[37a - 28 lines; 37b - 47 lines]

1)[line 1] REBBI YOSI HA'CHOREM- (a) Rebbi Yosi, with the sunken bridge of the nose ("Chorem" is similar to "Charum" - Vayikra 21:18) (RASHI); (according to the SHITAH MEKUBETZES #4, the Girsa in Rashi is "REBBI YOSI HA'CHARUM"); (b) Rebbi Yosi, from the place called Chorem (TOSFOS); (c) the Girsa in SIFREI va'Eschanan #35 is "REBBI YOSI"; the Girsa in MECHILTA Bo #17 is "ABBA YOSI" (YEFE EINAYIM)

2)[line 2]" - - [- ; -, - - .]""VA'YAR YOSEF KI YASHIS AVIV YAD YEMINO..."- "And Yosef saw that his father placed his right hand [upon the head of Efrayim and it displeased him; and he held up his father's hand, to move it from Efrayim's head to Menasheh's head.]" (Bereishis 48:17)

3)[line 3] YAD SETAMA LO IKRI- [the right hand] is never called by the unmodified word "Yad"

4)[line 9] " YADCHAH KESIV B'"HEH" KEHAH- (lit. Yadchah is written with a "Heh," weaker) the word "Yadchah" is written with the letter "Heh" at the end; this signifies that the Tefilah Shel Yad should be placed upon the weaker arm (Yad Kehah)

5)[line 10] V'EIMA YADCHA SHEB'CHO'ACH- perhaps you should say, "Yad sheb'Cho'ach," "your stronger hand"?

6)[line 12]GIDEM- a man whose hand is cut off

7)[line 14]ITER- a left-handed man

8)[line 15] YEMINO SHE'HU SEMOLO- on his right hand, which is his weaker (lit. left) hand

9)[line 17] B'SHOLET BI'SHTEI YADAV- an ambidextrous man

10)[line 18]KIBORES- (O.F. (badron) [bradon]) the fleshy elevated part of the upper arm; biceps muscle

11)[line 19] . ?ZO KODKOD. HEICHA?- this is the Kodkod (the top of the head). Where [is the Kodkod]?

12)[line 20] MAKOM SHE'MOCHO SHEL TINOK ROFES- the place where the brain of a newborn baby is felt to be soft (since the fontanel, the gap in the skeletal covering of the brain of a newborn baby, has not yet closed)

13)[line 21]PELIMO- a Sage of the Mishnah, student of Rebbi Meir

14a)[line 22] O KUM GALI- Either get up and go to exile (to atone for your sin of making fun of Divrei Chachamim, since a person born with two heads will not live until he is obligated to put on Tefilin - see GILYON HA'SHAS HASHALEM of Rebbi Akiva Eiger who cites the KOSNOS OR, Parshas Bamidbar)

b)[line 22] O KABEL ALACH SHAMTA - or except upon yourself the dictates of excommunication (SHAMTA / NIDUY - excommunication)

(a)The minimum period of Niduy is thirty days in Eretz Yisrael or seven days in Bavel and elsewhere. If the Menudeh does not repent from his ways he is put into Niduy for a second thirty-day period. If he still does not repent, he is then put into Cherem. The laws of Cherem are much more stringent.

(b)No one may come within four Amos of the Menudeh, except for his wife and family. He is not permitted to eat or drink with other people, nor is he included in a Zimun or any other Mitzvah that requires a quorum of ten men. He may not wash his clothes, shave or take a haircut or wear shoes. Learning and teaching Torah, however, are permitted, as well as engaging in work. The last two are not permitted to a Muchram, who must learn by himself and engage in work to the minimum that will provide him daily sustenance. People may speak with the Menudeh or the Muchram unless Beis Din specifically prohibits it.

