[57a - 51 lines; 57b - 52 lines]
1)[line 1]במאי דפסיק אנפשיהB'MAI D'PASIK A'NAFSHEI- with that which he (i.e., I) decreed upon himself (i.e., myself)
2)[line 1]מכנשיMACHNESHEI- they gather
3)[line 5]לא תדרוש שלומם וטובתם כל הימיםLO SIDROSH SHELOMAM V'TOVASAM KOL HA'YAMIM- do not ever seek their peace or welfare. This is a paraphrase of a verse referring the people of Amon and Mo'av (Devarim 23:7).
4)[line 7]שכבת זרע רותחתSHICHVAS ZERA ROSACHAS- boiling semen (as punishment for recommending that the daughters of Mo'av entice Klal Yisrael into sinning with them - Bamidbar 25:1-9)
5)[line 8]פושעי ישראלPOSH'EI YISRAEL- the sinners of Israel. this text was changed by Christian censors; the original version read "J. of Nazareth".
6)[line 11]בבת עינוBAVAS EINO- the pupil of his eye
7)[line 12]צואהTZO'A- excrement
8)[line 13]מלעיגMAL'IG- ridicules
9)[line 14]כחה של בושהKOCHAH SHEL BUSHAH- the power of shame [that led bar Kamtza to take revenge against the Chachamim]
10)[line 16]מפקיMAFKEI- bring [them] out [from their Chupah]
11)[line 17]גונדא דרומאיGUNDA D'ROMA'EI- a Roman military legion
12)[line 17]שקלינהו מינייהוSHAKLINHU MINAIHU- [the legion] took [the chickens] from them
13)[line 17]נפלו עלייהוNAFLU ALAIHU- [the residents of Tur Malka] fell upon [the legionnaires]
14)[line 17]מחונהו(MECHUNAHU) [MECHANUHU]- they beat them
15)[line 18]בר דרומאBAR DAROMA- a man from the south
16)[line 18]הוה קפיץ מילאHAVAH KAFITZ MILA- he would jump [the distance of] a Mil (approximately one kilometer)
17)[line 18]תאגיהTAGEI- his crown
18)[line 19]אי ניחא לךIY NEICHA LACH- if it pleases You
19)[line 19]ההוא גבראHA'HU GAVRA- that man (referring to himself in the third person)
20)[line 19]אכשליה פומיהACHSHELEI PUMEI- his mouth (i.e., what he said) caused him to stumble
21)[line 20]"הֲלֹא אַתָּה אֱ-לֹקִים זְנַחְתָּנוּ, וְלֹא תֵצֵא אֱ-לֹקִים בְּצִבְאוֹתֵינוּ""HA'LO ATAH EL-KIM ZENACHTANU, V'LO SETZEI EL-KIM B'TZIV'OSEINU"- "For You, G-d, have deserted us, and you, G-d, do not go out in our ranks" (Tehilim 60:12).
22)[line 20]אתמוהי קא מתמהATMUHI KA METAMEH- he asked it rhetorically
23)[line 21]על לבית הכסאAL L'VEIS HA'KISEI- [the southerner] went up to the outhouse
24)[line 21]אתא דרקונאASA DERAKONA- a serpent came
25)[line 21]שמטיה לכרכשיהSHAMTEI L'CHARKASHEI- [the serpent] dislodged his intestines; i.e., disemboweled him
26)[line 21]אמרAMAR- [the Caesar] said [to himself]
27)[line 21]איתרחישISRACHISH- occurred
28)[line 22]אישבקינהוISHAVKINHU- I will leave them
29)[line 22]איזדקורIZDAKUR- they leapt [in joy]
30)[line 22]אדליקו שרגיADLIKU SHERAGEI- they lit torches
31)[line 22]בליונא דגושפנקאBELAYUNA D'GUSHPANKA- the carved form of a signet ring
32)[line 23]מיחדא קא חדו בי יהודאי!MICHDA KA CHADU BI YEHUDA'I!- the Jews are laughing at me!
