[54a - 44 lines; 54b - 54 lines]
1)[line 1]נחשדו ישראל על השביעיתNECHSHEDU YISRAEL AL HA'SHEVI'IS- Jews are suspected of transgressing the laws of Shevi'is [and their own Shemitah observance may therefore be adversely affected when they see that others were lax]
2)[line 4]זימניןZIMNIN- sometimes
3)[line 4]מיקלע יום ל' בשבתMIKLA YOM SHELOSHIM B'SHABBOS- the thirtieth day [before Rosh Hashanah of Shevi'is] fell out on Shabbos
4)[line 5]הוא דסלקא ליה שתאHU D'SALKA LEI SHASA- it is that [day] that completes a year. For the purposes of Orlah, a tree planted thirty days before Rosh Hashanah is considered to have lived for one year. Our Gemara explains that it is possible that people will be confused as to how the fruits of a tree are permitted, and the explanation will entail detailing how it was planted on Shabbos.
5)[line 9]אתריהASREI- the place of residence
6)[line 11]"דייר בר דיירתא!""DAYAR BAR DAYARTA!"- "Convert, son of a woman convert!"
7)[line 13]אכל תרומה טמאה משלם חולין טהוריןACHAL TERUMAH TEME'AH, MESHALEM CHULIN TEHORIN - if [a non-Kohen] ate Terumah that was Teme'ah, he nonetheless makes reparations with Chulin that is Tahor (TASHLUMEI TERUMAH)
(a)Once a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Terumah is one of the twenty-four Matnos Kehunah (gifts given to Kohanim by non-Kohanim). Although the Torah does not specify how much to give, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop. Until Terumah and Ma'asros (tithes) have been properly separated, the produce is termed "Tevel" and may not be eaten.
(b)Terumah may be eaten by Kohanim, their wives, their unmarried daughters, and their Nochri slaves. It may be eaten only when they are Tehorim. If the wife of a Kohen is not herself the daughter of a Kohen, she may eat Terumah only as long as her husband or at least one of their sons is alive (Vayikra 22:11, Bamidbar 18:11; see Nidah 44a). If the daughter of a Kohen marries a Yisrael, she may not eat Terumah. If, however, she is widowed or divorced without children, then she returns to her father's house and may once again eat Terumah.
(c)Should a non-Kohen consume Terumah unknowingly, he must make restitution with a food item. That item, called Tashlumei Terumah, becomes Terumah upon its designation as repayment. The Keren (principle) must be paid to the Kohen who owned the Terumah (see Insights, Pesachim 32). In addition, he is fined a Chomesh (one fifth) of the ensuing total, which is equal to one fourth of the Terumah eaten. This may be given to any Kohen (Terumos 6:2).
(d)If the Terumah was ingested in an abnormal fashion (e.g., olive oil was quaffed instead of used as a dip), then the non-Kohen need only pay as he would for damage caused (Nezek). He need not add a Chomesh.
(e)A non-Kohen who eats or benefits from Terumah b'Mezid (intentionally) does not repay the Kohen with a food item; he makes restitution with money. He is also exempt from paying a Chomesh. He is, however, liable to receive Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a; see Background to Yevamos 3:27).
(f)The Beraisa cited by our Gemara discusses the restitution that must be made by one who ate Terumah that was Tamei. Such Tum'ah is of less value than Terumah Tehorah, since no one may eat it. The only options a Kohen has are to feed it to his animals or to burn it a fuel. The Beraisa states that although the Terumah was not fit for human consumption, the non-Kohen who consumed must still repay the Kohen with food that is Tahor.
8)[line 15]בשוגגB'SHOGEG- if he was unaware [that the Chulin were Teme'im]
9)[line 17]תשלומיו תשלומיןTASHLUMAV TASHLUMIN- his repayment counts [and the Chulin becomes Terumah Teme'ah]
10)[line 18]והוינן בהHAVINAN BAH- they delved into [the reasoning of this Beraisa]
11)[line 20]קא משלם ליה מידי דחזי ליה בימי טומאתוKA MESHALEM LEI MIDI D'CHAZI LEI BI'YEMEI TUM'ASO- he [intended to] repay him with that which is fitting for him to eat when he is Tamei [even though ultimately this was not the case since the Chulin became Terumah after it was given to the Kohen]
12)[line 22]אמרי לה כדיAMRI LAH KEDI- some say it was a) [asked by] an Amora named] Kedi; b) [asked] anonymously (RASHI to 85b)
13)[line 23]כל דהוKOL D'HU- any [kind of Chulin, whether Tehorim or Teme'im]
14)[line 26]תשלומיו תשלומיןTASHLUMAV TASHLUMIN- his repayment counts a) [since mid'Oraisa it is valid as long as the volume of food equals that of the Terumah consumed] (RASHI); b) [as long as the value of the Terumah Teme'ah equals that of the Terumah Tehorah consumed] (TOSFOS DH Achal)
15)[line 30]בקנסו שוגג אטו מזיד איכא בינייהוB'KANSU SHOGEG ATU MEZID IKA BEINAIHU- Rav Acha brei d'Rav Ika stresses that the only Machlokes between Rebbi Meir and the Chachamim is whether or not one who acts unintentionally is fined. When Rebbi Meir said that the repayment of one who intentionally makes restitution with Chulin Teme'in counts, what he meant was that it belongs to the Kohen but that he still must repay with Chulin Tehorin - just as the Chachamim rule (Yevamos 90a).
