NAZIR 59 (7 Cheshvan) - in honor of the Yahrzeit of ha'Gaon Rav Meir Shapiro, founder of the renowned Yeshivas Chachmei Lublin, representative of the Jewish community in the Polish parliament, and creator of the DAFYOMI STUDY CYCLE (see www.dafyomi.co.il/dafyomi.htm for more about him). Dedicated by Mr. and Mrs. Shmuel Kovacs of Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel - may the great Gaon be a Melitz Yosher for the Kovacs children to grow up with love of Torah and Yir'as Shamayim and succeed in all that they do, and may the Zechus of the great Tzadik stand for Klal Yisrael to merit a complete redemption speedily, in our days!
1) HALACHAH: MAY A WOMAN CARRY A WEAPON?
QUESTION: The Gemara quotes Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov who prohibits a woman from carrying "a weapon to war" because of the Isur of "Lo Yiheyeh Cheli Gever" (Devarim 22:5). The TARGUM ONKELUS also translates the verse as a woman's prohibition against carrying a weapon. According to RABEINU BACHYE on the verse, this prohibition explains why Yael killed Sisera with a tent-peg rather than a sword or arrow.
Does the Gemara mean that a woman may not carry a weapon even for self-defense?
ANSWER: The reason the verse prohibits a woman from carrying a weapon is that it is "the way of men." This apparently is a reference to the principle of "Ish Darcho Lichvosh, v'Ein Ishah Darcho Lichvosh" -- "it is the manner of a man to conquer, and not the manner of a woman to conquer" (Yevamos 65b). The Isur, then, prohibits a woman from carrying a weapon in the manner of a man, who goes out to war with the army. It should not prohibit her from carrying a weapon for the sake of protecting herself.
For this reason, RAV MOSHE FEINSTEIN zt'l (Igros Moshe OC 4:75:3) permits a woman to carry a weapon for self-defense in an area or during a time when attacks are common. However, he writes that during a time of tranquility and peace, a woman may not carry a weapon.
2) SPOILED INTESTINES
QUESTION: The Mishnah discusses what a Safek Nazir Tamei must do in order to complete his Nezirus and become permitted to drink wine. Rebbi Yehoshua says that he should find another person who is willing to accept upon himself Nezirus, with the condition that if the first Nazir is Tamei, he will be a Nazir beginning from right now, and if the first Nazir is Tahor, he will be a Nazir beginning only thirty days from now. This condition will ensure that there will be a definite Nazir Tahor (who can offer the Korbanos of a Nazir Tahor) when thirty days have passed.
Ben Zoma says that a Safek Nazir Tamei can solve his dilemma himself. He should bring two sets of Korbanos, one set at the end of thirty days and one at the end of sixty days. At the end of thirty days he brings a Chatas ha'Of (in case he is a Nazir Tamei) and an Olas Behemah with a Tenai (he stipulates that if he is a Nazir Tamei, the Olah should be a Nedavah, and if he is a Nazir Tahor, it should be his Olas Nazir Tahor). He then observes Nezirus for another thirty days, after which he brings the Chatas and Shelamim of a Nazir Tahor, and an Olas Behemah with a Tenai (he stipulates that if the first Olas Behemah was his Olas Nazir Tahor, then this one is a Nedavah, and if he was a Nazir Tamei during the first thirty days and his Olah was a Nedavah, this Olah is his Olas Nazir Tahor).
Rebbi Yehoshua objects and says that according to Ben Zoma, the Nazir will be bringing his Korbanos in parts ("l'Chatza'in"), half now and half later. The Gemara asks, what is wrong with bringing half of the Korbanos now and half later? Rav Yehudah in the name of Shmuel says that Rebbi Yehoshua voiced his objection only to sharpen the minds of his Talmidim.
Rav Nachman then makes a cryptic statement. "What would Rebbi Yehoshua do for the intestines (Dakei) that they should not spoil?"
What does Rav Nachman mean by this statement?
