KERISUS 20 (10 Elul) - This Daf has been dedicated in memory of Sheina Basha (daughter of Yakov and Dora) Zuckerman, who passed away on 10 Elul, by her children and sons in law.

[20a - 39 lines; 20b - 27 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 20a [line 18]:

"veha'Tanya"

Rashi's Girsa is v'Ha Tanya (i.e. these words are a statement and not a question; see Kelalei ha'Shas printed in the Gemara after Maseches Berachos)

[2] Gemara [line 22]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #10

[3] Gemara [line 38]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #14

[4] Rashi 20a DH Ela Lav " :

"Ho'il uv'Isur Nis'asek"

The word "Ho'il" is unnecessary

[5] Rashi 20b DH Tum'ah Chamurah " :

(a) The words "v'Yesh Bahen Isur" are a new Dibur ha'Maschil

(b) The word "v'Heter" is a new Dibur ha'Maschil

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1)[line 18] LIKADAM IKA BEINAIHU- they differ regarding a case where he performed two forbidden actions, in the opposite order from which he intended

2)[line 22] B'NESHIMAH ACHAS- with one breath

3)[line 33] ELA D'LO KA MECHAVEIN L'HAV'IR- that is, the person meant to turn over the coals in a manner that would not cause the coals now on top to ignite, but his hand slipped and he did cause them to ignite

4a)[line 36] SHE'NISKAVEN L'CHABOS HA'ELYONOS KEDEI L'HAV'IR ES HA'TACHTONOS- that is, he intended to extinguish the flames of the upper coals, which were large enough to be used as coals in his smithy, even though ("Kedei") this would cause the smaller lower embers, which were not suitable for a smithy, to flame up and become entirely devoured by flame (see Tosfos 20b DH Kegon)

5)[line 37] MEKALKEL B'HAV'ARAH PATUR

(a)MEKALKEL (destroying) - Normally, one is liable to punishment on Shabbos only for performing a Melachah that is a creative act. If a person performed an act of destruction or impairment he is exempt. (For example, digging a hole in the middle of one's floor ruins the floor, and such an act is not considered Boneh (building) and one is exempt from punishment.)

(b)Although this rule applies to all other Melachos of Shabbos, there is an argument among the Tana'im as to whether it applies to the Melachos of Chaburah (making a bruise and letting blood) and Hav'arah (lighting a fire). According to Rebbi Shimon, these two Melachos are exceptions to the rule, and one is liable even if they only accomplished a destructive act and not a constructive one. Rebbi Yehudah, who rules "Mekalkel b'Chaburah Patur," maintains that there is no difference between these two Melachos and the other Melachos.

(c)At this point the Gemara states that Tana Kama agrees with Rebbi Yehudah, that Mekalkel b'Hav'arah Patur.

6)[line 37]NAPACH- a blacksmith who works iron in a forge

20b----------------------------------------20b

7)[line 2] HAV'ARAH L'LAV YATZAS / HAV'ARAH L'CHALEK YATZAS

(a)All 39 of the Avos Melachos of Shabbos (major categories of creative acts) and Toldos (secondary categories) are included in one prohibition by the Torah with the words, "... Shabbos Shabbason la'Sh-m, Kol ha'Oseh Vo Melachah Yumas" - "... it is a day of complete rest to HaSh-m, whoever does work on it will be put to death." (Shemos 35:2). The next verse states, "Lo Seva'aru Esh b'Chol Moshevoseichem, b'Yom ha'Shabbos" - "You shall not kindle a fire in any of your settlements on the day of Shabbos" (ibid. 35:3).

(b)Rebbi Yosi rules l'Lav Yatzas, that the Melachah of kindling was singled out in the Torah to teach that transgressing it involves only a Lav (and is not punishable with Sekilah - stoning, like the other Melachos, but with Malkus - lashes). Rebbi Nasan rules l'Chalek Yatzas, that the Melachah of kindling was singled out in the Torah to teach that transgressing it alone will require one to bring a Korban Chatas when the transgression was b'Shogeg. One does not have to transgress all of the Melachos in order to be obligated to bring one Korban. We then learn by application of the rule "Davar she'Hayah bi'Chlal v'Yatza Min ha'Klal l'Lamed" (see Background to Bechoros 6:1) that the same applies to all other Melachos of Shabbos; transgressing any single Melachah obligates the person to bring a Korban Chatas.

