevuchadnetzar's efforts were to no avail. Tzidkiyahu rebelled almost immediately, and he sent emissaries to Egypt to provide him with horses and mercenaries to help him overthrow the yoke of the king of Bavel.

(c)HaSh-m was angry with Tzidkiyahu for violating his oath. It transpired that Pharaoh, despite his promise to Tzidkiyahu's emissaries, did not raise a finger to assist him. Eventually, Tzidkiyahu was made to pay for this sin, and he fell into the hands of Nevuchadnetzar, who tortured him and killed his wife and children before his eyes before blinding him and leading him in chains to Bavel, where he died in exile.

(d)The verse in Divrei ha'Yamim cited in the Sugya also refers to Tzidkiyahu's refusal to submit to Yirmeyahu, who instructed him to surrender to Nevuchadnetzar, promising him that both he and Yerushalayim would be spared if he did. He refused to so.

(e)See Background to Yevamos 21:1.

2)[line 9]ארנבאARNEVA- a hare

3)[line 10]דלא מגלית עילויD'LO MEGALIS ILAVAI- that you will not reveal it (this incident) against me

4)[line 10]ולא תיפוק מילתאV'LO TEIFUK MILSA- so that the word does not get out

5)[line 11]הוה קא מצטער צדקיהו בגופיהHAVAH KA MITZTA'ER TZIDKIYAHU B'GUFEI- Tzidkiyahu experienced physical anguish [since he could not reveal the incident because of the oath, and he ardently sought the opportunity to have the entire world scoff at Nevuchadnetzar (MEFARESH) to provoke a world rebellion - MK]

6)[line 15]בשמא דשמיאBI'SHEMA DI'SHEMAYA- in the name of Heaven

7)[line 20]"ישבו לארץ ידמו זקני בת ציון...""YESHVU LA'ARETZ YIDMU ZIKNEI VAS TZIYON..."- "The elders of the daughter of Tziyon sit upon the ground, and keep silent. [They have cast up dust upon their heads, they have girded themselves with sackcloth; the virgins of Yerushalayim bow down their heads to the ground.]" (Eichah 2:10)

8)[line 22]ששמטו כרים מתחתיהםSHE'SHAMTU KARIM MI'TACHTEIHEM- they removed their cushions from beneath them (to discover the fate of the Sanhedrin, see RASHI to Eichah ibid.)


9)[line 2]כעורהKE'URAH- ugly

10)[line 19]כל דמעני לאו עלי נפילKOL D'MI'ANEI, LAV ALAI NAFIL- I am not required on my own to support everyone who becomes poor

11)[line 19]מאי דמטי לי לפרנסו בהדי כ''ע מפרנסנא ליהMAI D'AMTI LI L'FARNESO BA'HADI KULEI ALMA, MEFARNASNA LEI- my part in supporting him that I share with the community, I will provide for him (the Ran explains that the Mudar Hana'ah may benefit from this money because the Madir gives the money to the Gabai Tzedakah who has the right to give the money to any needy person of the community, not necessarily the Mudar)

12)[line 35]אין מסדרין לבעל חובEIN MESADRIN L'VA'AL CHOV - [upon collection of a debt,] Beis Din does not leave a destitute debtor [even] with his minimal needs

(a)When Beis Din collects from a person his pledges to Hekdesh ("Erchin" - see Background to Kesuvos 54:11), it is learned from a verse that Beis Din does not take every last cent of the person who pledged. Rather, they leave a destitute person with his minimal needs.

(b)There is a Machlokes Amora'im (Bava Metzia 114a) as to whether or not Beis Din may force a destitute debtor to pay a normal debt that he owes to his friend even if he must give up his minimal needs in order to pay it.

(c)A person's minimal needs are a bed, a mat upon which to sit, the tools of his trade, food for a month and clothing that will last one year.