[a - 44 lines; b - 48 lines]

1)[line 1]היינו מדמעHAINU MEDAME'A- is equivalent to the case of one who mixed Terumah with Chulin [since both entail prohibiting that which is permitted by mixing it with that which is prohibited]

2)[line 1]קנסאKENASA- a penalty [which, as opposed to actual reparation for damages rendered, need not follow strictly logical convention]

3)[line 4]קא מפסיד לה לגמריKA MAFSID LAH L'GAMREI- he renders it completely unfit [to be eaten]

4)[line 5]אסור לגרום טומאה לחולין שבארץ ישראלASUR LIGROM TUM'AH L'CHULIN SHEB'ERETZ YISRAEL- it is forbidden to cause Chulin in Eretz Yisrael to become Tamei [since there are Perushim (those who are especially careful in their Mitzvah observance) there who are careful to eat even Chulin in a state of Taharah]

5)[line 7]שכיחSHACHI'ACH- it happens frequently [and the Rabanan therefore are more likely to have instituted a decree to against it happening]

6)[line 12]כדרבי ירמיהKED'REBBI YIRMEYAH- like Rebbi Yirmeyah [who explained that one steals the wine when he picks it up and becomes liable to receive the death penalty only when he pours it]

7)[line 14]כל הני למה לי?KOL HANEI LAMAH LI?- why do we need all of the cases [as that of Medame'a appears to be obvious from the others]?

8)[line 19]לא מפסיד ליה לגמריLO MAFSID LEI L'GAMREI- he does not render it completely unfit [since the Kohen may still feed it to his animals or burn it as fuel]

9)[line 21]הפסד מועטHEFSED MU'AT- a minor loss [since the mixture may still be sold as Terumah, which has a lesser value than Chulin since it is useful only to Kohanim]

10)[line 24]היזק שאינו ניכר שמיה היזקHEZEK SHE'EINO NIKAR SHMEI HEZEK / LAV SHMEI HEZEK - Whether or Not One is Responsible for Unnoticeable Damage

(a)Hezek she'Eino Nikar refers to damage of a spiritual, and therefore unnoticeable, damage. This usually occurs when an object is rendered Halachically prohibited or invalidated for a particular use. Although Amora'im disagree as to whether one is responsible to make reparations for such damage, the Gemara proves that mid'Oraisa one is not responsible for damage that is not readily visible.

11)[line 25]יודיעוYODI'O- so that he should notify the owner

12)[line 26]לאוזוקיL'OZOKEI- to cause him a loss

13)[line 27]אודועי לא מודע ליה?ODO'EI LO MODA LEI?- will he not [then surely] let him know [of the damage that he has caused]?

14)[line 33]שפגלוSHE'PIGLU - who disqualified a sacrifice through improper thoughts (PIGUL)

(a)If one slaughters a sacrifice with intention to offer or eat it after the time within which it must be offered or eaten, it becomes disqualified and may not be eaten (Vayikra 7:18). The verse refers to such a sacrifice as "Pigul", which means "putrid" or "rejected".

(b)One who intentionally consumes at least a k'Zayis of Pigul is liable to receive Kares (see Background to Yevamos 3:27); if he eats it unintentionally then he must offer a Korban Chatas.

15)[line 33]מזידיםMEZIDIN- if they were aware that such thoughts invalidate the Korban

16)[line 39]מי חטאת... פרת חטאתMEI CHATAS... PARAS CHATAS - The Purification of One who Became Tamei from a Corpse

(a)A Parah Adumah (also referred to as a Paras Chatas) is a red cow; if there are as many as two hairs of any other color it is not a Parah Adumah (see Maseches Parah 2:5). Only a cow that has never had a yoke placed upon it nor performed any other work is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim (also known as Har ha'Mishchah; "Mishchah" means oil), opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. Its carcass is then burned. A cedar branch, some Ezov (hyssop) branches, and a length of combed wool dyed crimson are thrown into the carcass of the cow as it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).

(b)Should a person or utensil become Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to immerse in a Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three bound Ezov branches into the mixture, using them to sprinkle Mei Chatas upon the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

(c)The Torah states that Mei Chatas should be guarded (Bamidbar 19:9). Chazal interpret this to mean that no work, such as placing an item into the mixture and measuring how high it rises, may be performed with Mei Chatas. Furthermore, one may not actively divert his intention from using the mixture as Mei Chatas at any time.

