[62a - 52 lines; 62b - 59 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 62a [line 27]:
"Abaye, Meravya Lei Imei Imra" אביי מרביא ליה אמיה אמרא
Even though the word Imei אמיה is in brackets, it is found in Dikdukei Sofrim #50, Beis Nasan and Or Zaru'a. It is evident that Rashi DH Meravya also had this Girsa.
 Gemara [line 34]:
"Shani Ochlei Taharos d'Akilu Behu Rabanan" שאני אוכלי טהרות דאקילו בהו רבנן
In Beis Nasan and Or Zaru'a, the Girsa is "Hacha Nami b'Taharos Heikeilu" הכא נמי בטהרות הקילו, which follows the style of the previous answer of the Gemara, and this appears to be the correct Girsa.
 Gemara 62b [line 24]:
The words "ha'Hu Parsa'ah" ההוא פרסה
should be "ha'Hu Roma'ah" ההוא רומאה
(This is the Girsa of Dikdukei Sofrim #70 and all early printings.)
1)[line 4]שאין נפרעין מעומדSHE'EIN NIFRA'IN ME'UMAD- that we do not eliminate while standing
2)[line 14]גנא תותיה פורייה דרבGANA TUSEI PURYEI D'RAV- he lay down underneath Rav's bed
3)[line 14]שמעיהSHAM'EI- he heard him
4)[line 15]כדלא שריף תבשילאKED'LO SARIF TAVSHILA- (lit. like [a starving person] who has never consumed a cooked food] (euphemistic) like one who has never had relations before
5)[line 16]פוקPUK- get out
6)[line 18]"מימינו אש דת למו""M'YMINO ESH DAS LAMO"- "He gave them a law of fire (the Torah) from His right hand" (Devarim 33:2).
7)[line 18]שהיא קרובה לפהSHE'HI KEROVAH L'PEH- it is close to (i.e. often put in) one's mouth
8)[line 20]שמראה בה טעמי תורהSHE'MAR'EH BAH TA'AMEI TORAH- he shows with it (his right hand) the punctuation and the melody of the words of the Torah (like a conductor)
9)[line 26]לא מסתפיתו?LO MISTEFISU?- are you not afraid?
10)[line 26]קבלה דבית הכסאKABALAH D'VEIS HA'KISEI- the charm that we were taught for protection in a bathroom
11)[line 27]מרביא ליה אמיה אמראMERAVYA LEI IMEI IMRA- his mother raised a sheep for him
12)[line 29]מקמי דהוי רישאMEKAMEI D'HAVI REISHA- before he became the Rosh Yeshiva
13)[line 29]מקרקשא ליהMEKARKASHA LEI- she knocked for him
14)[line 29]אמגוזא בלקנאAMGUZA B'LAKNA- a nut in a flask
15)[line 30]כוותאKAVSA- a window
16)[line 33]יוצאין מפתח בית הבדYOTZ'IN MI'PESACH BEIS HA'BAD- (a) watchmen who guard oil from Tum'ah may go out of the door of the building of the olive press (RASHI); (b) the workers who press the olives may go out, without losing their Chezkas Taharah (since the watchmen can see at least their heads) (RAMBAM)
17)[line 34]כמה ירחקוKAMAH YIRCHAKU- (a) how far away can the watchmen go (RASHI); (b) how far can the workers go, without losing their Chezkas Taharah (RAMBAM)
18)[line 36]לדידיה חזי ליהL'DIDEI CHAZI LEI- [he cannot see the person uncovering himself, but] he sees the person himself
19)[line 37]ספדנאSAFDANA- eulogizer
20)[line 42]ינהיג אדם את עצמוYANHIG ADAM ES ATZMO- a person should accustom himself [to go to the bathroom]
21)[line 44]רחובה דמתאRECHOVAH D'MASA- the town square
22)[line 45]בית חבריאBEIS CHEVRAYA- the Beis ha'Midrash
23)[line 47]קרן זויתKEREN ZAVIS- a concealed corner
24)[line 49]משמש ושבMESHAMESH V'SHEV- (a) use a pebble or a stick to begin the process of defecation, and then squat down (RASHI); (b) check the area of the Pi ha'Taba'as to feel if there are any clumps of dirt there, and then squat down (ARUCH)
25)[line 50]אספמיאASPAMYA- Spain
26)[line 50]אנשיANSHI- he forgot
27)[line 51]לא לי לא ליLO LI LO LI- "You will not get me! You will not get me!"
