KERISUS 14 (4 Elul) - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Chaim Yisachar (ben Yaakov) Smulewitz of Cleveland on his Yahrzeit, by his son in law, Dr. Eli Turkel of Raanana, Israel.

[14a - 53 lines; 14b - 42 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 14a DH Koseves Is Bah Shenei Zesim ד"ה כותבת אית בה שני זיתים:

(a) This Rashi belongs further on at the end of the Sugya (before the Gilyon)

(b) The words "d'Chach Beis ha'Beli'ah Machzik" דכך בית הבליעה מחזיק

should be "v'Chach Beis ha'Beli'ah Machzik" וכך בית הבליעה מחזיק

[2] Rashi DH Kegon she'Achal Kulya [the first one] ד"ה כגון שאכל כוליא

(a) The words "Chelev Pigul ul'Kulya Nosar" חלב פגול ולכוליא נותר

should be "Chelev Pigul v'Kulya Nosar" (Rashash) חלב פגול וכוליא נותר

(b) The words "del'Hevi Chad a'Kulhu" דלהוי חד אכולהו

should be "del'Hevi Kulhu a'Chad" דלהוי כולהו וחד (Rashash)

(c) "d'Achilah ka'Tani, d'Hainu k'Zayis" דאכילה קתני דהיינו כזית

1.These words are incomprehensible here, since the Gemara is now explaining that our Mishnah refers to two Zeisim (a Koseves); furthermore, Rav Zeira should have said "Shenei Zeisei Chelev" שני זיתי חלב and not "Kulya b'Chelbah" כוליא בחלבה.

2.It is therefore clear that this is the beginning of a new Dibur ha'Maschil, which belongs after the words "Gilyon, Ela bich'Zayis Echad Mairi" גליון אלא בכזית אחד מיירי, and not before them. It is referring to the first Teirutz of the Gemara and not to the Maskana (M. KORNFELD).

[3] Rashi DH Kegon she'Achal Kulya [the second one] : ד"ה כגון שאכל כוליא

The words "d'Tamei she'Achal ka'Tani" דטמא שאכל קתני

should be "d'Tamei she'Achal Chelev ka'Tani" דטמא שאכל חלב קתני (Rashash)

[4] Mishnah 14b [line 13]:

"(v'Achos Ishto)" ואחות אשתו

This is the Girsa of Rashi and most of the Rishonim; it is also the Girsa of the Mishnayos. However, the Ri (Tosfos DH v'Achos Ishto) ד"ה ואחות אשתו suggests that it should be omitted, so that there should be six Chata'os and not seven.

[5] Rashi 14b DH Niseis la'Achi Aviv, Migo... : ד"ה נשאת לאחי אביו מיגו

This should be read "Migo d'Itosaf Isura l'Gabei Achiv (the father's brother), Itosaf l'Gabei Didei ul'Gabei Echav (the son's brothers)"מיגו דאתוסף לגבי אחיו איתוסף לגבי דידיה ולגבי אחיו

[6] Rashi DH (Lishna Acharina) [v'Nir'eh Li d']Hachi Garsinan Migo d'Itosaf Isura "Mishum Eshes Av": : ד"ה ונראה לי דהכי גרסינן מיגו דאיתוסף איסורה משום אשת אב

(a) The Rashash shows that these words are the addition of the Rashak, and are not from the original manuscript of Rashi (see Insights and footnotes to Charts)

(b) Accordingly,

The words "l'Gabei Bnei Achi Aviv" לגבי בני אחי אביו

should be "l'Gabei She'ar Bnei Achi Aviv" לגבי שאר בני אחי אחיו (as is found in our editions of the Gemara, and as the Aruch la'Ner interprets our Gemara. -M. KORNFELD)

[7] Rashi DH Rebbi Yochanan Ben Nuri ד"ה רבי יוחנן בן נורי:

The words "v'Em Chamiv" ואם חמיו are a new Dibur ha'Maschil


1)[line 1]נימא אית ליה לר''מ איסור חל על איסורNEIMA IS LEI L'REBBI MEIR ISUR CHAL AL ISUR- shall we say that Rebbi Meir holds of "Isur Chal Al Isur?" This question is being asked not only of Rebbi Meir, but of the unnamed Tana Kama as well

2)[line 1]איסור חל על איסורISUR CHAL AL ISUR (ISUR KOLEL / ISUR MOSIF / ISUR CHAMUR)

(a)An object that is already prohibited by one Isur Torah cannot become prohibited by a second one (Ein Isur Chal Al Isur). However, there are a number of possible exceptions to this principle (when we rule Isur Chal Al Isur) that are debated by the Tana'im (Chulin 101a):

1.Isur b'Vas Achas - Two Isurim may take effect at the same instant to prohibit the same object.

2.Isur Kolel - The second Isur may take effect if it includes objects that the first Isur did not (e.g. Yom ha'Kipurim prohibits not only the eating of Neveilos, but Kosher foods as well. Similarly, our Sugya mentions the Isurim of Neveilah and Tereifah, which prohibit not only the Chelev of the animal, but its meat, as well).

