[72a - 39 lines; 72b - 45 lines]

1)[line 1]והאידנאVEHA'IDNA- and nowadays (in the time of those Amora'im who asked the question about Abaye's statement)

2)[line 4]מבירםMI'BIRAM- from Beis Baltin, between Syria and Mesopotamia (one of the mountain-peak stations of the Masu'os (signal fires), where messengers lifted lighted torches between Yerushalayim and Bavel to notify Bnei Yisrael of the proclamation of the new month)

3)[line 7]ארבא תניינא דגישראARBA TINYANA D'GISHRA- the second lake or marsh below the bridge over the Euphrates

4a)[line 8]דחביל ימאCHAVIL YAMA- (lit. the district of the sea) a region in Bavel

b)[line 8]תכילתא דבבלTECHEILSA D'BAVEL- (a) (lit. the "Techeles" of Bavel) the choicest section of Bavel (with regard to pure lineage). The "Pesil Techeles" (the "string of Techeles") is the most important part of a four-cornered garment since through it one is able to completely fulfill the Mitzvah of Tzitzis (ARUCH, 1st explanation); (b) the outer limit ("Tachlis") of Bavel (ARUCH, 2nd explanation)

5)[line 11]כותאיKUSA'EI (KUSIM)

(a)The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions (Melachim II 17:24-41). The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos).

(b)After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.)

(c)The Kusim kept many Mitzvos of the Torah down to their last detail. For example, Matzos that were baked by the Kusim, besides being perfectly free of Chametz, were fit to be used for the Mitzvah d'Oraisa of eating a k'Zayis of Matzah Shemurah on the Seder night (Tosefta Pesachim 2:2, Kidushin 76a). However, there were other Mitzvos that they did not keep at all. For example, the Kusim did not refrain from causing others to sin (which is prohibited by the verse, "Lifnei Iver Lo Siten Michshol" - "You shall not put a stumbling block before the blind" - Vayikra 19:14).

(d)One of the Halachos about which the Kusim were not careful was the requirement of Kidushin (betrothal) before marriage. Kidushin forms a bond of husband and wife that is only severed by a Get (bill of divorce), but Kusim would not give a Get after effecting Kidushin with a woman. It is possible that one Kusi effected Kidushin with a woman and another Kusi married her before she received a Get from her first husband, a situation that led Chazal to fear that many of their offspring might be Mamzerim (RASHI to Yevamos 37a).

6)[line 12]פרת דבורסיPERAS D'VURSI- probably Borsif on the Euphrates. Borsif, or Borsippa, lies some twenty miles south of the city of Babylon on the Euphrates

7)[line 13]שוט מישוטSHOT MISHOT- Samosata, one of the fords of the Euphrates

8)[line 16]מאיהי דקירא ולעילME'IHI DAKIRA UL'EIL- further upriver than Ihi Dekira or Is, a city on the western bank of the Euphrates

9)[line 17]מעברתא דגיזמאMA'AVARTA D'GIZMA- the ford or crossing of Gizma or Gidma, which is closer to the main settlements of Bavel than Ihi Dakira

10)[line 17]רצועה נפקאRETZU'AH NAFKA- [there is] one thin strip of land [that is included in the land of Bavel (with regard to pure lineage), that includes Shot Mishot, and when Rebbi Yochanan ruled that Ma'avarta d'Gizma was the outer limit of Bavel, he was only referring to the main territory of Bavel]

11)[line 18]חלזון ניהוונדCHILAZON NIHAVAND- Nahavand, a Median town south of Ecbatana

12)[line 22]"וַיֶּגֶל מלך אשור את ישראל אשורה; וַיַּנְחֵם בַּחְלַח ובחבור נהר גוזן וערי מדי""VA'YEGEL MELECH ASHUR ES YISRAEL ASHURAH; VA'YANCHEM BA'CHELACH UV'CHAVOR NEHAR GOZAN V'AREI MADAI" - "And the King of Ashur exiled Yisrael to Ashur, and he led them to Chelach, Chavor on the River Gozan, and to the cities of Medes" (Melachim II 18:11) (SHALMANESER, KING OF ASHUR, EXILES THE TEN TRIBES)

See Background to Sanhedrin 94:35.

