MEGILAH 12 (1 Adar) - Dedicated in memory of Mordechai (Marcus) ben Elimelech Shmuel Kornfeld, who perished in the Holocaust along with most of his family, and whose Yahrzeit is observed on 1 Adar. May his death and the deaths of all of the Kedoshim of the Holocaust atone for Klal Yisrael like Korbanos.

[12a - 47 lines; 12b - 51 lines]

1)[line 6]"[בשנת אחת למלכו אני דניאל בינתי בספרים מספר השנים אשר היה דבר ה' אל ירמיה הנביא למלאות] לחרבות ירושלם [שבעים שנה]""[BI'SHENAS ACHAS L'MALCHO ANI DANIEL BINOSI BI'SEFARIM MISPAR HA'SHANIM ASHER HAYAH DEVAR HASH-M EL YIRMEYAH HA'NAVI L'MAL'OS] L'CHORVOS YERUSHALAYIM [SHIV'IM SHANAH]" - "[In the first year of his (Daryavesh, King of Medes) reign, I, Daniel, was studying the calculations, the number of years about which the word of HaSh-m had come to Yirmeyah the Prophet, to complete the seventy years] from the destruction of Yerushalayim" (Daniel 9:2) (DANIEL'S MISTAKEN CALCULATION)

See Background to Megilah 11:27.

2)[line 7]לפקידה בעלמאLI'FKIDAH B'ALMA- merely for Divine remembrance

3)[line 12]קובל אני לךKOVEL ANI LECHA- I complain to you

4)[line 14]הפרתמיםHA'PARTEMIM- the nobles

5)[line 14]אתנויי אתנו בהדדיASNUYEI ASNU BAHADADI- they made a condition with each other

6)[line 15]אי מינן מלכי מינייכו איפרכיIY MINAN MALCHEI, MINAICHU IPARCHEI- if the kings will be appointed from us, the nobles or governors will be appointed from you

7)[line 26]הם לא עשו אלא לפניםHEM LO ASU ELA L'FANIM- they only bowed down outwardly (out of fear of the king, with no intention to worship it)

8)[line 27]ביתןBISAN- (a) a leisure area planted with trees (RASHI to Bava Metzia 39b and to Esther 1:5); (b) a palace (Ibn Ezra to Esther ibid.)

9)[line 27]"כי לא ענה מלבו [ויגה בני איש]""KI LO INAH MI'LIBO [VA'YAGEH BNEI ISH]"- "For He does not afflict from His heart, [and He brought against them sons of man]" (Eichah 3:33)- The Gemara explains that since Yisrael's sin of prostrating themselves to a graven image (in the times of Nevuchadnetzar) was only a show with no true intention to worship the idol, they were punished by HaSh-m with the threat of Haman, which was only for show but would not materialize.

10)[line 31]חרי חריCHOREI CHOREI- holes upon holes; i.e. the mattress and bed covers were crocheted or woven

11)[line 31]מילת לבנהMEILAS LEVANAH- fine white wool

12)[line 32]כרים של פסיםKARIM SHEL PASIM- pillows of fine wool, possibly striped

13)[line 35]שמתחוטטות על בעליהןSHE'MISCHOTETOS AL BA'ALEIHEN- (lit. for which their owners dig when searching for them) precious stones that are attained with great toil and for which their owners pay a considerable sum (RASHI)

14)[line 36]אבני נזר מתנוססותAVNEI NEZER MISNOSESOS- the stones of the crown that are attained with great tribulation

15)[line 36]דרי דריDAREI DAREI- rows upon rows

16)[line 37]ודרה שמהV'DARAH SHEMAH- and it is called Darah

17)[last line]איהו בקרי ואתתיה בבוצינאIHU V'KAREI V'ITESEI V'VUTZINEI- (lit. he with large gourds and his wife with small gourds) both the husband and the wife have the same evil intentions, but hers are to a lesser degree


18)[line 22]בר אהורייריה דאבאBAR AHURAIREI D'ABA- my father's (Belshatzar's) stable boy

19)[line 22]אבא לקבל אלפא חמרא שתי ולא רויABA LA'KAVEL ALFA, CHAMRA SHASEH, V'LO RAVI- (a) my father drank as much wine as a thousand people and did not become drunk (RASHI and METZUDAS DAVID, Daniel 5:1); (b) he drank as much wine as the most voracious wine-drinker in the group of a thousand people [that attended his party] (TOSFOS HA'ROSH); (c) he drank as much wine as an ox [drinks water] (ibid.)