(c)Even if the period of Cherem or Niduy has ended, a person remains in Niduy or Cherem until he is permitted by three commoners or by an expert sage (SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh De'ah 334:27 and REMA ibid. 334:24)

15)[line 23] AD'HACHI ASA HA'HU GAVRA- in the meantime, that certain person arrived [in the Beis Midrash] (this occurred as a sign from Heaven to Rebbi that Plimo was not to be banished or excommunicated - see GILYON HA'SHAS HASHALEM of Rebbi Akiva Eiger who cites the KOSNOS OR, Parshas Bamidbar)

16)[line 24] ISYALID LI YENUKA D'IS LEI TREI REISHEI- there was born to me a baby that has two heads

17)[line 24] ?KAMAH BA'INAN L'MEISAV L'CHOHEN? - How much money am I required to give to the Kohen [for his Pidyon ha'Ben]? (PIDYON HA'BEN)

(a)The Torah requires that every Yisrael sanctify the firstborn male of his children, Kosher animals and donkeys, as it is written, "Kadesh Li Chol Bechor, Peter Kol Rechem bi'Vnei Yisrael, ba'Adam uva'Behemah; Li Hu." - "Sanctify to Me every firstborn that initiates the womb among the children of Yisrael, among both man and beast; it is Mine." (Shemos 13:2)

(b)The Mitzvah of Pidyon ha'Ben applies to a Yisrael and not to a Kohen or a Levi. The first male born to a mother (who is the daughter of a Yisrael) must be redeemed by his father (as stated in Shemos 13:13, "v'Chol Bechor Adam b'Vanecha Tifdeh."

(c)The Bechor must be redeemed when he is one month old by giving five silver Shekalim of Kodesh (each of which weighs 19.2 or 17 grams; see Midos v'Shi'urei Torah, C. P. Benish, Benei Brak, 5760, pp. 487-488) to a Kohen as stated in Bamidbar (18:16). This applies only if the son was the first issue (i.e. he was not preceded by a Nefel - stillborn) and was delivered through the womb (i.e. he was not delivered by Caesarian section). (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #392)

18)[line 25]SABA- a sage

19)[line 27]"- - - ', , -; ] , [ - .]""[... ACH] PADOH SIFDEH ES BECHOR HA'ADAM..."- "[Every thing that initiates the womb in all flesh which they bring to HaSh-m, whether it is of men or beasts, shall be yours; nevertheless] the first born of man shall you surely redeem, [and the firstling of unclean beasts shall you redeem.]" (Bamidbar 18:15)

20)[last line] 'NITRAF B'SOCH SHELOSHIM- (a) if it is killed within thirty days of its birth (RASHI); (b) if it becomes a Tereifah within thirty days of its birth (TOSFOS)

37b----------------------------------------37b

21)[line 1]"" "ACH" CHALEK- the word "Ach" excludes a baby that was Nitraf within thirty days (and a baby born with two heads, that does not live, is considered Nitraf)

22)[line 1] B'GULGOLES TALA RACHMANA- Pidyon ha'Ben depends upon skulls, as the verse states, "You shall take five Shekalim apiece for each skull" (Bamidbar 3:47)

23)[line 3] GOVAH SHEB'YAD- the high part of the arm

24)[line 4] AL YADCHA MAMASH- on the palm (RASHI)

25)[line 11] SHE'TEHEI SIMAH KENEGED HA'LEV- so that the placing [of the Tefilah Shel Yad] be opposite the heart

26)[line 12]MECHAVEIN- adjusted

27)[line 13] L'HADEI LIBEI- alongside the heart (i.e. slightly to the right side of the highest part of the muscle, so that it is aligned with the heart)

28)[line 14] HAVAH TZIRIYAH B'YADEI- he had a wound on his arm [and his cloak was torn to prevent the chafing of the wound, and his Tefilin were visible through the tear]

29)[line 14] KA MISCHAZYAN TEFILIN- his Tefilin were visible

30)[line 16] BI'MEKOM "LECHA L'OS"- in the place that is normally "for you a sign," but there is no problem if it is occasionally visible

31)[line 21]KARCHAH- baldness

32)[line 26] B'MAKOM HA'RA'UY LITAMEI B'NEGA ECHAD (NEGA'IM: NIG'EI VASAR / NIG'EI HA'ROSH)

(a)When a Jew develops a mark on his body the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) that looks like the skin disease of Tzara'as, a Kohen must be summoned to ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. (Depending on the type of mark, this is determined by different factors - see below, (b).) The Kohen inspects the mark during the day, but not in bright sunshine and not under conditions that obstruct the sunlight, such as a cloudy day or a darkened room. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen pronounces him Tamei, initiating a one or two-week period of quarantine or "Hesger" (depending on the type of blemish). During this period, he is known as a Metzora Musgar. If no "Simanei Tum'ah" (signs of Tum'ah - see below, b:1-4) appear in the mark during that time, the Kohen pronounces the Metzora Musgar to have become Tahor. If Simanei Tum'ah do appear in the mark at the end of the first or second week of Hesger - or even when the Kohen first se

es the Nega or after the Metzora has become Tahor - the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away, after which the Kohen pronounces him to have become Tahor.