33)[line 23]תלת מאה אלפי שליפי סייפאTELAS ME'AH ALFEI SHELIFEI SEYAFA- 300,000 sword-bearers
34)[line 24]בהך גיסא, הלולי וחנגיB'HACH GISA, HILULEI V'CHINGEI- on the [other] side [of the mountain], rejoicing and partying
35)[line 24]"בִּלַּע ה' לא (וְלֹא) חָמַל אֵת כָּל נְאוֹת יַעֲקֹב...""BILA HASH-M V'LO CHAMAL ES KOL NE'OS YA'AKOV..."- "HaSh-m destroyed and did not have mercy upon all of the dwelling places of Yakov..." (Eichah 2:2).
36)[line 25]כי אתא רביןKI ASA RAVIN- when Ravin came [from Eretz Yisrael]
37)[line 25]ששים רבואSHISHIM RIBO- 600,000
38)[line 25]ינאי המלךYANAI HA'MELECH - King Yanai of the Chashmona'im
(a)Before Yochanan Kohen Gadol (Yochanan Hyrkanus), grandson of Matisyahu, died, he commanded that his reign as ruler of the land of Yehudah be passed on to his wife. His son Yehudah Aristobulus, however, paid no attention to his father's testament. Seizing power for himself, he imprisoned his mother and brothers save for one brother named Antigonus. He appointed Antigonus as head of the army. Aristobulus was the first Chashmona'i ruler to call himself "king"; all of his predecessors had taken the title of "prince." He was hostile to the Sages, and pursued them with ruthlessness. He ruled over Yehudah for only one year and died childless in the year 3658 (103 BCE).
(b)He was succeeded by his widow, Queen Shlomtziyon or Shelomis [Salome] Alexandra. She was the sister of Shimon Ben Shetach, the leading sage of the period, to whom she was loyal even when married to an archenemy of the Chachamim. After her husband died, she freed his brothers from prison. The oldest brother, Alexander Yanai, performed Yibum with her, and later succeeded his dead brother to the throne.
(c)Under the influence of his wife, Yanai suspended the suppression of the Perushim (those loyal to the Torah) and the Sages for a time, so that he could pursue the war against the hostile Nochri enclave in Eretz Yisrael. He did this throughout most of the twenty-seven years of his reign, motivated by battle lust and glory. As time went on, however, he used the foreign soldiers in his army to suppress his own people and hunt down the Perushim.
(d)One year during Sukos, when officiating as Kohen Gadol, he poured the Nisuch ha'Mayim (libation water) on his feet instead of the on the Mizbe'ach, in accordance with the teachings of the Tzedukim. He intended to incite the people to riot. Those assembled could not contain themselves and they pelted him with their Esrogim. His soldiers then slew more than 6,000 people in the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash. This marked his declaration of war against the Chachamim and their followers. This violent oppression lasted for six years, during which some 50,000 Jews lost their lives. At the end of his life he imprisoned 800 Perushim and tortured them in the Roman custom of executing their families in their presence. He then executed the prisoners themselves, witnessing the inhuman torment himself.
(e)Before dying, he transferred power to Queen Shelomis and advised her to make peace with the Perushim. He told her, "Fear neither the Perushim nor the non-Perushim, but only those hypocrites who masquerade as Perushim. For their deeds are like those of Zimri and they demand a reward like that of Pinchas" (Sotah 22b). He had finally realized that his Tzeduki connections had misled him, and he saw that his wife was right in trying to help the Perushim. His reign of 27 years lasted until either 3684 or 3685 (77 or 76 BCE).
(f)Over the next eleven years, when Shelomis was queen, peace and tranquility reigned in the land. This was the only golden era during the time of the Second Temple. (From The History of the Jewish People/The Second Temple Era, Artscroll Publishers, Brooklyn, New York, 1982, adapted by Rabbi Hersh Goldwurm from Dr. E. Ebner's translation of Yekusiel Friedner's Divrei Yemei ha'Bayis ha'Sheni.)
