Megilah Chart #1
Chart for MEGILAH Daf 3a-3b
WHEN TWO MITZVOS PRESENT THEMSELVES,
WHICH ONE TAKES PRECEDENCE? (SEE INSIGHTS)
READING THE MEGILAH IF IT WILL NOT BE POSSIBLE TO READ "B'ROV AM" LATER
READING THE MEGILAH IF IT WILL NOT BE POSSIBLE TO READ IT AT ALL LATER
(OF A YACHID (3))
AVODAH (4) UNTIL LATER
BURIAL OF A
UNTIL LATER (5)
|Mes Mitzvah||Megilah (7) (8)|
(1) The Mitzvah of Talmud Torah is superceded even in order to read the Megilah with a greater number of people (b'Rov Am). This is evident from the Gemara which says that Rebbi cancelled his lecture in order to hear the Megilah in the synagogue, even though he could have read it with his students after teaching them (RASHBA, RAN Daf 5a).
(2) Since the Mitzvah of Talmud Torah applies at all moments, when one takes time off from learning Torah in order to fulfill another Mitzvah that Mitzvah has overriden (and not just delayed) the Mitzvah of learning Torah for that moment, as that moment of learning Torah can never be replaced. (VILNA GAON on the Shulchan Aruch)
(3) This refers to any Talmud Torah which does not involve all of the Jewish people. (MAGEN AVRAHAM)
(4) This applies to all other Mitzvos of the Torah as well.
(5) The RAMBAN (in Toras ha'Adam) and SHILTEI GIBORIM write that this refers only to a Mes Mitzvah and not to an ordinary Mes. (This is also the ruling of the VILNA GA'ON, but he adds that if the burial of an ordinary Mes has already begun, it is considered like that of a Mes Mitzvah and it overrides the reading of the Megilah, as the Mishnah in Berachos (17b) mentions.) The words of the REMA imply that the burial of an ordinary Mes overrides the reading of the Megilah as well when there are not enough people to take care of all the needs of the burial.
(6) This is because a Mitzvah d'Oraisa (Avodah) overrides a Mitzvah d'Rabanan (Megilah), as the RAN writes. However, the PISKEI TOSFOS (cited by the GILYON HA'SHAS) writes that the Megilah still takes precedence. This is also the view of the VILNA GA'ON and the TAZ (OC 687).
(7) This is the view of the MIZRACHI in his Hagahos to the SEMAG (cited by the BEIS YOSEF). However, the VILNA GA'ON, TAZ, and MAGEN AVRAHAM disagree and maintain that even in such a case -- when there will be no other opportunity to read the Megilah -- Mes Mitzvah overrides Megilah. (Their ruling, however, applies only to a Mes Mitzvah but not to an ordinary Mes which has people to take care of the burial, as the Mishnah Berurah points out.)
(8) This does not apply to a Talmid Chacham who died, in which case the honor of the Torah of the Talmid Chacham overrides the Mitzvah of Megilah. (DARCHEI MOSHE)