28)[line 3]שינהSHEINAH- (a) sleeping (at dawn, but not later) (ARUCH, 1st explanation); (b) urinating, as in Yeshayah 36:12, where the word spelled "Sheineihem" is pronounced "Meimei Ragleihem" (their urine) (ARUCH, 2nd explanation)
29)[line 3]כאסטמא לפרזלאK'ISTEMA L'FARZELA- [it is as beneficial] as [the process of making] steel (O.F. acier) is to iron
30)[line 5]מזבן מילי בדינריMEZABEN MILEI B'DINAREI- would sell his words of wisdom for a Dinar apiece. The IYUN YAKOV explains that even though it is prohibited to take a fee for teaching Torah, bar Kapara was able to take a fee since he was only giving people wise, worldly advice.
31)[line 6]עד דכפנתAD D'CHAFNAS- while you are hungry. The Aruch explains that he is advising people to take care of all of their worldly and spiritual matters while they are fresh in their minds.
32)[line 6]עד דצחיתAD D'TZACHIS- while you are thirsty. According to the Aruch, this refers to learning Torah. This, too, should not be put off.
33)[line 7]קרנא קריא ברומיKARNA KARYA B'ROMI- when the horn calls in [the marketplace of] Rome
34)[line 7]בר מזבין תאניBAR MAZBIN TE'EINEI- son of a seller of figs
35)[line 9]למיפק ביה בחקלאL'MEIFAK BEI B'CHAKLA- to go out to the fields
36)[line 13]נחר ליה אבבאNACHAR LEI A'BAVA- (O.F. tosser - to cough) (a) he snorted to him at the door (to whomever may be inside, to make his presence known) (RASHI here and to Gitin 68a); (b) he cleared his throat (RABEINU GERSHON to Tamid 27b)
37a)[line 14]עד השתא לא עיילת לשעירAD HASHTA LO AILAS L'SE'IR- you have not [yet] gone to Se'ir:
(a) the land of Esav, who is known as Se'ir; i.e. Italy, the land of the Romans (RABEINU GERSHOM to Tamid 27b);
(b) the land of Eretz Yisrael, which is called Se'ir:
1.since Esav lived there;
2.since the Yishme'elim ruled there, and:
(i) the Gemara (Kidushin 72a) compares the Yishme'elim to "Se'irim (demons) Shel Beis ha'Kisei" (BE'ER SHEVA, cited by RAV BETZALEL RENSBURG);
(ii) Yishmael was the father-in-law of Esav/Se'ir (RAV BETZALEL RENSBURG).
b)[line 14]וגמרת לך מילי דשעירV'GAMART LACH MILEI D'SE'IR- and you have learned the ways of the people of Seir, who are not modest in their behavior in the Beis ha'Kisei. This refers to (a) the Romans (RABEINU GERSHOM to Tamid 27b); (b) the descendents of Esav, the Idumeans (BE'ER SHEVA, 1st explanation); (c) the Yishme'elim (BE'ER SHEVA, 2nd explanation)
38a)[line 21]עמוד החוזרAMUD HA'CHOZER- a bowel movement that is held back
b)[line 22]הדרוקןHIDROKAN- a swelling and sickness of the stomach
39a)[line 22]סילון החוזרSILON HA'CHOZER- urination that is held back
b)[line 23]ירקוןYERAKON- jaundice
40)[line 24]דרקונאDERAKONA- a snake
41)[line 24]שמטיה לכרכשיהSHAMTEI L'KARKASHEI- (O.F. tabahie - rectum) (a) the snake bit him and pulled out his large intestine; (b) his large intestine fell out (due to the fright)
42)[line 25]"... ואמר להרגך ותחס עליך""… V'AMAR L'HARAGCHA, VA'TACHAS ALECHA..." - "... and although [someone] said to kill, [my soul] took pity on you..." (Shmuel I 24:11) (DAVID AND SHAUL IN THE CAVE)
(a)Following David's miraculous escape from Shaul (who was chasing him relentlessly) as described in the previous chapter, David moved from the valley of Zif to the fortresses of Ein Gedi. Shaul followed him there with 3000 men, and that is when the current incident took place.