39)[line 25]הר המלךHAR HA'MELECH- King's Mountain; this is Hebrew for Tur Malka
40)[line 26]כיוצאי מצריםK'YOTZ'EO MITZRAYIM- equal to the number of those who left Mitzrayim; 600,000
41a)[line 27]כפר בישKFAR BISH- the evil city
b)[line 27]כפר שיחלייםKFAR SHICHLAYIM- the city of (O.F. cresson) cress (an edible plant; RASHI to Eruvin 28a)
c)[line 27]כפר דכריאKFAR DICHRAYA- the city of males
42)[line 28]אושפיזאUSHPIZA- guests
43)[line 29]פוסקותPOSKOS- they ceased [giving birth]
44)[line 29]אפילו שיתין ריבוותא קני לא מחזיקAFILU SHITIN RIVEVASA KANEI LO MACHZIK- it was not [large enough] to contain even 600,000 reeds
(a)The Tzedukim were students of Tzadok, and the Beitusim were students of Beitus. Both of these individuals rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).
(b)Our Gemara refers not to a Tzeduki, who rejected merely the Oral Torah, but rather to one who reject G-d outright. The original Girsa (wording) in our Gemara, before it was changed by the censor, was "Mina" (a heretic).
46)[line 30]שקורי משקריתו!SHEKUREI MESHAKRISU!- you are telling lies!
47)[line 30]צביTZVI- a deer
48)[line 31]אין עורו מחזיק את בשרוEIN ORO MACHZIK ES BESARO- its skin [once removed] is not [large enough] to contain its body
49)[line 31]רווחאRAVCHA- it expands
50)[line 31]גמדאGAMDA- it (O.F. retrait) contracts
51)[line 32]דשמיע ליה מילתאDI'SHMI'A LEI MILSA- who has heard something [regarding the level of righteousness]
52)[line 33]ארוס וארוסתוARUS VA'ARUSASO a man and his betrothed (ERUSIN)
(a)The first stage of Halachic marriage is called Kidushin (betrothal). Kidushin can be accomplished in one of three ways:
1.Kesef - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through giving her money or anything equal in value to a Perutah (a very small coin). Upon doing so, he must proclaim, "Harei At Mekudeshes Li b'(-----) Zu" - "Behold you are betrothed to me through this (-----)".
2.Shtar - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through giving her a marriage document. This may be written upon any surface, and need not be of any specific value. The words "Harei At Mekudeshes Li bi'Shtar Zeh" must be written upon the Shtar.
3.Bi'ah - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through having relations with her. At that time, he must proclaim, "Harei At Mekudeshes Li b'Bi'ah Zu". Because Kidushin requires witnesses, the Chachamim strongly condemned anyone who uses this method of Kidushin.
(b)The Torah refers to this stage of marriage as "Erusin" (Devarim 22:23). The term "Kidushin" is used by the Rabanan in order to connote that just as everyone is prohibited to benefit from Hekdesh (an object sanctified to the service of HaSh-m), through Kidushin a woman becomes prohibited to everyone in the world save her husband (Kidushin 2b; see also Tosfos 7a DH v'Nifshetu). Although a man and women are married after Kidushin, they may not yet live together as man and wife.
(c)The second stage of Halachic marriage - the completion of the marriage - is termed Nisu'in. This is accomplished through Chupah. Chupah is never clearly described in the Gemara, and various opinion are offered by the Rishonim as to what exactly it entails (see Insights to Kesuvos 57:1). The general idea behind Chupah is that the groom brings his wife into his house. After the Chupah is performed, the marriage is complete.
(d)Our Gemara relates the tale of a betrothed man and his wife.
53)[line 33]נשבוNISHBU- they were captured
54)[line 34]השיאוםHISI'UM- they married them (to each other)
55)[line 34]כתובהKESUVAH - The Jewish marriage contract (KESUVAS ISHAH)
(a)When a man marries (Nisu'in) a woman who was a Besulah (virgin) at the time of her Kidushin (betrothal), he must give her a marriage document stipulating that she is to receive 200 Zuz from him or his estate should he divorce her or die. 200 Zuz are equivalent to the value of 960 grams of silver. This document is called a Kesuvah (lit. "written"). Tana'im disagree as to whether this obligation is mid'Oraisa (Biblical) or mid'Rabanan (Rabbinic) in origin (Kesuvos 10a).