13)[line 23]חלזוןCHILAZON- Chalvan (Holvan), in Assyria

14)[line 23]חדייבCHADYAV- Hadyeiv, Adiabena, a district of Assyria between the rivers Lycus and Caprus

15)[line 23]גינזקGINZAK- Gazaka, a city in the north of Media Atropatene, near the Caspian Sea

16)[line 23]חמדןCHAMADAN- present day Hamadan in Iran, southwest of the Caspian sea, previously Ecbatana, capital of Media

17)[line 24]נהוונדNAHAVAND- Nahavand, a Median town south of Ecbatana

18)[line 24]מאי חברותיה?MAI CHAVROSEHA?- Which are the towns in the vicinity of Chamdan or Nahavand where the Ten Tribes were settled?

19)[line 24]כרך מושכי חוסקי ורומקיKERACH MOSHCHEI CHOSKEI V'ROMKEI- the walled city of Moshki in Media, Choskei in Assyria, and the Fort of Romkei in Media

20)[line 26]מושכניMOSHCHANI- Moxoene, a town east of the upper Tigris sources

21)[line 27]"[וארו חיוא אחרי תנינא דמיה לדוב...] ותלת עלעין בפומה בין שִׁנַּהּ...""[VA'ARU CHEIVAH ACHORI SINYANAH DAMYAH L'DOV...] U'SELAS IL'IN B'FUMAH BEIN SHINAH..."- "[And behold another beast, a second one, like a bear, and it was lying on one side,] and it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth; [and it was told, 'Arise, devour much flesh!']" (Daniel 7:5) - See Background to Megilah 11:3.

22)[line 30]ומסורבלין כדובU'MESURBALIN K'DOV- and they are cloaked with flesh like a bear

23)[line 32]חבריןCHABARIN- (a) a nation that lived next to the Persians who were more destructive and violent than the Persians (RASHI); (b) a Persian nation (RASHI to Shabbos 11a); (c) Persian priests who were very wicked towards the Jews (ARUCH, TOSFOS Shabbos 11a DH v'Lo Tachas Chaver in the name of RABEINU YAKOV MI'KURVIL)

24)[line 32]למלאכי חבלהMAL'ACHEI CHABALAH- angels of destruction

25)[line 35]הומניאHUMANYA- Humania, a town in Bavel, whose inhabitants were Greek and hostile to the Jews of Pum Nahara

26)[line 35]מסגריאMASGARYA- the name of a town in Bavel

27)[last line]ואישתמודV'ISHTAMUD- and they became apostates

28)[last line]אקרא דאגמאAKRA D'AGMA- the name of a town in Bavel

72b----------------------------------------72b

29)[line 5]עד שנברא צדיק כמותוAD SHE'NIVRA TZADIK KEMOSO- until a Tzadik of his stature is created [to replace him]

30)[line 8]"ונר א-לקים טרם יכבה, ושמואל שכב, בהיכל ה' אשר שם ארון א-לקים""V'NER EL-KIM TEREM YICHBEH, U'SHMUEL SHOCHEV, B'HEICHAL HASH-M ASHER SHAM ARON EL-KIM" - "The lamp of HaSh-m had not yet been extinguished, and Shmuel was lying [in the Ezras Leviyim], in the Heichal of HaSh-m where the Aron of El-kim was situated" (Shmuel I 3:3) (THE NIGHT OF SHMUEL'S FIRST PROPHECY)

Shmuel was serving diligently in the Mishkan before Eli the Kohen Gadol, after his mother Chanah dedicated him to serve there all his life. Eli, who preceded him as Shofet (leader of Klal Yisrael), sinned by not sufficiently rebuking his sons (see Background to Yoma 9:10). On that very day, HaSh-m sent Elkanah to rebuke him and to inform him of the terrible punishments that awaited him. He now wished to corroborate that through the mouth of Shmuel, which explains why HaSh-m chose that night to initiate Shmuel as a Navi. The previous verse informs us that prophecy was rare in those days, and it seems that the only person fit to wear the mantle of prophecy was Shmuel.

