KIDUSHIN 28 (7 Cheshvan) - in honor of the Yahrzeit of ha'Gaon Rav Meir Shapiro, creator of the Dafyomi study cycle. (See for links relating to the life of the Rav and to his Yahrzeit.)

[28a - 24 lines; 28b - 28 lines]

1)[line 1]ממון שניתן להתבע בעדאחדM AMON SHE'NITAN L'HITAVA B'ED ECHAD (MODEH B'MIKTZAS HA'TA'ANAH)

If a person admits that he owes part of a claim, the Torah suspects that the person wants to temporarily postpone part of the payment but does not have the audacity to completely deny the claim. He is therefore required to take an oath, mid'Oraisa, on the part he denies (Shemos 22:8), or otherwise he must pay the entire amount being claimed.

2)[line 3]בודאיB'VADAI- when the litigant's claim is certain (a "Ta'anas Bari")

3)[line 3]ספקS AFEK- when the litigant's claim is uncertain (a "Ta'anas Shema")

4a)[line 4]בחוץBA'CHUTZ- outside [of the Azarah (courtyard) of the Beis ha'Mikdash] (i.e. any oath other than the oath of a Sotah)

b)[line 4]בפניםBIFNIM- inside [of the Azarah (courtyard) of the Beis ha'Mikdash] (i.e. the oath of a Sotah)

5)[line 9]שמותי משמתינן ליהSHEMUTEI MESHAMTINAN LEI- we excommunicate him (see Background to Kidushin 12:34b)

6)[line 10]סופג את הארבעיםSOFEG ES HA'ARBA'IM (MAKAS MARDUS)

Beis Din has the power to inflict lashes upon a person when lashes mid'Oraisa cannot be instituted. These lashes are called Makas Mardus (lit. lashes for rebelliousness) and may be unlimited in number. (See Insights to Chulin 110:1 for a discussion of the various opinions regarding how Makas Mardus is administered.)

7)[line 11]רשעRASHA- if someone called a fellow Jew a Rasha (a wicked person)

8)[line 11]יורד עמו לחייוYORED IMO L'CHAYAV- he (the offended party) is permitted to use every effort to cause that person a loss and to annoy him at every opportunity

9)[line 14]עבד עברי גופו קנויEVED IVRI GUFO KANUY- (lit. the person of an Eved Ivri is the property of his master) the Eved Ivri (see Background to Kidushin 20:3) is Halachically effected when he is purchased (See Insights to Kidushin 21:2).

10)[line 17]בצינעאB'TZIN'A- in private

11)[line 17]לית ליה קלאLEIS LEI KOLA- (lit. it has no voice) the information [about the sale] will not become well known

12)[line 19]כל הנעשה דמים באחרKOL HA'NA'ASEH DAMIM B'ACHER- anything is used as payment for another object, i.e. money, and specifically, coins

13)[line 19]כיון שזכה זה נתחייב זה בחליפיוKEIVAN SHE'ZACHAH ZEH, NISCHAYEV ZEH B'CHALIPAV- as soon as this one (the seller) obtains [it (the object used for Chalipin)], this one (the buyer) acquires the purchased item wherever it is, and is obligated to pay for it in full, even if it is damaged or lost from that point on (lit. is responsible for the item that he receives in exchange)

14)[last line]כל הנישום דמים באחרKOL HA'NISHOM DAMIM B'ACHER- anything that is assessed as an equivalent for another object, i.e. a barter and not a sale for cash. This includes all Metaltelin (mobile goods) except for coins


15)[line 4]פירותPEIROS- fruits, produce

16)[line 14]בעלייהB'ALIYAH- in the loft

17a)[line 21]רשות הגבוה בכסףRESHUS HA'GAVO'AH B'CHESEF- Hekdesh acquires with money to the extent that the sale is irrevocably binding

b)[line 21]ורשות ההדיוט בחזקהRESHUS HA'HEDYOT B'CHAZAKAH- a private citizen acquires with a Kinyan Chazakah (for immobile goods - see Background to Kidushin 22:21:c:3, and with a Kinyan Meshichah for mobile goods - see Background to Kidushin 22:22)

18)[line 22]אמירתו לגבוה כמסירתו להדיוטAMIRASO L'GAVO'AH, K'MESIRASO L'HEDYOT

The act of proclaiming something as Hekdesh accomplishes the same thing as physically handing something over to a private citizen (i.e. through speech one can make a Kinyan to Hekdesh)