(b)If the bride had been widowed or divorced and is therefore a Be'ulah (not a virgin) than she receives a different Kesuvah. The Kesuvah of a Be'ulah guarantees only 100 Zuz to the bride in the case of the dissolution of the marriage. There is no question that the obligation to give this document is mid'Rabanan in origin (Kesuvos 10b). A widow is termed an "Almanah" due to that which her Kesuvah is written for the amount of a "Maneh" (one hundred Zuz) (ibid.).
(c)If a woman is younger than three at the time of her Kidushin, she always receives 200 Zuz. This is because her hymen grows back even when broken at this young age, and she is therefore by definition a Besulah.
(d)The amounts detailed above are only the minimum required to be written into a Kesuvah. One may voluntarily add any amount onto his wife's Kesuvah, and doing so is considered a way of honoring her.
(e)Our Mishnah discussed land that was either:
1.Designated specifically to be given to a woman in the event that her husband dies before her or divorces her;
2.Among a list of those lands to be given to a woman in the event that her husband dies before her or divorces her;
3.brought into the marriage by the wife and assessed in the Kesuvah such that her husband is obligated to return its value to her upon his death or divorce (Nichsei Tzon Barzel; see Background to Kesuvos 78:21).
56)[line 35]סיפדוSIPDU- eulogize
57)[line 35]פטפט ביצרוPITPET B'YITZRO- he belittled [and conquered] his [evil] inclination
58)[line 35]מיוסףMI'YOSEF- more than Yosef [ha'Tzadik did when he refused the advances of the wife of Potifar (Bereishis 39)]
59)[line 37]עמדו ארבעים מודיות בדינרAMDU ARBA'IM MUDAYOS B'DINAR- the price of forty Mudayos (Roman dry measures equal to a Se'ah; see below, entry #151) was one Dinar (equivalent to a Zuz, the basic unit of currency)
60)[line 37]נחסר השער מודיא אחתNECHSAR HA'SHA'AR MUDYA ACHAS- the price rose by one Mudya [per Dinar, such that it would purchase only thirty-nine Mudayos)]
61)[line 37]נערה מאורסהNA'ARAH ME'ORASAH - A Betrothed Maiden
(a)One who commits adultery with a married woman after having been properly warned by Halachically acceptable witnesses is liable to receive Chenek (choking; Devarim 22:22).
(b)In one such instance, however, the Torah prescribes a different punishment. If the woman was a Na'arah Besulah Me'orasah - a betrothed (see above, entry #52) virgin who is within six months after reaching puberty, then he (and she as well, if the act was consensual) is put to death by Sekilah (stoning; Devarim 22:23-24).
62)[line 39]נתן עיניוNASAN EINAV- lit. he placed his eyes; i.e., he planned
63)[line 39]שושביניוSHUSHVINAV- his close friend
64)[line 40]שיכרןSHIKRAN- he caused [his friend and his wife] to become inebriated
65)[line 40]לובן ביצהLOVEN BEITZAH- the white of a [raw] egg [which is extremely similar to semen]
66)[line 41]סולד מן האורSOLED MIN HA'OR- (O.F. retrait) hardens when exposed to sunlight
67)[line 42]דוחהDOCHEH- becomes watery [and is absorbed into the fabric]
68)[line 43]הלקוהוHILKUHU- they gave him lashes
69)[line 43]הגבוהוHIGBUHU- they collected
70)[line 44]"שִׂמְחוּ אֶת יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְגִילוּ בָהּ כָּל אֹהֲבֶיהָ; שִׂישׂוּ אִתָּהּ מָשׂוֹשׂ כָּל הַמִּתְאַבְּלִים עָלֶיהָ""SIMCHU ES YERUSHALAYIM V'GILU VAH KOL OHAVEHA; SISU ITAH MASOS KOL HA'MIS'ABLIM ALEHA"- "Rejoice with Yerushalayim and be glad with her, all who love her; exult with her an exultation, all who mourn for her" (Yeshayah 66:10). This verse describes the reaction of those who returned from exile.