20)[line 25]למחר פסיק ליה חמריהL'MACHAR, PASIK LEI CHAMREI- [the effects of] his wine will wear off

21)[line 28]כחמרא דיתיב על דורדייהK'CHAMRA D'YASIV AL DURDAYEI- like wine that is settled on its lees

22)[line 30]הורקHURAK- poured

23)[line 33]כרים בני שנהKARIM BNEI SHANAH- fattened sheep within their first year

24)[line 36]מירסו בדםMIRSU V'DAM- stir blood (of sacrifices, so that it should not congeal)

25)[line 41]קרחהKARACHAH- a common weaver

26)[line 41]פרדשכא ליהויPARDASHKA LEHEVEI- becomes an officer, a nobleman

27)[line 42]"ויאמרו לו עבדיו יבקשו לאדני המלך נערה בתולה [ועמדה לפני המלך ותהי לו סכנת ושכבה בחיקך וחם לאדני המלך]""VA'YOMRU LO AVADAV, 'YEVAKSHU LA'ADONI HA'MELECH NA'ARAH BESULAH, [V'AMDAH LIFNEI HA'MELECH U'SEHI LO SOCHENES V'SHACHVAH B'CHEKECHA V'CHAM LA'ADONI HA'MELECH]" - "And his servants said to him, 'Let them search for my master, the king, a girl who is a virgin; [let her stand before the king, and let her serve as a heater to our master, the king]" (Melachim I 1:2) (DAVID HA'MELECH AND AVISHAG HA'SHUNAMIS)

(a)The verse relates that David's men went to seek a young woman who would be his attendant and would "lie with him and warm him." They succeeded in finding an extremely beautiful girl, Avishag ha'Shunamis (the sister of the Shunamis woman who was destined, many years later, to host Eliyahu ha'Navi). They brought her to the king and she became the king's attendant, but he king was not intimate with her.

(b)Chazal attribute the fact that clothes no longer warmed David ha'Melech at the end of his life (he was almost seventy at the time) to his act of cutting off the corner of Shaul's garment in the cave (Shmuel I 24:11; see Background to Berachos 62:42). One who treats clothes with disrespect will eventually be unable to derive benefit from them.

(c)The reason why David's men sought "a virgin" (implying a girl under the age of twelve) was that her body-heat exceeds that of a Na'arah (who is over the age of twelve), and her young age is one of the reasons why David ha'Melech was not intimate with her. The other reason was that she was forbidden to him, since he already had eighteen wives, and the Torah prohibits a king from taking more wives: "v'Lo Yarbeh Lo Nashim." Either way, this incident is indicative of the great level of self-control that David ha'Melech had attained.

28)[line 44]איטמרה מיניהITAMRAH MINEI- he hid her from him

29)[line 45]אי ליחוסא קאתיIY L'YICHUSA KA'ASI- if the verse is describing his lineage

30)[line 48]מוכתר בנימוסו היהMUCHTAR B'NIMUSO HAYAH- [the word "Nimuso" means "his name," from the Greek "Nomen" - TOSFOS HA'ROSH] (a) adorned with pleasant names and good deeds and well versed in the tactics of kings and ministers. Therefore he was called Yehudi after Yehudah, who was the most dignified of the tribes and the progenitor of kings (TOSFOS DH Yesh, found only in the EIN YAKOV, second explanation); (b) According to other editions of the Gemara, this statement of Rav Nachman follows the previous Sugya and precedes the words, "Kari Lei Yehudi..." - adorned with pleasant names, i.e. all of the names of his ancestors (Ya'ir, Shim'i, Kish) actually describe virtuous qualities that he possessed (TOSFOS ibid., first explanation)

31)[line 49]מתגרותMISGAROS- start up, argue