(b)Shaul ha'Melech entered a cave to relieve himself, and, without his guards with him, he was left entirely vulnerable. David's men tried to convince him that HaSh-m was delivering Shaul into his hands, and they wanted to kill him to protect the life of David. David instead quietly cut a corner of Shaul's garment (to later produce as proof that he had had the opportunity to kill him but had refrained from doing so). David immediately felt remorse for doing so, and indeed, many years later, in his old age, his clothing could no longer keep him warm (as punishment for his act of wanton destruction of Shaul's clothing), and he had to resort to artificial methods of keeping warm.
(c)David refused to accede to his men's request, refusing to lay a hand on the anointed one of HaSh-m, a gesture that many others, including David's own son, later would not share.
(d)David waited until Shaul left the cave and there was a safe distance between them before he emerged from the cave and called out to him. The moment Shaul turned around, David prostrated himself on the ground in deference to the king. He held up the cut corner of his garment, to demonstrate how he had had the opportunity to kill him but had declined to do so, intimating the respect that he had for his father-in-law, the king, and that the king had no reason to pursue him ceaselessly. David asked Shaul why he constantly repaid him bad for good, and he called on HaSh-m to judge between them.
(e)Shaul's initial response was to concede that David was right in every point that he raised, and he even went so far as to ask HaSh-m to reward David for what he had just done. Finally, he acknowledged that David would rule after him, and he asked David to swear that he would not wipe out his descendents once that happened, a request that David fulfilled. Shaul returned to his home, and David and his men returned to the fortress of Ein Gedi. This was the last time David and Shaul met.
43)[line 29]סכך עצמו כסוכהSIKECH ATZMO K'SUKAH- he covered his legs (with his clothes) like a Sukah
44)[line 30]"בלט""BA'LAT"- "in secret" (Shmuel I 24:4)
45)[line 31]"והמלך דוד זקן בא בימים ויכסהו בבגדים ולא יחם לו""VEHA'MELECH DAVID ZAKEN BA BA'YAMIM, VA'YECHASUHU BA'BEGADIM V'LO YICHAM LO" - "And King David was old, advanced in years, and they covered him with garments, but he did not become warm" (Melachim I 1:1) (DAVID HA'MELECH AND AVISHAG HA'SHUNAMIS)
(a)The verse relates that David's men went to seek a young woman who would be his attendant and would "lie with him and warm him." They succeeded in finding an extremely beautiful girl, Avishag ha'Shunamis (the sister of the Shunamis woman who was destined, many years later, to host Eliyahu ha'Navi). They brought her to the king and she became the king's attendant, but he king was not intimate with her.
(b)Chazal attribute the fact that clothes no longer warmed David ha'Melech at the end of his life (he was almost seventy at the time) to his act of cutting off the corner of Shaul's garment in the cave (see above, entry #42). One who treats clothes with disrespect will eventually be unable to derive benefit from them.
(c)The reason why David's men sought "a virgin" (implying a girl under the age of twelve) was that her body-heat exceeds that of a Na'arah (who is over the age of twelve), and her young age is one of the reasons why David ha'Melech was not intimate with her. The other reason was that she was forbidden to him, since he already had eighteen wives, and the Torah prohibits a king from taking more wives: "v'Lo Yarbeh Lo Nashim." Either way, this incident is indicative of the great level of self-control that David ha'Melech had attained.
46)[line 31]"[ועתה ישמע נא אדני המלך את דברי עבדו;] אם ה' הסיתך בי ירח מנחה, [ואם בני האדם ארורים הם לפני ה', כי גרשוני היום מהסתפח בנחלת ה' לאמר לֵךְ עֲבֹד אלהים אחרים]""[V'ATAH YISHMA NA ADONI HA'MELECH ES DIVREI AVDO;] IM HASHM HESISCHA VI, YARACH MINCHAH, [V'IM BNEI HA'ADAM, ARURIM HEM LIFNEI HASHM; KI GERSHUNI HA'YOM ME'HISTAPE'ACH B'NACHALAS HASH-M LEIMOR, LECH AVOD ELOHIM ACHERIM]" - "[And now, listen, my master the king, to my words.] If HaSh-m incited you against me, then He will be appeased with a Korban, [but if it is people (who did so), may they be cursed before HaShm, for they have driven me out today from being connected to the inheritance of HaSh-m, saying, 'Go and serve other gods!']" (Shmuel I 26:19) (DAVID IS FORCED TO LEAVE ERETZ YISRAEL)
(a)David, accompanied by his captain (and nephew), Avishai ben Tzeruyah (Yo'av's brother), while a fugitive from Shaul sneaked into Shaul's camp while the king and the entire camp (including his captain, Avner, and all the guards) slept soundly. Refusing Avishai's offer to take Shaul's spear (which was stuck into the ground at his head) and pierce him with one stroke (on the grounds that "one does not lay a hand on the anointed one of HaSh-m," a principle that guided David throughout his interactions with his pursuer), they instead took the spear and the jar of water that was placed beside it and withdrew.