71)[line 45]שתלי ארזאSHASLEI ARZA- they would plant a cedar tree
72)[line 45]ינוקתאYENUKTA- a baby girl
73)[line 45]תורניתאTURNISA- (O.F. pin) a pine tree
74)[line 45]מינסביMINSEVEI- get married
75)[line 45]קייצי להוKAITZI LEHU- they would cut them down
76)[line 46]גננאGENANA- a wedding canopy
77)[line 46]ברתיה דקיסרBERATEI D'KEISAR- the daughter of the Caesar
78)[line 46]אתברITVAR- broke
79)[line 47]"גָּדַע בָּחֳרִי אַף כֹּל קֶרֶן יִשְׂרָאֵל...""GADA BA'CHARI AF KOL KEREN YISRAEL..."- "He cut down in raging anger all of the pride of Yisrael..." (Eichah 2:3).
80)[line 48]קרני מלחמהKARNEI MILCHAMAH- lit. the horns of war; troop leaders who blow horns to rally their men
81)[line 48]כרךKERACH- the city of
82)[line 48]לכדוהLACHDUHA- they captured it
83)[line 48]טףTAF- infants
84)[line 49]ים הגדולYAM HA'GADOL- the Mediterranean Sea
85)[line 50]נחליםNECHALIM- streams
86)[line 50]בקעת ידיםBIK'AS YADAYIM- the valley of Yadayim; a valley below the city of Beitar
87)[line 50]אחד מושך אילךECHAD MOSHECH EILACH- one of which flowed in this direction
88)[last line]בצרוBATZRU- they harvested grapes
89)[last line]כרמיהןKERAMEIHEN- their vineyards
90)[last line]זבלZEVEL- fertilizer
91)[line 2]סחSACH- told
92)[line 3]נבוזראדן רב טבחיםNEVUZARADAN RAV TABACHIM- Nevuzaradan the Chief Butcher, so called due to his brutality. He was the general sent by Nevuchadnetzar to destroy Yerushalayim, burn the first Beis ha'Mikdash, and take the survivors captive to Bavel.
93a)[line 3]מאתים ואחת עשרה רבואMASAYIM VA'ACHAS ASARAH RIBO- 2,110,000
b)[line 4]תשעים וארבע רבואTISH'IM V'ARBA RIBO- 940,000
94)[line 6]זכריהZECHARYAH - The Murder of a Kohen and a Navi
(a)Zecharyah the son of Yehoyada the Kohen was one of the last three Nevi'im to prophesize to Klal Yisrael. He was also a member of the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah (see Background to Shekalim 13:40). He was standing in the Beis ha'Mikdash delivering a prophecy remonstrating against the worship of King Yo'ash as a god when he was murdered by princes of Yehudah following Yo'ash's orders (Divrei ha'Yamim II 24:20-22). This particularly heinous crime is offered by Yirmeyahu ha'Navi as reason for why HaSh-m allowed the atrocities committed against Klal Yisrael hundreds of years later at the time of the Churban (Eichah 2:20). His blood miraculously bubbled for 250 years, refusing to settle into the ground, until the time of the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash.
95)[line 8]מרתח וסליקMARTACH V'SALIK- boiling (i.e., bubbling) and rising
96)[line 8]דם זבחים דאשתפוךDAM ZEVACHIM D'ISHTAPUCH- the blood of sacrifices that spilled
97)[line 9]לא אידמוLO IDMU- it was not similar
98)[line 10]מסריקנא לבשרייכו במסרקי דפרזליMASRIKNA L'VISRAICHU B'MASREKEI D'FARZELEI- I will [torture you by] combing your flesh with combs of iron
99)[line 12]בן דהוה קא מוכח לן במילי דשמיאBIN D'HAVAH KA MUCHACH LAN B'MILEI D'SHEMAYA- as he was rebuking us with Heavenly (i.e., prophetic) words
100)[line 14]כמה שניןKAMAH SHENIN- some years (namely, 250)
101)[line 14]נייחNAYICH- been at rest
102)[line 14]אנא מפייסנא ליה!ANA MEFAYASNA LEI!- I will appease him!