3.Isur Mosif - The second Isur may take effect if it adds a new dimension of Isur to the first (e.g. it prohibits the object to people who were not included in the first Isur, or it makes the object Asur b'Hana'ah and not just Asur to be eaten).

4.Isur Chamur (according to Rebbi Yehudah) - A more stringent Isur can take effect on an object that is already prohibited by a less stringent Isur (e.g. the prohibition of Gid ha'Nasheh is more stringent than the prohibition of non-Kosher animals, since it applied to Benei Yakov when they were still permitted to eat non-Kosher animals).

(b)According to Rebbi Shimon, an object that is already prohibited can never become prohibited by another Isur, even if the second Isur is Kolel, Mosif or Chamur.

3)[line 2]איסור כוללISUR KOLEL / ISUR MOSIF

See previous entry.

4)[line 14]פיגולPIGUL

See Background to Kerisus 2:6.

5)[line 34]כוליא בחלבהKULYA B'CHELBAH- the two k'Zeisim that were eaten on Yom Kipur were comprised of a k'Zayis of kidney (which does not bear the prohibition of Chelev for eating it) and another k'Zayis of kidney Chelev (which happened to be Nosar, etc. as well).

6)[line 37]ונתני שש חטאותV'NISNI SHESH CHATA'OS- and let it teach that he is Chayav to bring six Chata'os! The Gemara is asking this question only on Rav Ada bar Acha's answer. The question cannot be asked on the other answers, as Rashi and the Gilyon printed in Rashi explain (DH Kegon she'Achal).

7)[line 43]עירוב והוצאה לשבת ואין עירוב והוצאה לי''הERUV V'HOTZA'AH L'SHABBOS, V'EIN ERUV V'HOTZA'AH L'YOM HA'KIPURIM

(a)The laws of Eruvei Chatzeiros (see Background to Kidushin 34:12c) and Hotza'ah (see Background to Menachos 37:37:a-b) apply only to Shabbos and not to Yom ha'Kipurim (although the laws of Yom ha'Kipurim are otherwise just as stringent as the laws of Shabbos). (Alternatively, the prohibition of Hotza'ah is mixed in (i.e. included) among the other prohibitions of Shabbos, but is not mixed among the prohibitions of Yom ha'Kipurim — TOSFOS, who probably had the Girsa "Ein Eruv Hotza'ah," without a "Vav.")

(b)TOSFOS DH Amar Rafram cites the Gemara in Temurah 14a where this opinion is refuted. According to the Halachah, Yom ha'Kipurim is no different from Shabbos with regard to Eruvei Chatzeiros and Hotza'ah.

8a)[line 47]"ושלח ביד איש עתי""V'SHILACH B'YAD ISH ITI"- "and he shall send it [away] with a designated man" (Vayikra 16:21) - The person who takes out the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach must be appointed from before Yom ha'Kipurim.


(a)On Yom ha'Kipurim, a Goral (lottery) is performed by the Kohen Gadol to choose between two identical goats (Vayikra 16:7-10). One (the Sa'ir la'Sh-m) is offered as a Korban Chatas ha'Nisraf and its blood is sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:15); the other (the Sa'ir la'Azazel) is dispatched ("Mishtale'ach") to Azazel (a hard rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death (Vayikra 16:21-22).

(b)A strip of crimson wool is tied between the horns of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach before it is led to Azazel. The person who takes the goat to Azazel becomes Tamei and is required to immerse his body and clothes in a Mikvah (Vayikra 16:26). The remains of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach are Asur b'Hana'ah.

(c)Before it is dispatched to Azazel, the Kohen Gadol performs Semichah upon the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach, confessing the sins of all of the people while doing so. According to Rebbi Yehudah, this confession achieves atonement for all of the people, for all sins except sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav. According to Rebbi Shimon, this confession achieves atonement for all of the people except the Kohanim, for all sins except sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav. (The second confession over the Par of the Kohen Gadol provides the Kohanim atonement for all other sins besides sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav.)

9)[line 47]איש עתיISH ITI- a man who was designated for the task

10)[line 51]ברותא היאBERUSA HI- it is an "outside," rejected opinion (alt. Bedusa Hi - it is fiction, i.e. a mistake)


11)[line 8]ה''ל אשת איש מיגו דאיתוסףHAVAH LAH ESHES ISH, MIGO D'ITOSAF...- she is an Eshes Ish (a married woman); since all other men in the world become prohibited to her, so, too, this man (who is already prohibited to her with one Isur) becomes prohibited to her (with an additional Isur). See Chart #2 (footnote #5).

12)[line 15]עבר זקן ונשאהAVAR ZAKEN U'NESA'AH- if the father of the Bo'el transgressed a prohibition and married the woman

13)[line 24]נידון בזיקה ראשונה שבאה עליוNIDON B'ZIKAH RISHONAH SHE'BA'AH ALAV- his punishment is based on the first Isur that applied to him

14)[line 38]חייב עליה משום חמותו ואם חמותו ואםחמיוC HAYAV ALEHA MISHUM CHAMOSO V'EM CHAMOSO V'EM CHAMAV- that is, if he married his wife's sister's daughter and his wife's brother's daughter