16)[line 32]הכי השתא?HACHI HASHTA?- now [is this] so?
17a)[line 33]גברא לשלומי קא מיכויןGAVRA LI'SHLUMEI KA MICHAVEIN- the man's intention is to make restitution (as opposed to the cases of our Mishnah, wherein he who unintentionally causes a loss does not do so in an attempt to act constructively)
b)[line 33]אנן ניקום וליקנסיה?ANAN NEIKUM VELI'KNESEI?- shall we then up and fine him?
18)[line 34]דם שנטמא וזרקוDAM SHE'NITMA, V'ZARKO - blood [of a Korban] that became Tamei, and [the Kohen] nonetheless applied it to the Mizbe'ach (ZERIKAS HA'DAM)
(a)The Dam ha'Nefesh (lifeblood) that exits the body of every Korban (sacrifice) following its slaughter is collected in a bowl (Kabalas ha'Dam). It is then applied to the Mizbe'ach. Depending upon the Korban, there are three possible ways that the blood is applied:
1.In the case of a Korban Chatas, it is applied to the Keranos (cubic Amah posts upon the corners of the Mizbe'ach) beginning with the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and continuing to the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern corners. The Kohen accomplishes this by dipping his finger into the bowl and then applying it to each corner.
2.The blood of Korbenos Olah (see Background to Kidushin 55:3), Asham, Shelamim (see Background to Kidushin 55:4), and Todah (see Background to Kidushin 51:7) is applied in a manner known as "Shetayim she'Hen Arba" - "two that are four." This means that the blood is applied twice, but to four sides of the Mizbe'ach. First the Kohen walks to the northeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and applies the blood to the eastern and northern sides of the Mizbe'ach with a single swipe, and then he walks west and then south until he reaches the southwestern corner, at which point he applies the blood to the western and southern sides with a single swipe. This blood is applied below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line that horizontally divides the Mizbe'ach in half), whereas that of a Chatas is applied to the Keranos above the Chut ha'Sikra.
3.The blood of a Korban Pesach (see Background to Sukah 42:39), Bechor (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 28:41), or Ma'aser Behemah (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 18:15) is applied only once to the Mizbe'ach. This is accomplished through dashing it from the bowl within which it was collected against any side of the Mizbe'ach below the Chut ha'Sikra, with the exception of the southeastern corner.
(b)It is through this service that atonement is gained for he who offers the Korban (Vayikra 17:11).
19)[line 35]הורצהHURTZAH - it is appeased, deemed acceptable (RITZUY TZITZ)
(a)If any part of a Korban becomes Tamei, it becomes unfit to be offered. Therefore, if the blood of a Korban becomes Tamei before it is dashed upon the Mizbe'ach (Zerikas ha'Dam), the Zerikah may not be performed. Rebbi Yehoshua rules that even if the Dam remains Tahor, it is prohibited to perform Zerikas ha'Dam if all of the meat and Chelev (fats) of a Korban become Tamei or otherwise unfit before Zerikas ha'Dam (Pesachim 77b). Another application of this law is that if the Emurim (innards) or other parts of a Korban that are offered on the Mizbe'ach become Teme'im, The Kohanim may no longer offer them on the Mizbe'ach.
(b)If blood that was Tamei was dashed b'Di'eved, then that Avodah (service) is not automatically invalid. If the Kohen Gadol was wearing the Tzitz (a thin gold band upon which the words "Kodesh La'Sh-m" are inscribed, worn upon the his forehead) at that time, then the presence of the Tzitz renders the Avodah acceptable. This means that the owner has fulfilled his obligation of offering his Korban, and he may therefore eat from his offering. If the meat of the Korban had become Tamei, then the presence of the Tzitz does render the Korban acceptable, although it does not allow it to be eaten. These Halachos are derived from that which the Tzitz is described as that which "causes them (Klal Yisrael) to find favor in the eyes of HaSh-m" (Shemos 28:38).