103a)[line 14]סנהדרי גדולהSANHEDREI GEDOLAH- [members of] a Beis Din of seventy-one
b)[line 15]סנהדרי קטנהSANHEDREI KETANAH- [members of] a Beis Din of twenty-three
104)[line 16]איבדתיםIBADTIM- I have murdered them
105)[line 17]הרהרHIRHER- he contemplated
106)[line 18]ההוא גבראHA'HU GAVRA- that man (referring to himself in the third person)
107)[line 18]ערקARAK- he ran away
108)[line 18]שדר שטר פרטתאSHADAR SHTAR PERATESA- he sent a will
(a)Elisha was a great prophet and was well known as a worker of miracles. One time an Aramean general (Na'aman), who was suffering from Tzara'as, was persuaded by his Jewish maidservant to seek the help of Elisha to cure him of his disease. He hesitatingly agreed, and to his surprise Elisha cured him completely.
(b)Overcome with gratitude, he offered great sums of money as a tribute to Elisha, who refused to accept anything, preferring not to diminish the honor of HaSh-m by lending a commercial aspect to his actions. Na'aman was do impressed by this man of G-d that he accepted upon himself to no longer worship idols (Melachim II 5:1-19).
110)[line 19]גר תושבGER TOSHAV
(a)A Ger Toshav is a Nochri who has agreed to a certain level of Mitzvah observance. A Beraisa cites three opinions regarding what level of observance is necessary to achieve this status. Rebbi Meir maintains that a Ger Toshav is a Nochri who accepts upon himself in front of three "Chaverim" (Talmidei Chachamim) to refrain from idol worship. The Chachamim rule that a Ger Toshav is a Nochri who accepts upon himself the seven Mitzvos of Bnei Noach (Noahide laws; see Background to Avodah Zarah 46:4). Acherim maintain a Ger Toshav is a Nochri who accepts all Mitzvos with the exception of the prohibition against eating Neveilos (animals slaughtered in a non-Halachically acceptable manner). (Avodah Zarah 64b; see Insights and hear Audio Shi'ur ibid.)
(b)RASHI explains that this Beraisa follows the opinion of Rebbi Meir, who rules that Na'aman was a Ger Toshav due to that which he accepted upon himself not to worship idols.
111)[line 19]גר צדקGER TZEDEK- a full-fledged convert
112)[line 19]למדוLIMDU- taught
113)[line 19]בני ברקBNEI BRAK- the city where Rebbi Akiva maintained a Yeshiva. It was near the present day Mesubin junction, south of the current Bnei Brak.
114)[line 20]סיסראSISRA- see Background to 56:122
115)[line 20]סנחריבSANCHERIV - The Fall of Assyria
(a)Sancheriv was the king of the Assyrian Empire. He had swept through the world, conquering and displacing nations as he went. After doing the same to the ten Shevatim of Yisrael, he set his sights on Yerushalayim.
(b)He and his vast army of 180,000 laid siege to Yerushalayim, and it seemed as if nothing could prevent the downfall of the city. The righteous Chizkiyah ha'Melech prayed to HaSh-m, who heard his prayers. That night, HaSh-m allowed the Assyrian army to hear the voice of the Heavenly Angels singing Shirah (songs of praise) to HaSh-m, which caused them to pass away in their sleep. The only ones spared were Sancheriv himself, his two sons (who assassinated their father a short while later), and his general Nevuchadnetzar. Nevuchadnetzar would subsequently conquer the Assyrians, and later destroy the Beis-ha'Mikdash (Melachim II 18-19; Divrei ha'Yamim II 32; see Sanhedrin 26).
116)[line 20]מאן אינון?MAN INUN?- who were they
117)[line 20]שמעיה ואבטליוןSHEMAYA V'AVTALYON
Shemaya and Avtalyon were the leaders of the fifth generation following the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah (Men of the Great Assembly; see Background to Shekalim 13:40). Shemaya was the Nasi (spiritual leader), and Avtalyon was the Av Beis Din (head of the court). Both were converts descended from Sancheriv, the king of Assyria who attacked Yerushalayim.