(b)Leaving a respectable distance between himself and Shaul's camp, David then called to Avner and reprimanded him for failing to guard the king properly, before asking him to locate the king's spear and water-jar.
(c)Meanwhile, Shaul awoke. Immediately identifying David's voice, Shaul asked him whether it was "his son, David." David replied in the affirmative, and he asked the king in what way he had ever done him harm to deserve this constant pursuit. It was then that he added that if HaSh-m had incited Shaul against him, then he hoped that his prayers or the Korban that he would bring would appease Him. If it was people who had turned Shaul against him, then they should be cursed for having "driven him out today from being connected to the inheritance of HaSh-m, saying, 'Go and serve other gods.'"
(d)David meant that since nothing deterred Shaul from pursuing him (even after Shaul had fallen into his hands in the cave, when he merely cut off a piece of Shaul's cloak), his only option was to leave Eretz Yisrael. However, one who leaves Eretz Yisrael falls under the jurisdiction of the god of the host nation, so that he is considered as though he serves other gods.
(e)It is remarkable that David was concerned not with the pain, discomfort, and humiliation of being constantly on the run from the king, or even with the fact that his life was constantly in danger, but with having to leave Eretz Yisrael and the direct supervision of HaSh-m.
(f)Shaul admitted to having erred in constantly pursuing David. He duly apologized and urged David to return, promising that he would never chase him again. Whether he would have kept his word we do not know, because this episode is followed immediately by that of the witch of Ein Dor, Shaul's final battle against the Pelishtim and his ultimate demise.
47)[line 34]"[ויסף אף ה' לחרות בישראל;] ויסת את דוד בהם לאמר, 'לֵךְ מְנֵה את ישראל [ואת יהודה]'""[VA'YOSEF AF HASH-M LA'CHAROS B'YISRAEL;] VA'YASES ES DAVID BAHEM LEIMOR, 'LECH MENEH ES YISRAEL [V'ES YEHUDAH]'" - "[And the anger of HaSh-m flared once again against Yisrael]; and He enticed David because of them, saying, 'Go and count Yisrael [and Yehudah]'" (Shmuel II 24:1) (DAVID COUNTS YISRAEL)
(a)Although it is unclear why HaSh-m was angry with Yisrael, the commentaries suggest that it was perhaps due to their joining one of the rebellions against David ha'Melech, either that of Avshalom or that of Sheva ben Bichri.
(b)It is well-known that counting the people is prohibited, and the reason why David nevertheless stumbled was a punishment for having transgressed the equally well-known sin of transporting the Aron on a wagon (thereby causing the death of Uzah the Kohen).
(c)The King commanded Yo'av to count all the people from Dan to Be'er Sheva. Yo'av tried to dissuade him from making this move, based on the argument that they would increase a hundred fold before his very eyes (inasmuch as only something that is not counted is subject to Berachah). David refused to relent.
(d)Some commentaries ascribe David's sin to the fact that he counted them for no justifiable reason (but merely to know over how many subjects he was ruling).
(e)In fact, David realized himself that he had sinned, and he asked HaSh-m to forgive him. HaSh-m responded by sending Gad ha'Navi to offer him a choice of three punishments: seven years of famine in the land, three months of defeat at the hand of his enemies, or three days of pestilence. David, who did not find the choice easy, answered with the verse (which serves as the introduction to Tachanun), "And David said to Gad, 'I am most troubled! Let us fall into the hand of HaSh-m (pestilence) for His mercy is abundant, and let us not fall into the hands of man (the enemies or even famine, where the wealthy control the harvest)."