8)[line 12] MELACHAH SHE'EINAH TZERICHAH L'GUFAH

(a)When a person performs a Melachah on Shabbos intentionally, but does not require the usual result of the action, Rebbi Yehudah rules that he is liable to punishment and Rebbi Shimon rules that he is exempt from punishment. For example, if a person digs a hole, not because he needs the hole (which would be Boneh) but rather because he needs the dirt, this is a Melachah she'Einah Tzerichah l'Gufah. (See Insights to Shabbos 12:1)

(b)Our Gemara states that the Melachah of extinguishing a wooden coal is a Melachah she'Einah Tzerichah l'Gufah. A person usually extinguishes a coal because he wants it not to be burning, as opposed to extinguishing it in order to have extinguished coals. According to Rebbi Shimon, the only instance of the Melachah of extinguishing is when a person is extinguished pieces of burning wood in order to make pieces of charcoal.

9)[line 12] KASAVAR MELACHAH SHE'EINAH TZERICHAH L'GUFAH CHAYAV- Rashi explains that if the person realizes that his action will cause the coals to flame but he does not need the flame, it is a Melachah she'Einah Tzerichah l'Gufah. When a person does not realize that his action will cause the coals to flame, it is called "Eino Miskavein"

PEREK #5 DAM SHECHITAH

10)[line 18]NECHIRAH

Nechirah refers to killing an animal not by Shechitah, by rather by sticking a knife into its nostrils ("Necherei") and cutting its throat, all the way down to its chest (RASHI to Chulin 17a, DH veha'Nocher, and to Bava Kama 78b DH ha'Nocher). (Although Rashi to Chulin 85b, DH Nochro, explains that Nechirah involves "strangling" the animal, it is clear from Rashi's words to the Mishnah in Chulin (15b, DH she'Hem) that "strangling" refers to any form of asphyxiation, including the tearing of the animal's trachea. See also ARUCH Erech Nachar, and RASHBA in Teshuvos (3:363).)

11)[line 19]IKUR

Ikur refers to killing an animal by "ripping out" the Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus) from the neck and then cutting them. Similarly, one may not cause the Simanim to tear during Shechitah, such as by cutting them with a dull blade.

12)[line 19] DAM HAKAZAH SHEHA'NESHAMAH YOTZ'AH BO- the life-blood that is let during the process of bloodletting. (The Gemara on 22a explains which blood is considered the life-blood. It does not mean that the loss of this blood causes the person or animal to die; to the contrary, it is part of the normal process of bloodletting. Rather, this blood is the same type of blood as that which when let uncontrollably, causes the person or animal to die.)

13)[line 20]HA'TECHOL- the spleen

14)[line 20]BEITZIM- (a) ball-like formations (see Rashi to Bechoros 7b DH Chalei d'Yachmurta); (b) spoiled eggs

15)[line 21]CHAGAVIM- grasshopper

16)[line 21] DAM HA'TAMTZIS- the blood that drips (from a major artery) after the main flow has subsided upon an animal's death

17)[line 24] DAM MEHALCHEI SHTAYIM- human blood

18)[line 25] TUM'AH KALAH (TUM'AS OCHLIN)

(a)See Background to Chulin 33:28.

(b)All foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Tamei. Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey. The minimum amount of food that can become Tamei is a k'Beitzah (RASHI). The modern equivalent of a Beitzah is 0.05, 0.0576 or 0.1 liter, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

(c)In order for something edible to receive Tum'as Ochlin, it has to be considered food. A person's intention to eat the item and treat it as a food gives it the status of a food and it can receive Tum'as Ochlin. Once food becomes Tamei, it cannot become Tahor by immersing it in a Mikvah.

19)[line 26] TUM'AH CHAMURAH (METAMEI ADAM L'TAMEI VEGADIM)

See Chart #5.

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