20) [line 35] במזיד לא הורצה B'MEZID LO HURTZAH - [if Dam Tamei of a Korban was dashed against the Mizbe'ach] intentionally, then [the Avodah] is not favored [and one may not partake of the meat of the Korban]. This is a Rabbinically instituted decree; mid'Oraisa, the intention of the Kohen who dashed the Dam Tamei is irrelevant. Even after the decree the owner has fulfilled his obligation and need not offer another Korban.
21)[line 37]המעשר בשבתHA'ME'ASER B'SHABBOS- one who separates [Terumos and] Ma'asros (see Background to 52:4) on Shabbos. This is forbidden mid'Rabanan, since it is similar to fixing an item (Tikun Mana).
22)[line 40]המטביל כלים בשבתHA'MATBIL KEILIM B'SHABBOS - one who immerses vessels in a Mikvah on Shabbos (TEVILAS KELIM:SHABBOS)
(a)If a utensil becomes Tamei, it must be immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, it is then Tahor.
(b)The Chachamim decreed that one may not immerse Kelim in a Mikvah on Shabbos or Yom Tov, since it appears as if he is fixing the utensil (Tikun Mana).
23)[line 1]נפלו ונתפצעוNAFLU V'NISPATZ'U- if [a) nuts from the place called Perech (RASHI to Beitzah 3b); b) nuts with a thin, brittle shell (TOSFOS to Yevamos 81b DH Perech) of Orlah (see Background to 53:39)] fell [into similar permitted food items] and then broke into pieces
24)[line 1]אחד שוגג ואחד מזידECHAD SHOGEG V'ECHAD MEZID- whether [they were broken] intentionally or unintentionally
25)[line 1]לא יעלוLO YA'ALU - they do not become nullified (TA'AROVOS: DAVAR CHASHUV)
(a)The status of a mixture containing both that which may and may not be eaten depends upon the ratio of the two elements, as follows:
1.If most of the mixture is Isur, the entire mixture is prohibited mid'Oraisa;
2.If most of the mixture is Heter, but the Isur constitutes more than one sixtieth of the mixture, then the Isur has the status of a "Nosen Ta'am" (giving taste) to the Heter, and it is prohibited mid'Rabanan. (This follows the understanding of those who maintain that "Ta'am k'Ikar" - that the taste of a food item must Halachically be dealt with as its essence - is a Rabbinic law. There are those, however, who are of the opinion that "Ta'am k'Ikar" is mid'Oraisa. According to this view, if the two elements of the mixture do not have the same taste then the entire mixture would be prohibited mid'Oraisa);
3.If the amount of Isur is less than one sixtieth of the Heter, then it is not Nosen Ta'am to the Heter and the mixture is permitted.
(b)These rules apply to normal Isurim. There are, however, Isurim for which the guidelines are more stringent. Some of these exceptions are nullified by a ratio of one hundred parts of Heter to one part of Isur (Terumah; see Background to 52:4), and others by two hundred parts of Heter (Orlah; see Background to 52:29, and Kil'ayim (see below, entry #30). Yet others can never be nullified; some due to their stringency (Avodah Zarah, Chametz according to Rav in Pesachim 30b, and Davar she'Yesh Lo Matirin), and others due to the significance of the Isur (e.g. a Biryah, Chatichah ha'Re'uyah l'Hiskabed, etc.). All of these stringencies are mid'Rabanan in nature.
(c)One example of that which can never be nullified is a Davar Chashuv, an item of substantial value. Tana'im (Orlah 3:6) disagree over what is of substantial enough value to be included in this exception. The Chachamim rule that there are six specific items excluded from the general Halachos of Bitul, Rebbi Akiva adds one additional item, and Rebbi Meir affords such a status to items sold by count (Davar shebe'Minyan) as opposed to by estimate. It is unclear if Rebbi Meir includes items that are always sold by count, or even those that are sometimes sold by count. Rebbi Yochanan maintains the former, whereas Resh Lakish contends that the latter is true.
(d)One example of a Davar Chashuv is Egozei Perech, a certain kind of nut (see above, entry #23). It is this type of nut discussed in the Mishnah cited by our Gemara. The nut maintains its status of a Davar Chashuv only when it is whole; pieces of nut are not significant enough to merit such a classification.