48)[line 35]"ויתן ה' דֶּבֶר בישראל מהבקר ועד עת מועד; [וימת מן העם מדן ועד באר שבע שבעים אלף איש]""VA'YITEIN HASH-M DEVER B'YISRAEL MEHA'BOKER V'AD ES MO'ED; [VA'YAMAS MIN HA'AM MI'DAN V'AD BE'ER SHEVA SHIV'IM ELEF ISH]"- "And HaSh-m sent a plague of pestilence upon Yisrael from the morning until the set time; [and there died from the people from Dan to Be'er Sheva 70,000 men]" (Shmuel II 24:15).
49)[line 39]"[וישלח הא-לקים מלאך לירושלים להשחיתה,] וכהשחית ראה ה' וינחם [על הרעה, ויאמר למלאך המשחית רב, עתה הרף ידך; ומלאך ה' עמד עם גרן ארנן היבוסי]""[VA'YISHLACH HA'EL-KIM MAL'ACH LI'YERUSHALAYIM L'HASHCHISAH,] UCH'HASHCHIS RA'AH HASH-M VA'YINACHEM [AL HA'RA'AH, VA'YOMER LA'MAL'ACH HA'MASHCHIS, 'RAV, ATAH HEREF YADECHA!' U'MAL'ACH HASH-M OMED IM GOREN ARNAN HA'YEVUSI]" - "[And HaSh-m sent an angel to Yerushalayim to destroy it;] but as He was about to destroy it, HaSh-m saw and reconsidered [the evil, and He said, 'Enough! Stay your hand!' And the angel of HaSh-m was standing at the threshing-floor of Arnan the Yevusi]" (Divrei ha'Yamim I 21:15) (THE PLAGUE STOPS IN YERUSHALAYIM)
(a)Although the plague of pestilence that David ha'Melech chose as his punishment (see above, entry #47) was meant to last for three days, in which case it would have spread to Yerushalayim, HaSh-m took pity on the people and put a stop to it by the evening or at the same time the next day, just as the angel was about to strike Yerushalayim.
(b)Chazal present a number of possible reasons for why HaSh-m did not let the plague strike Yerushalayim: the merit of Yakov Avinu, the ashes of Akeidas Yitzchak, the money which Yisrael gave in the desert (Kesef ha'Kipurim) when they constructed the Mishkan, and the merit of the Beis ha'Mikdash — the future location of which David was standing at the time (in the threshing-floor of Aravnah the Yevusi; see Menachos 22a).
50)[line 46]אדמקיפנא אדריAD'MAKIFNA A'DAREI- rather than going around these rows [of houses]
51)[line 46]איעול בהאEI'OL B'HA- I will go in this way (to shorten my path)
52)[line 50]בת עינוB'VAS EINO- in the pupil of His eye
53)[line 55]פונדתוPUNDASO- and his money-belt
54)[line 57]"[ויבוא עד לפני שער המלך] כי אין לבוא אל שער המלך בלבוש שק""[VA'YAVO AD LIFNEI SHA'AR HA'MELECH] KI EIN LA'VO EL SHA'AR HA'MELECH BI'LEVUSH SAK" - "[And he (Mordechai) came until the gate of the king,] because one does not enter the king's gate wearing a garment of sackcloth." (Esther 4:2) (MORDECHAI DONS SACKCLOTH)
(a)The previous verse relates how Mordechai, who was aware of everything that had transpired, rent his garments and donned sackcloth and ashes. He then went out to the middle of city and cried a great and bitter cry.
(b)The angel in charge of dreams had informed Mordechai of the plot of Achashverosh and Haman to kill the Jews, and the fate that awaited all his people the following thirteenth of Adar. The Targum Yonasan explains that it was Eliyahu ha'Navi (the Kohen Gadol) who told him that the Jewish people were destined to be destroyed for having enjoyed themselves at the royal banquet as described at the beginning of Megilas Esther. Eliyahu also pointed out that the Heavenly decision had been sealed with an earthenware seal and that, with Tefilah, it could still be broken. This explains Mordechai's extreme reaction to the news.
(c)When Esther first heard that Mordechai was walking around town dressed in sackcloth, she sent him fresh clothing to wear, unaware of the reason why he was dressed in sackcloth. After Mordechai declined to take the clothing she sent, Esther sent Hasach (whom some identify as Daniel) to find out what had happened and to discover why Mordechai was acting in this way. Mordechai related everything, including the vast amount of money that Haman had offered Achashverosh to deliver the entire Jewish people into his hands.
(d)This dialogue culminated in Esther's consent to approach the king, which ultimately led to the hanging of Haman and the salvation of the Jewish people.