118)[line 21]"[לְהַעֲלוֹת חֵמָה לִנְקֹם נָקָם,] נָתַתִּי אֶת דָּמָהּ עַל צְחִיחַ סָלַע לְבִלְתִּי הִכָּסוֹת""[L'HA'ALSO CHEMAH LINKOM NAKAM,] NASATI ES DAMAH AL TZECHI'ACH SELA L'VILTI HIKASOS"- "[In order to arouse My wrath to take vengeance,] I have placed her blood on a smooth stone, so that it not be covered" (Yechezkel 24:8). This verse refers to the blood of Zecharyah as if it lay upon a stone, which would not absorb it.
119)[line 21]הקול...HA'KOL...- Our Gemara interprets this reference to the voice of Yakov as if were one that was crying out in suffering (see also MAHARSHA).
120)[line 21]אדריינוס קיסרADARYANUS KEISAR- Hadrian, Emperor of Rome from 3877-3898 (117-138 C.E.)
121)[line 22]אלכסנדריא של מצריםALEKSANDRIA SHEL MITZRAYIM- Alexandria, Egypt, named for Alexander the Great
122)[line 23]אספסיינוס קיסרASPASYANUS KEISAR- Vespasian, Emperor of Rome (see 56a-b)
123)[line 23]מלכות הרשעהMALCHUS HA'RESHA'AH- the wicked Empire [of Rome]
124)[line 25]מועלתMO'ELES- effective
125)[line 25]נוצחתNOTZACHAS- victorious
126)[line 26]"בְּשׁוֹט לָשׁוֹן תֵּחָבֵא, [וְלֹא תִירָא מִשֹּׁד כִּי יָבוֹא]""B'SHOT LASHON TECHAVEI, [V'LO SIRA MI'SHOD KI YAVO]"- "When the tongue sallies forth you will have refuge, [and you will not be afraid of destruction when it comes]" (Iyov 5:21). This verse refers to one who guards his tongue, who is guaranteed refuge from the accusations of the Satan.
127)[line 26]בחירחורי לשון תחבאB'CHIRCHUREI LASHON TECHAVEI- a) due to contesting tongues [that speak Lashon ha'Ra] you will be covered [by the Romans, descendants of Esav (this refers to the story of Kamtza and bar Kamtza (56a), which brought the Churban through Lashon ha'Ra)] (RASHI); b) as a result of [misusing] their voice to complain, [Yakov] will fall into [the hands of Esav] (MAHARSHA); c) contests of the tongue (i.e., the power of prayer) will grant [Klal Yisrael] refuge (IYUN YAKOV)
128)[line 28]"זְכֹר, ה', לִבְנֵי אֱדוֹם; אֵת יוֹם יְרוּשָׁלִָם, הָאֹמְרִים, 'עָרוּ! עָרוּ! עַד הַיְסוֹד בָּהּ!'"ZECHOR HASH-M LI'VNEI EDOM..."- "Remember, HaSh-m, [to take revenge upon] the sons of Edom; [what they did upon] the day [that they destroyed] Yerushalayim, [when] they said, 'Destroy! Destroy! Raze it to its foundations!'" (Tehilim 137:7).
129)[line 30]קלוןKALON- for shameful acts (namely, the boys for sodomy, and the girls to be concubines)
130)[line 30]אמרוAMRU- [the children] said [amongst themselves]
131)[line 31]"אָמַר ה', 'מִבָּשָׁן אָשִׁיב, אָשִׁיב מִמְּצֻלוֹת יָם'""AMAR HASH-M, 'MI'BASHAN ASHIV, ASHIV MI'METZULOS YAM'"- "HaSh-m said, 'From Bashan I shall return [them], I shall return [them] from the depths of the sea" (Tehilim 68:23).