26)[line 4]חד בתרי בטלCHAD BI'TREI BATEL- it is nullified in a ratio of one to two [even when whole]
27)[line 6]אתי לאיערומיASI L'I'ARUMEI- [we suspect that] one may come to deceptively [break them up afterward and claim that it happened accidentally]
28)[line 8]נטיעהNETI'AH- a sapling
29)[line 8]ערלהORLAH- see Background to 52:29
30)[line 8]כלאי הכרםKIL'EI HA'KEREM
(a)The word Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture." Any two items - each of which is permitted alone - which the Torah prohibits one to combine are called Kil'ayim (see Background to Kidushin 39:23a). The Mishnah cited in our Gemara is referring to Kil'ei Zera'im.
(b)Kil'ei Zera'im occurs when two different crops are sown in close proximity to one another, which is forbidden (Vayikra 19:19). This prohibition is punishable by Malkos (lashes). The Mishnayos in Maseches Kil'ayim specify how much distance one is required to leave between various crops.
(c)This prohibition applies only in Eretz Yisrael, and does not apply to vegetables (Kidushin 39a).
(d)The verse describes produce sown as Kil'ei ha'Kerem as having become "Kadosh" (Devarim 22:9). In this context, this means that a) one may not derive any benefit from one of the crops, and b) that crop must be burned. The entire crop need not be uprooted, however. Since the smaller crop is Batel (nullified) to the larger if the ratio is less than a quarter of a Kav per Se'ah (1/24), once it has reached that point than it may be left (Kil'ayim 2:1; see TOSFOS YOM TOV for an explanation for this Halachah).
31)[line 9]לא ילקטLO YELAKET- he may not harvest [the fruits of the tree]. This is because as long as it is growing from the ground it is a Davar Chashuv (see above, entry #25) and it is not nullified. By harvesting it and mixing it with the other produce it does become nullified, which is forbidden to do intentionally.
32)[line 11]לא יתכוין ללקטLO YISKAVEN L'LAKET- his intention was not to nullify it
33)[line 13]אין אדם אוסר את כרמו בנטיעה אחתCHAZAKAH EIN ADAM OSER ES KARMO B'NETI'AH ACHAS- we may presume that one would not [normally] forbid his entire vineyard with a single vine [and the Chachamim therefore had no need to institute a decree for such an unusual case]
34a)[line 17]שפגלוSHE'PIGLU- see Background to 53:14
35)[line 18]היה עושה עמו בטהרותHAYAH OSEH IMO B'TAHAROS- if someone was dealing with food that was Tahor alongside the owner
36)[line 19]היה עושה עמו בזבחיםHAYAH OSEH IMO B'ZEVACHIM- if a Kohen was dealing with a Korban alongside the owner
37)[line 24]כל שבידוKOL SHEB'YADO- as long as it remains within his ability [to cause Tum'ah]
38)[line 30]שורת הדיןSHURAS HA'DIN- the line (i.e., the letter) of the law [is]
39)[line 33]היכןHEICHAN- where
40)[line 34]כהן גדול ביוה"כKOHEN GADOL B'YOM HA'KIPURIM (PAR V'SA'IR SHEL YOM HA'KIPURIM)
(a)One of the Korbanos offered by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim is a bull purchased with his personal funds (Vayikra 16:3-6). The Kohen Gadol performs Semichah (the placement of both hands upon the head of a Korban and leaning on it with all of one's might) on this bull while reciting Viduy (confession of sins) on behalf of himself and his immediate household (Vayikra 1:4). After drawing the lots for the two identical goats, offering one as a Chatas, and sending the other to Azazel (see below), he again recites Viduy on the bull - this time on behalf of all Kohanim.
(b)He then slaughters it, collects its blood, and sprinkles the blood in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:14), and then again in the Heichal toward the Paroches (the curtain separating the Heichal from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim; ibid. 16:16). After mixing it with the blood of the goat, he then applies it to the Mizbach ha'Ketores in the Heichal (ibid. 16:18). The carcass of the bull is subsequently burned in its entirety outside of Yerushalayim in the same place that the ashes removed from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (the Beis ha'Deshen). The clothing of those who are involved with the burning of the carcass become Tamei (Metamei Begadim). The remainder of its blood is then poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(c)The Mishnah (Shevu'os 2a) states that the service of this Par atones for sins of the Kohanim. The Tana'im disagree as to which sins atonement is gained for:
1.Rebbi Yehudah is of the opinion that the Par of the Kohen Gadol atones for sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Yoma 18:19).