(a) TOSFOS explains that according to Rebbi Yehoshua -- who says that a Safek Nazir Tamei must bring the Korbenos Nazir Tamei and the Korbenos Nazir Tahor together with a second Nazir -- both Nezirim must shave their hair after the Shechitah of the Korban Shelamim of the Korban Nazir Tahor (which is brought at the end of thirty days, and also at the end of sixty days), since a Nazir is not permitted to shave before the Korban is slaughtered. On the other hand, they cannot offer on the Mizbe'ach the fats of the Shelamim until both Nezirim have performed Tenufah with the fats together with the Chazeh and Shok, and with the cooked Zero'a (foreleg). The hair of the Nazir is burned in the fire underneath the pot in which the Zero'a is cooked. Therefore, the Tenufah may be done only after both Nezirim have cut their hair and thrown it under the pot. The extra time needed for the haircut of the second Nazir delays the offering of the fats, which may cause them to spoil. This was Rav Nachman's question to Rebbi Yehoshua: "If the Safek Nazir Tamei must find someone else to become a Nazir in order to enable him to bring his Korbanos, he will cause the fats to spoil before they are offered. What will you do to prevent the fats from spoiling?"
TOSFOS, however, asks that the same problem exists even in the case of the Mishnah (57a) in which there are two Nezirim and it is known that one of them is Tamei but it is not known which one. In that case, however, everyone agrees that the two Nezirim bring Korbanos together, and there is no concern that the fats will spoil. Why, according to Rav Nachman, does Ben Zoma argue only in this case (of one Nazir who became Safek Tamei)?
Tosfos answers that in the earlier case, it is "impossible" for the Nezirim to complete their Nezirus in any other way.
What does Tosfos mean? Why is it "impossible" for the Nezirim to complete their Nezirus? Each Nazir, individually, can bring the Korbanos as Ben Zoma describes in the Mishnah.
The answer is that Rav Nachman does not mean that one is prohibited from bringing the Korbanos in partnership because doing so causes the fats to spoil. Rather, he means that it is preferable not to put oneself into a situation which will cause the fats to spoil. Therefore, when he is a single Safek Nazir Tamei he should not seek a partner with whom to bring the Korbanos in partnership. However, if he already has a partner and he will save money by bringing Korbanos together with his partner, he does not have to dissociate from his partner and bring two sets of Korbanos by himself.
(b) TOSFOS cites another opinion which explains Rav Nachman's statement as a reference to the Korban Olah. Why, though, should the Olah pose any problem according to Rebbi Yehoshua?
The source for the explanation that Rav Nachman is asking Rebbi Yehoshua about the Korban Olah is the ARUCH (Erech "Dak"), who explains in detail exactly what Rav Nachman means (see also the MEFARESH). The Aruch writes that Rav Nachman is asking Rebbi Yehoshua that if he really argues with Ben Zoma and maintains that one should not bring a Korban Olah out of doubt at the end of the Safek Nezirus Teme'ah (thirty days before he brings the rest of the Korbanos for Nezirus Taharah), what can the Nazir do if he fails to find someone willing to join him to bring the Korbenos Nezirus in partnership? He will have no choice but to bring the Olah a second time, as Ben Zoma mentions, and thus he will have no way to keep the Chelev (fats) of the Olah from spoiling (since he must keep them for the next thirty days in order to offer them with the rest of the Korbenos Taharah). (Rebbi Yehoshua, who says that a set of Korbanos cannot be offered "l'Chatza'in," would require that the Chelev of the Olah be brought with the other Korbenos Nezirus Taharah.)
(c) The SHITAH MEKUBETZES in the name of RABEINU AZRIEL has the word "l'Rokei" ("his saliva") instead of "l'Dakei." According to this Girsa, Rav Nachman is simply agreeing to what the Gemara earlier says -- that Rebbi Yehoshua raises his objection to Ben Zoma only in order to sharpen the minds of the Talmidim. Rav Nachman merely expresses this idea in different words. He means that Rebbi Yehoshua raised his objection in order to keep his mouth busy so that "his saliva would not spoil." (For other approaches, see RASHASH and OR SAME'ACH, Hilchos Temidim u'Musafim 9:5, and CHIDUSHEI OR SAME'ACH to the Gemara here.)