132)[line 33]דרכן לכךDARKAN L'CHACH- [the natural order of the world is for] them to perform such [actions]
133)[line 34]"כִּי עָלֶיךָ הֹרַגְנוּ כָל הַיּוֹם; נֶחְשַׁבְנוּ כְּצֹאן טִבְחָה""KI ALECHA HORAGNU KOL HA'YOM; NECHSHAVNU K'TZON TIVCHAH"- "For we have been killed on your behalf the entire day; we have been considered [by the nations] as sheep to the slaughter" (Tehilim 44:23).
134)[line 34]זוZU- this [verse (see previous entry) refers to]
135)[line 35]אתיוהו קמאASYUHU L'KAMA- they brought the first [son]
136)[line 35]פלחPELACH- worship
137)[line 36]אפקוהו וקטלוהוAFKUHU V'KATLUHU- they took him out and killed him
138)[line 36]אידךIDACH- the next [son]
139)[line 38]"זֹבֵחַ לָאֱלֹהִים יָחֳרָם...""ZOVE'ACH LA'ELOHIM YACHARAM..."- "One who sacrifices to idols shall be put to death..." (Shemos 22:19).
140)[line 43]"אֶת ה' הֶאֱמַרְתָּ הַיּוֹם... וה' הֶאֱמִירְךָ הַיּוֹם...""ES HASH-M HE'EMARTA HA'YOM... VA'HASH-M HE'EMIRCHA HA'YOM..."- "You have designated HaSh-m today to be for you as a G-d... And HaSh-m has designated you today to be for Him a treasured nation..." (Devarim 26:17-18).
141a)[line 45]אישדי לך גושפנקאISHDI LACH GUSHPANKA- I will throw my signet ring before you
b)[line 45]וגחין ושקליהV'GACHIN V'SHAKLEI- and you will bend down and take it
142)[line 45]הרמנא דמלכאHARMENA D'MALKA- the authority of the king
143)[line 45]חבל, עלך קיסר!CHAVAL ALACH, KEISAR!- shame on you, O Caesar!
144)[line 46]על כבוד עצמך כךAL KEVOD ATZMECHA KACH- if you are so worried about your own honor [that you wish me to participate in a face-saving sham]
145)[line 47]יהבוהו ניהלי ואינשקיה פורתאYEHAVUHU NIHALI V'INASHKEI PURTA- give him to me so that I can kiss him a bit
146)[line 47]עקדתAKADTA- bound as an offering [to HaSh-m]
147)[line 48]בת קולBAS KOL- see Background to 56:123
148)[line 49]זו מילה שניתנה בשמיניZU MILAH SHE'NITNA BI'SHEMINI- this [verse] refers to the Mitzvah of circumcision on the eighth day [which is potentially life-threatening for the baby] (MAHARSHA)
149a)[line 50]בר משחיטהBAR MI'SHECHITAH- with the exception of [the laws of] Shechitah [since a) they may injure themselves (RASHI); b) doing so creates an Ayin ha'Ra - evil eye - that may put them at risk of death (MAHARSHA)]
b)[line 50]ודבר אחרV'DAVAR ACHER- and [the signs of] Tzara'as (see Background to Moed Katan 7:14) [since doing so creates an Ayin ha'Ra - evil eye - that may put them at risk of receiving Tzara'as]
150)[last line]"זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה אָדָם כִּי יָמוּת בְּאֹהֶל...""ZOS HA'TORAH ADAM KI YAMUS B'OHEL..."- "This is the law of a person who dies in a tent..." (Bamidbar 19:14). Resh Lakish interprets this verse to read "This is the Torah: a person who dies in a tent...".
151)[last line]סאהSE'AH (DRY MEASURES)
(a)The following is a list of measures of volume used in the Mishnah and Gemara:
1.1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in
2.1 Lesech = 15 Se'in
3.1 Eifah = 3 Se'in
4.1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin
5.1 Tarkav (= Trei v'Kav, or 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin
6.1 Kav = 4 Lugin
7.1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim
8.1 Beitzah = 2 or 3 k'Zeisim, according to the varying opinions
(b)A Se'ah contains approximately 7.2, 8.3, or 14.4 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.