2.Rebbi Shimon maintains that atonement for Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav is provided by the sprinkling of the bull's blood. The Viduy of the Kohen Gadol atones for all other sins of the Kohanim.
(d)Also on Yom ha'Kipurim, two goats identical in every way are led in front of the Kohen Gadol. As part of the service of the day, he casts a Goral (lot) to determine which of the goats will be the Sa'ir La'Sh-m, and which the Sa'ir la'Azazel. The first is offered as a Korban, while the other is dispatched (Mishtale'ach) to Azazel (a rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death.
(e)The Kohen Gadol sprinkles the blood of the Sa'ir La'Sh-m seven times inside the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, as well as in the Heichal toward the Paroches. After mixing it with the blood of the bull, he then applies it to the Mizbach ha'Ketores in the Heichal (Vayikra 16:16,18-19). The carcass of the goat is then burned in its entirety, along with its excrement, outside Yerushalayim in the same place that the ashes emptied from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (the Beis ha'Deshen) (Vayikra 16:27).
(f)The Mishnah (Shevu'os 2a) teaches that the Sa'ir la'Sh-m provides atonement in conjunction with the day of Yom ha'Kipurim for one who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Yoma 18:19). This atonement is provided for one who was initially aware of the Tum'ah and subsequently forgot, as well as for one who committed this sin intentionally (Shevu'os 2b).
(g)No one is allowed to be in the Ohel Mo'ed (Sanctuary) when the Kohen Gadol performs these parts of the Avodah (service). Yet, it is axiomatic that every Korban is able to become Pigul (TOSFOS DH d'Chi). From this, Rebbi Yitzchak bar Bizna suggests, we have proof that a Kohen is believed to say that he had thoughts of Pigul when offering a Korban.
41)[line 37]שמעניה דפגילSHAM'ANEI D'FAGIL- we heard him [express his intentions of] Pigul [out loud]
42)[line 39]חזיניה בפישפשCHAZINEI B'FISHPESH- we saw him [sprinkle the mixed blood upon the Paroches while stating his intentions of Pigul out loud] through the Pishpesh. The Ulam (TY #56) is the roofed hallway in front of the Heichal (Sanctuary; TY #67). With its roof seventeen stories above the ground, it is the largest and most ornate structure in the Beis ha'Mikdash. The Ulam protrudes beyond the Heichal to both the north and south. At the far ends of these projections are two rooms, each fifteen by eleven Amos, where the Shechitah knives belonging to each Mishmar (watch of Kohanim) were kept. These rooms are called the Beis ha'Chalifos (rooms of the Shechitah knives). Two Pishpeshim (small doors), each eight Amos high, open from the corner of each of the Beis ha'Chalifos into the Heichal. The purpose of these doors was to allow the Shechitah of Kodshim Kalim (Korbanos which may be eaten anywhere in Yerushalayim) in any part of the Azarah, since they must be slaughtered at "the entrance to the Sanctuary" (Vayikra 3:2). It was through the northern Pishpesh that the Romans threw the torch that set the Mikdash ablaze during the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash (Josephus).
43)[line 42]אזכרותAZKAROS- names of HaSh-m
44)[line 42]לשמןLISHMAN (SEFER TORAH: KESIVAH LISHMAH)
(a)When one writes a Sefer Torah, he must do so with intent that his writing be imbued with the sanctity of a Sefer Torah. Beyond this, every Azkarah - name of HaSh-m - contained within must be written with intent that it be imbued with the sanctity of the name of HaSh-m, which is a higher degree of sanctity than that of the rest of the scroll. If either of these conditions are not met, then the scroll is invalid.
45)[line 44]שכרךSECHARCHA- your pay
46)[line 47]וליעבר עלייהו קולמוס וליקדשיה?V'LEI'AVAR ALAIHU KULMUS V'LIKDESHEI?- why not trace over [the names] with a quill and sanctify them?
47)[line 48]לא הטיל בו דלתLO HITIL BO DALES- lit. he did not hang a Dales in it; i.e., he left out the letter Dales [leaving the name of HaSh-m]
48)[line 50]אין השם מן המובחרEIN HA'SHEM MIN HA'MUVCHAR- lit. this name is not from the choicest; i.e., it is invalid and must be rewritten (Maseches Sofrim 5:3)
49)[line 52]מיחזי כמנומרMEICHZI K'MENUMAR- it appears speckled
50)[line 53]גויליןGEVILIN- pieces of parchment
51)[line 53]לא עיבדתים לשמןLO IBADTIM LISHMAN- I did not process them with intent [that they be used for a Sefer Torah]