ONE WHO DID NOT INTEND TO SIN
(Mishnah): If a woman accepted Nezirus, and drank wine or became Teme'ah, she receives 40 lashes.
If her husband annulled her Nezirus, and she did not know this, and drank wine or became Teme'ah, she does not receive 40 lashes;
R. Yehudah says, if she does not receive 40 lashes, she receives lashes mid'Rabanan.
(Gemara - Beraisa): "Her husband annulled her vows, and Hash-m will forgive her" discusses a woman who did not know that her husband already annulled her vow (and transgressed it). She requires atonement and forgiveness;
R. Akiva would cry over this verse when he read this verse;
If one intended to eat pork, but (unknowingly) ate lamb, he requires atonement and forgiveness. If one who intended to eat pork, and ate pork, how much more he requires atonement and forgiveness!
Similarly, "he did not know, and sinned. He will bear his sin" refers to one who intended to eat lamb, and happened to eat pork. E.g. he ate a piece of Safek Chelev, Safek Shuman (permitted fat). The verse says that he will bear his sin;
If one intended to eat lamb, but ate pork, he requires atonement and forgiveness. If one who intended to eat pork, and ate pork, how much more he requires atonement and forgiveness!
Isi ben Yehudah says, "he did not know, sinned, and he will bear his sin" refers to one who intended to eat lamb, and happened to eat pork. E.g. there were two pieces of meat in front of him, one of Chelev, and one of Shuman. The verse says that he will bear his sin;
If one intended to eat lamb, but ate pork, he requires atonement and forgiveness. If one who intended to eat pork, and ate pork, how much more he requires atonement and forgiveness! (Note: Orach Mishor, Birkas Rosh on Tosfos, and the Hagahah on Perush ha'Rosh all fix the text to say that Isi expounds a different verse regarding Asham Taluy "... v'Nislach Lo." Therefore, the Gemara explains why all three verses are needed.)
All who lament will lament over this.
All three teachings are necessary.
Had it taught only about a woman, one might have thought that only she requires atonement and forgiveness, because she intended to sin, but not the other cases.
Had it taught only about one piece of meat, one might have thought that only he requires atonement and forgiveness, because he truly sinned, but the woman did not sin.
Had it taught only these two cases, one might have thought that only they get atonement and forgiveness, because there was no Vadai (definite) Isur, but regarding two pieces, one of which is Vadai Chelev, one would not get atonement and forgiveness.
The verses teach that in all three cases, the person needs and receives atonement and forgiveness.
GOING IN HASH-M'S WAYS
Question (Rabah bar bar Chanah): What illustrates "Hash-m's ways are straight; Tzadikim go in them, the wicked stumble in them"?
Answer #1 (Rabah bar bar Chanah): Two men roasted the Korban Pesach. One ate it to fulfill the Mitzvah; this is a Tzadik going in Hash-m's ways. The other stuffed himself with it; he is a Rasha stumbling in Hash-m's ways.
Objection (Reish Lakish): He is not a Rasha! Granted, this is not the best way to do the Mitzvah, but he fulfilled it!
Answer #2 (Reish Lakish): There were two men. Each was in a house with his wife and his sister. One had Bi'ah with his wife; this is a Tzadik walking in Hash-m's ways. The other had Bi'ah with his sister; he is a Rasha stumbling in Hash-m's ways.
Objection: The verse discusses two men going in the same path. Reish Lakish discusses two men on different paths (one did a Mitzvah, and the other sinned)!
Answer #3: Lot had Bi'ah with his daughters. They intended for a Mitzvah (to perpetuate mankind); they are Tzidkaniyos walking in Hash-m's ways. Lot intended to sin; he is a Rasha stumbling in Hash-m's ways.
Question: Perhaps Lot also intended for a Mitzvah!
Answer (R. Yochanan): An entire verse equates Lot to sexual immorality.
"Lot lifted (his eyes)", like (it says about) Potifar's wife;
We associate "his eyes" to Shimshon's first wife (she was pleasing in his eyes);
"He saw", like Shechem saw Dinah;
We associate "the entire Kikar (plain) of the Yarden" with "for a harlot, a Kikar (loaf) of bread";
We associate "it is all Mashkeh (fertile)" with "... those who give ... and Shikuyai (my drinks)."
Question: Lot was drunk (and unaware of and blameless for what happened)!
Answer (R. Yosi bar Rav Choni): There is a dots over the (second) 'Vav' in "and when he rose" (after sleeping with the older daughter), to show that he did not know when he went to lie with her, but he knew when he got up. (Dots over letters always detract from the simple meaning.)
Question: The Bi'ah already occurred. Why is Lot to blame?
Answer: He should not have gotten drunk the next night.
(Rava): "A brother cut himself off from a city of strength" refers to Lot, who separated from Avraham;
"And quarrels (keep him out) like a bolt on a fortress" teaches that he instigated quarrels (that keep him out) like a bolt on a fortress - "an Amoni or Mo'avi will not marry into the congregation of Hash-m." (These nations descend from Lot.)
(Rava): "L'Sa'avah Yevakesh Nifrad" refers to Lot; (Tosfos - to indulge his lust for sin, Lot separated from Avraham. Rashi - one who separates will seek lust.)
"And in all salvation he will be exposed" - his disgrace is revealed in Batei Kenesiyos (when they read the verse of the Torah forbidding his descendants) and Batei Medrash (when they learn the following Mishnah);
(Mishnah): The Isur of an Amoni or Mo'avi is forever.
A SIN LISHMAH
(Ula): Tamar and Zimri both had Znus. Kings and Nevi'im descended from Tamar's act. Many tens of thousands of Yisraelim died due to Zimri's act.
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): A sin done Lishmah (i.e. for Hash-m's sake) is better than a Mitzvah Lo Lishmah.
Objection: Rav Yehudah taught that a person should always engage in Torah and Mitzvos, even Lo Lishmah, for this will lead him to do them Lishmah!
Correction: Rather, a sin Lishmah is as good as a Mitzvah Lo Lishmah;
We learn this from "Yael, the wife of Chever ha'Kini, will be blessed like women in the tent" (she seduced Sisera, the chief general of Melech Kena'an, in order to kill him).
The women in the tent are Sarah, Rivkah, Rachel and Leah.
(R. Yochanan): Sisera had Bi'ah with her seven times "between her legs he bent, he fell, he lied...."
Question: Yael enjoyed the sin! (Why is she praised for it?)
Answer: What Resha'im do for Tzadikim is bad for Tzadikim - "beware not to speak to Yakov good nor evil."
Question: Granted, he should not speak evil. Why shouldn't he speak good?
Answer: The good of Resha'im is bad for Tzadikim.
(Rav Yehudah): A person should always engage in Torah and Mitzvos, even Lo Lishmah, for this will lead him to do them Lishmah.
Balak offered 42 Korbanos (to bribe Hash-m to let Bilam curse Yisrael). As a result, he merited that Rus descended from him;
(R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): Rus was the granddaughter of Eglon, king of Mo'av.
(R. Chiya bar Aba): Hash-m rewards even for a nice choice of words:
Lot's older daughter shamelessly called her son Mo'av (from father). The Torah said "do not besiege Mo'av, and do not wage war against them";
War is forbidden, but we may pain them.
Lot's younger daughter modestly called her son Ben Ami (the son of my nation). The Torah said "do not besiege (Amon), do not instigate a quarrel with them." We may not pain them at all.
(R. Chiya bar Avin): A person should always be quick to do a Mitzvah. Because Lot's older daughter preceded (having Bi'ah with Lot) one night before her sister, she merited that her descendents entered Yisrael four generations earlier.