31a)[line 9]הומניאHUMANYA- Humania, a town in Bavel, whose inhabitants were Greek and hostile to the Jews of Pum Nahara

b)[line 9]לפום נהראPUM NAHARA- the name of a place in Bavel, at the mouth of a river (Pum = mouth; Nahara = river), whose inhabitants were impoverished Jews

32)[line 9]"ויהי כהנבאי ופלטיהו בן בניהו מת; ואפול על פני ואזעק קול גדול ואומר אהה ה' א-לקים...""VA'YEHI K'HINAV'I U'FLATYAHU VEN BENAYAH MES; VA'EPOL AL PANAI VA'EZ'AK KOL GADOL VA'OMAR 'AHAH HASH-M EL-KIM! ...'"- "And it was as I had prophesied, and Pelatyahu the son of Benayah died; and I fell on my face and I cried out in a loud voice and said, 'Alas, my G-d, El-kim! ...'" (Yechezkel 11:13).

33)[line 11]דאיסתנדרא דמישןISTANDERA D'MEISHAN- the governor of Meishan

34)[line 15]"ותבא אותי אל שער בית ה' הקדמוני...""VA'TAVEI OSI EL SHA'AR BEIS HASH-M HA'KADMONI..."- "And it (the wind) brought me to the eastern gate of the house of HaSh-m which faces eastward, and behold, at the gate entrance were twenty-five men, and I saw among them Ya'azanyah the son of Azur and Pelatyahu the son of Benayahu, princes of the people" (Yechezkel 11:1).

35)[line 18]"ויבא אותי אל חצר בית ה' הפנימית""VA'YAVEI OSI EL CHATZAR BEIS HASH-M HA'PENIMIS..."- "And He brought me to the inner courtyard of the house of HaSh-m, and behold, at the entrance to the sanctuary of HaSh-m between the entrance hall and the altar were about twenty-five men whose backs were towards the sanctuary of HaSh-m, and their faces were eastward [and they were being destructive and bowing down eastward toward the sun]" (Yechezkel 8:16).

36)[line 21]מפריעין עצמם ומתריזין עצמם כלפי מעלהMAFRI'IN ATZMAM U'MATRIZIN ATZMAM KELAPEI MA'ALAH- they bared their backsides and they were defecating towards the Beis ha'Mikdash, in order to anger HaSh-m

37)[line 26]המפקיר עבדו יצא לחירות ואינו צריך גט שחרורHA'MAFKIR AVDO YATZA L'CHEIRUS V'EINO TZARICH GET SHICHRUR (GET SHICHRUR)

(a)A Jew who owns a Nochri slave or maidservant (an Eved Kena'ani or a Shifchah Kena'anis) may release him or her from bondage in one of two ways: by accepting payment for his release, or by giving him a "Get Shichrur," or bill of release (Kidushin 22b). If he is not released in one of these two ways, he is still considered to be a slave for all Halachic matters (such as with regard to whom he is allowed to marry and what Mitzvos he is obligated to keep).

(b)Some maintain that even if a master declares his slave Hefker (ownerless), but does not give him a Get Shichrur, the slave is still considered to be a freeman with respect to Halachic matters (Yevamos 48a, Gitin 38a).

38)[line 29]זו דברי רבי מאירZU DIVREI REBBI ME'IR- this (the Mishnah on 69a) is the word of Rebbi Meir

39)[line 39]"וישב ממזר באשדוד [והכרתי גאון פלשתים]""V'YASHAV MAMZER B'ASHDOD; [V'HICHRATI GE'ON PELISHTIM]"- "And a Mamzer will dwell in Ashdod; [and I will smite the pride of the Pelishtim]" (Zecharyah 9:6).

40)[line 40]כדמתרגם רב יוסףKIDE'METARGEM RAV YOSEF- like Rav Yosef translated (interpreted) into Aramaic [citing the Targum Yonasan ben Uziel]

41)[line 40]יתבון בית ישראל לרוחצן בארעהון דהוו דמו בה לנוכראיןYESVUN BEIS YISRAEL L'ROCHATZAN B'AR'AHON D'HAVU DAMU BAH L'NUCHRA'IN- the Jewish people will dwell with security in their land in which they had once been like strangers

42)[line 43]צוורני צוורני קולריןTZAVARNI TZAVARNI KOLARIN- groups and groups in neck chains (see RASHI, ARUCH)

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