(b)There are four types of blemishes that constitute Neg'ei Tzara'as that affect a Jewish person: Nig'ei Basar; Shechin or Michvah; Nesek; Karachas or Gabachas.

1.NIG'EI BASAR refers to Tzara'as that affects normal skin. It appears as a white blotch of one of four bright shades of white, sometimes with some red mixed in. The period of Hesger for Nig'ei Basar is two weeks. A Kohen inspects the Nega at the end of each week, and at the end of the two-week period he declares the Metzora to be either Tahor or Muchlat. The signs of Tum'ah for Nig'ei Basasar are: 1. the lesion spreads ("Pisyon"); 2. two or more white hairs ("Se'ar Lavan") grow inside the lesion after it appears on the skin; 3. a patch of normal looking skin ("Michyah"), measuring two by two hairs or more, appears in middle of the Nega.

2.SHECHIN or MICHVAH refer to the Tzara'as of a boil or a burn. It appears as a white blotch of one of four bright shades of white, sometimes with red mixed in, that develops over a partially healed pustule, boil or blister produced by non-fire heat or by friction (in the case of Shechin), or over a burn produced by the heat of a fire (in the case of Michvah). The period of quarantine for Shechin and Michvah is only one week, after which the Kohen declares the Metzora either Tahor or Muchlat. (The Halachos of Shechin and Michvah are identical. They are distinct only in that a half-Gris of one of them does not combine with a half-Gris of the other to make a person Tamei (Nega'im 9:2). Their signs of Tum'ah are: 1. the mark spreads (Pisyon); 2. two or more white hairs (Se'ar Lavan) grow inside the mark after the Nega Tzara'as appears.

3.NESEK (pl. Nesakim) refers to Tzara'as that appears beneath the hair of the scalp, beard or eyebrows. According to most Rishonim, a Nesek appears as normal skin that is revealed when a cluster of hair (measuring the size of a Gris) falls out from parts of the scalp or beard that are normally covered with hair, such that a bald spot without even two normal hairs is created (see RAMBAN to Vayikra 13:29). The period of Hesger for a Nesek is two weeks. At the beginning of the Hesger, the Kohen shaves the hair surrounding the Nesek, only leaving a two-hair-thick ring of normal hair around the Nesek. A Kohen inspects the Nesek at the end of each week, and at the end of the two-week period he declares the Metzora to be either Tahor or Muchlat. The signs of Tum'ah of a Nesek are: 1. the Nesek spreads ("Pisyon") - that is, more hair falls out around the periphery of the original Nesek; 2. two or more thin, golden hairs ("Se'ar Tzahov Dak") grow inside the Nesek after it appears on

the

skin. Nesek, unlike the other Nega'im, also has a Siman Taharah, which can make it Tahor at any time: If normal, black hairs grow in the Nesek, the Kohen pronounces the Metzora to be Tahor.

4.KARACHAS or GABACHAS refer to Tzara'as that affects a completely bald scalp (which became bald through exposure to a balding agent, or through a normal balding process - see RASH to Negaim 10:10A and RAMBAN to Vayikra 13:29), either in the fore part of the head (Gabachas) or the back part of the head (Karachas). Their Halachos are identical to those of Nig'ei Basar (above, 1) that appear on a normal, non-hairy part of the skin, except that it lacks the Siman Tum'ah of Se'ar Lavan (since it is on a part of the body on which hair does not grow). (The Halachos of Karachas and Gabachas are identical. They are distinct only in that a half-Gris of one of them does not combine with a half-Gris of the other to make a person Tamei, Negaim 10:10.)

(c)The four marks that make a person a Metzora through Nig'ei Basar, Shechin or Michvah and Karachas or Gabachas are: 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an eggshell (RASHI).

(d)For a full discussion of the process by which a Metzora becomes Tahor, see Background to Menachos 27:20.

33a)[line 28] SE'AR LAVAN- white hair (see previous entry, b:1-2)

b)[line 29] SE'AR TZAHOV- golden hair (see previous entry, b:3)

34)[line 31] ?MAI BEINAIHU- what is that difference between their opinions ]since according to both Tana Kama and Rebbi Yishmael one is obligated to place four fringes of Tzitzis on the corners of a four-cornered garment[?