17a)[line 39]דיני אדםDINEI ADAM- laws of man; i.e., those enforced by Beis Din

b)[line 40]דיני שמיםDINEI SHAMAYIM- laws of Heaven; i.e., those enforced through Heavenly means such as trials, tribulations, and other "Acts of G-d" that effect a person

18)[line 41]הוא מותיב לה, והוא מפרק להHU MOSIV LAH, V'HU MEFAREK LAH- he asked [the question], and he [himself] answered it

19)[line 43]רבקהRIVKAH- a threshing floor

20)[line 43]על מנת שתינק ותדושAL MENAS SHE'TINAK V'SADUSH- so that it should suckle [from its mother] and thresh [the grain underfoot along with the other animals in the barn]. If one's intention had been only that it feed, even if grains were threshed while it nursed this would not be considered the performance of work. It was only the intention that the red calf suckle that rendered it unfit as a Parah Adumah. This is only indirect damage (a Gerama), for which one is not held liable in Beis Din.

21)[last line]שקל בהן משקלותSHAKAL BAHEN MISHKALOS- he weighed items against them [on a balance scale] (in which case there was no action taken with the water itself; it was only his intention to use it as a counterweight that invalidated it)

53b----------------------------------------53b

22a)[line 2]הא בגופןHA B'GUFAN- that [which the Mishnah teaches that Mei Chatas is invalid refers to a case] in which [items are measured with the water] itself [through submerging them and measuring how high the water rises] (unlike the Gemara originally understood)

b)[line 2]הא בכנגדןHA B'CHENEGDAN- that [which Rava taught that Mei Chatas is valid refers to a case] in which [items are weighed] opposite them [on a balance scale]

23a)[line 5]הא דאסח דעתיהHA D'ASACH DATEI- that [which Rava taught that Mei Chatas is valid refers to a case] in which his attention was distracted [from intending that the mixture be used as Mei Chatas]

b)[line 5]הא דלא אסח דעתיהHA D'LO ASACH DA'ATEI- that [which the Mishnah teaches that Mei Chatas is invalid refers to a case] in which his attention was not distracted [from intending that the mixture be used as Mei Chatas]

24)[line 7]נפסלNIFSAL- it was cancelled [and taken out of circulation]

25)[line 7]חמץ, עבר עליו הפסחCHAMETZ, V'AVAR ALAV HA'PESACH - Chametz, and he left it [in his possession] over Pesach (BAL YERA'EH / BAL YIMATZEI)

(a)Aside from the prohibition against eating Chametz or Se'or (sourdough; a very heavily fermented dough that is mixed with fresh dough as a leavening agent) on Pesach, two Mitzvos prohibition owning Chametz or Se'or over Pesach. These are "Bal Yera'eh" - a prohibition against allowing Chametz or Se'or to be seen in one's possession (Shemos 13:7), and "Bal Yimatzei" - a prohibition against allowing Chametz or Se'or to be found in one's possession (Shemos 12:19).

(b)The Rishonim discuss whether the prohibition of Bal Yera'eh applies only to Chametz or Se'or which is actually seen on Pesach, or if it applies even to Chametz or Se'or which could theoretically be seen. Bal Yimatzei, on the other hand, applies to all Chametz or Se'or in one's possession, whether it is revealed or hidden away.

(c)Mid'Rabanan, it is prohibited to eat or derive any Hana'ah (benefit) from Chametz or Se'or that was in the possession of a Jew through Pesach. (d) The Mishnah cited by our Gemara discusses a case of one whose stolen Chametz remained in his possession through Pesach.

26)[line 10]ממונא מעליא בעי שלומיMAMONA MA'ALYA BA'EI SHELUMEI- he should be required to pay full value

27)[line 15]מר סבר לא שמיה היזקMAR SAVAR LO SHMEI HEZEK- [Rebbi Yehudah] maintains that it is not Halachically considered damage [and yet he still must pay if it was inflicted intentionally due to a Rabbinic decree (as Rebbi Yochanan explained on 53a)]

28)[line 20]רמיRAMI- posed a contradiction

29)[line 22]המבשלHA'MEVASHEL- one who cooks (one of the thirty-nine creative acts of labor prohibited on Shabbos)

30a)[line 23]יאכלYOCHAL- he [himself] may eat [the food, even on Shabbos]

b)[line 23]לא יאכלLO YOCHAL- he [and others] may not eat [the food until enough time has elapsed after Shabbos for it to have been cooked in a permissible manner]