35)[line 31] SADIN B'TZITZIS- whether a four-cornered linen garment that has only three fringes of Tzitzis on it is prohibited to be worn (Tana Kama, since all four fringes constitute one Mitzvah, and without the Mitzvah of Tzitzis, one who wears this garment transgresses the prohibition of Kil'ayim) or permitted to be worn (Rebbi Yishmael, since each fringe constitutes a separate Mitzvah)

36)[line 32] TALIS BA'ALAS CHAMESH- whether a five-cornered woolen garment requires four fringes of Tzitzis (Tana Kama) or five (Rebbi Yishmael)

37)[line 34]HA'YOTZEI (SHABBOS: HOTZA'AH)

(a)HOTZA'AH - Hotza'ah is the general term for the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either: 1. Hotza'ah, transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) to a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain); 2. Hachnasah, transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid; 3. Ma'avir Arba Amos b'Reshus ha'Rabim, carrying an object from one place in Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos; 4. Moshit, passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah in Shabbos 96a, see Background to Shabbos 96:3). These are all biblical prohibitions.

(b)AKIRAH & HANACHAH - In order to transgress the biblical prohibition of Hotza'ah, certain conditions must be met. The sinner must perform both an Akirah (initiation of movement) and a Hanachah (setting down the object to rest). If one person does the Akirah and another does the Hanachah, only a Rabbinic prohibition is involved, as the Gemara states in Shabbos 3a.

(c)When a garment that requires Tzitzis does not have its Tzitzis properly attached to it, the fringes that are attached are considered a load that the person is carrying, since he does not fulfill the Mitzvah of Tzitzis. Wearing this garment it Reshus ha'Rabim transgresses the prohibition of Hotza'ah.

38)[line 35] SHE'EINAH METZUYETZES K'HILCHASAH- that does not have the proper Tzitzis fringes attached to it

39)[line 37] D'VATZREI L'GELIMEI- who cut his garment at the corner (either cutting off the corner diagonally to leave two approximately 135 degree angles, or cutting in right at the corner, to leave two flaps of 45 degrees each - RASHI and SHITAH MEKUBETZES #14)

40)[line 37] LO AVID V'LO KLUM- he did nothing [to exempt the garment from the Mitzvah of Tzitzis]

41)[line 37]SHAVYEI- he has rendered it

42)[line 38] D'TZAIREI LI'GELIMEI- (a) who folded his garment (even gluing down the folds) (RASHI); (b) who folded and or ties the corners of his garment to exempt it from the Mitzvah of Tzitzis (alternate Girsa of Rashi cited by the SHITAH MEKUBETZES #15)

43)[line 39] DICHE'MAN D'SHARYEI DAMI- he is considered like one who has undone [the folds in] it (his garment)

44)[line 39] CHAMASOS HA'TZERUROS- leather bottles made of animal skins that are tied at both ends

45)[line 40] SHEL ARAVIYIM- of the Arabs (who normally tie their Chamasos to create the bottom of the bottle)

46)[line 40] D'CHAITEI LI'GELIMEI- who sewed his garment (in the manner of entry #42)

47)[line 41] IM ISA D'LO MIBA'I LEI- if it happens that he does not need [the extra pieces of the garment that he sewed down]

48)[line 41] LIFSIK V'LISHDYEI- he should cut them off and throw them away

49)[line 44] KA AZIL A'BASREI- he was walking behind

50)[line 44] B'SHABSA D'RIGLA- on the Shabbos preceding the festival (or approximately thirty days preceding the festival), when the Sages taught the laws pertaining to the festival

51)[line 44] IFSIK KARNA D'CHUTEI- the corner of his Tzitzis was severed

52)[line 45] KAD MATA L'VEISEI- when he came to his house

53)[line 46], ME'HASAM, SHADISEI- [if you had told me that it was severed] from there, I would have thrown it off

54)[last line]TARGUMAH- [Rabah bar Sheva] applied it (the statement of "Gadol Kavod ha'Beriyos she'Docheh Es Lo Sa'aseh sheba'Torah") [to the commandment of "Lo Sasur," which is the Torah commandment to abide by the words of the Sages, i.e. that it only "pushes aside" prohibitions of the Rabanan, but not prohibitions mid'Oraisa]

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