31a)[line 24]יאכל למוצאי שבתYOCHAL L'MOTA'EI SHABBOS- he [and others] may eat [the food only once enough time has elapsed] after Shabbos [for it to have been cooked in a permissible manner]

b)[line 25]לא יאכל עולמיתLO YOCHAL OLAMIS- he may never eat [the food, although others may do so once enough time has elapsed after Shabbos for it to have been cooked in a permissible manner]

32)[line 26]יאכל למוצאי שבתYE'ACHEL L'MOTZA'EI SHABBOS- it may be eaten [once enough time has elapsed] after Shabbos [for it to have been cooked in a permissible manner]

33a)[line 28]קשיא דרבי מאיר אדרבי מאירKASHYA D'REBBI MEIR AD'REBBI MEIR- it is a contradiction in the rulings of Rebbi Meir [since we earlier inferred that Rebbi Meir rules that one is penalized for actions performed unintentionally, and in this ruling he appears to maintain that one is not]

b)[line 29]קשיא דרבי יהודה אדרבי יהודהKASHYA D'REBBI YEHUDAH AD'REBBI YEHUDAH- it is a contradiction in the rulings of Rebbi Yehudah [since we earlier inferred that Rebbi Yehudah rules that one is not penalized for actions performed unintentionally, and in this ruling he appears to maintain that one is]

34)[line 30]כי קניס בדרבנןKI KANIS BID'RABANAN- [the only time when] one is penalized [for actions performed unintentionally is] when [he transgressed] a Rabbinic decree [since people tend to treat such decrees more leniently than Mitzvos d'Oraisa, and they therefore need to be backed up more stringently]

35)[line 32]חומראCHUMRA- the severity

36)[line 34]כי לא קניס בדרבנןKI LO KANIS BID'RABANAN- one is not penalized [for actions performed unintentionally] when [he transgressed] a Rabbinic decree [since they are not as severe as Mitzvos d'Oraisa]

37)[line 36]מיבדל בדילי מיניהMIVDAL BEDILEI MINEI- people are careful to stay far away from it

38a)[line 38]הנוטעHA'NOTE'A- one who plants (one of the thirty-nine creative acts of labor prohibited on Shabbos)

b)[line 38]יעקרYE'AKER- it must be uprooted

39)[line 39]שביעיתSHEVI'IS - The Seventh Year

(a)One must desist from working the land every seventh year (Vayikra 25:1-7); this year is termed Shemitah or Shevi'is. Produce which grows during the seventh (Shevi'is) year is holy, which in this context means:

1.It is considered ownerless; anyone may enter a field and pick that which he wishes to eat.

2.It may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 40:1).

3.It may be consumed only in the manner considered normal for that type of food, or burned to provide illumination in the case of oil. It may not be wasted, used for medicinal purposes, fed to animals, etc.

40)[last line]ישראל מונין לשביעיתYISRAEL MONIN LI'SHEVI'IS - Jews count [backwards] to the Shemitah year [due to the restricted years of Orlah and Reva'i] (ORLAH / REVA'I)

(a)One may not derive any benefit from fruit produced by a fruit tree in the first three years following its planting. These fruits are termed "Orlah" (Vayikra 19:23). This status applies not only to the fruit but also to the peel of the fruit (Kelipei Orlah).

(b)If one consumes a k'Zayis of Orlah fruit, he receives Malkus. According to most Rishonim one who derives benefit from Orlah (or any other food that is Asur b'Hana'ah) is punished with Malkus as well (TOSFOS to Chulin 120a DH Ela). There are those, however, who maintain that for such a transgression one receives only Makas Mardus (Malkus instituted by the Rabanan; RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 8:16 - see also Mishneh l'Melech to Yesodei ha'Torah 5:8).

(c)Fruit that grows in the fourth year, following those of Orlah, is called Reva'i. The Torah refers to these fruits as Kodesh (Vayikra 19:24). They must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity. Alternatively, one may be Podeh (redeem) the fruits, in which case the money equal to their value gains the status of the original fruits of Reva'i. It must be brought to Yerushalayim, and spent there to purchase food products that must be eaten while one is in a state of purity.

(d)The Gemara records a disagreement as to whether the laws of Reva'i apply to all fruits (Neta Reva'i) or only to grapes (Kerem Reva'i). In Eretz Yisrael, the Halachah follows the opinion that the laws of Neta Reva'i apply to all fruits.

(e)Our Gemara explains that the reason why even produce planted unintentionally on Shevi'is must be uprooted is that it will be obvious that it had been planted on Shevi'is when people count backward from the years of Orlah and Reva'i. The Rabanan were therefore concerned that people will come under the impression that it is permitted to plant during the Shemitah year.

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