BENEFIT FROM SOMETHING DONE ON YOM TOV
(Rav Ashi): The deer was not trapped on Yom Tov, rather, it was brought from outside the Techum;
The ones who ate held that something brought [from outside the Techum] for one Yisrael is permitted for another;
Rav Sheshes did not eat, for he holds that everything brought to the Reish Galusa's house is brought for Chachamim.
Question: Rav Sheshes heard Rabah bar Shmuel's Beraisa (concerning two Kedushos) and was embarrassed!
Answer (Rav Ashi): That dialogue never occurred!
A turnip was brought to Rava's city [on Yom Tov]. He saw that it was wilted. He permitted to buy it [if needed for Yom Tov], for surely it was not picked today.
Question: Perhaps it was brought from outside the Techum!
Answer: Something brought for one Yisrael is permitted for another. All the more so this turnip, which was brought for Nochrim (surely, most Yisraelim do not buy on Yom Tov), is permitted.
Rava [later] saw that many were brought. He forbade them, for surely they are brought for [all] Yisrael.
On Yom Tov Sheni, Nochrim detached myrtle for people who make crowns for Chasanim. Ravina permitted people to smell it immediately at night.
Rava bar Tachlifa: You should forbid, for people here are not Bnei Torah! (They might come to disgrace Yom Tov Sheni.)
Objection (Rav Shemayah): This implies that Bnei Torah would be permitted. They should have to wait after dark the time needed to cut it!
(Rava): They must wait the time needed to cut it. (This is a decree, lest Yisraelim ask Nochrim to do Melachah on Shabbos or Yom Tov.)
MENTIONING ROSH CHODESH IN PRAYER
(Mishnah - R. Dosa): The Shali'ach Tzibur...
Question (Rabah and other Talmidim of Rav Huna): Do we mention Rosh Chodesh [in prayer] on Rosh Hashanah?
Since they have separate Korbanos Musafim, we should mention Rosh Chodesh;
Or, since we say 'Yom ha'Zikaron' [and Rosh Chodesh is also "l'Zikaron"], it is as if we also mentioned Rosh Chodesh!
Answer (Rav Huna - Mishnah - R. Dosa): The Shali'ach Tzibur [says '...on this day of Rosh Chodesh...'; Chachamim disagree].
Suggestion: They disagree about saying 'on this day of Rosh Chodesh...'!
Rejection: No, they disagree about stipulating [if today is Rosh Chodesh...]
Support (Beraisa): R. Dosa did so on every Rosh Chodesh. Chachamim disagreed.
If they argue about stipulating, we understand why they argue about every Rosh Chodesh;
However, there is no reason not to mention Rosh Chodesh [except for Rosh Hashanah, when we already say 'Yom ha'Zikaron']!
Question: If they argue about stipulating, why must the argument be taught regarding Rosh Hashanah and repeated regarding other Roshei Chodoshim?
They must argue about both;
Had they argued only about Rosh Hashanah, one might have thought that only there Chachamim forbid stipulating, lest people disgrace Yom Tov [for they hear that it is only a Safek];
If they only argued about other Roshei Chodoshim, one might have thought that R. Dosa agrees about Rosh Hashanah [lest people disgrace Yom Tov].
Question (Beraisa - Beis Shamai): If Rosh Hashanah is on Shabbos, one says 10 Berachos [in Musaf. The usual three at the beginning and three at the end, Kedushas ha'Yom of Shabbos, Shofaros, Zichronos, and one Berachah encompassing Malchuyos and Kedushas ha'Yom of Rosh Hashanah];
Beis Hillel say, one says nine. (Kedushas ha'Yom of Shabbos is included in Malchuyos.)
If we also mention [Kedushas ha'Yom of] Rosh Chodesh, Beis Shamai should say that there are 11 Berachos!
Answer (R. Zeira): [Really, 'Zikaron' for Rosh Hashanah does not count for Rosh Chodesh. Kedushas ha'Yom of] Rosh Chodesh [on Shabbos] is different. Since it is not a Berachah by itself in Shacharis and Ma'ariv [and Minchah; even if Rosh Chodesh is on a Yom Chol, we merely add Ya'aleh v'Yavo in Retzei], in Musaf it is included with Kedushas ha'Yom [of Shabbos, whether or not it is Rosh Hashanah].
Objection: Beis Shamai do not include [Rosh Chodesh in Kedushas ha'Yom of Shabbos at Musaf]!
(Beraisa - Beis Shamai): If Rosh Chodesh is on Shabbos, one says eight Berachos [in Musaf. Kedushas ha'Yom of Shabbos and of Rosh Chodesh are separate];
Beis Hillel say, he says seven.
This is left difficult. (Rashba - we must say that 'Zikaron' for Rosh Hashanah counts for Rosh Chodesh. It is not clear why the Gemara asks below (m) about the conclusion. Ritva - perhaps 'Zikaron' for Rosh Hashanah does not count for Rosh Chodesh, nevertheless since they are similar, they are included in one Berachah.)
Tana'im argue about whether or not we include [Kedushas ha'Yom of Rosh Chodesh with that of Shabbos in Ma'ariv, Shacharis a Minchah];
(Beraisa): When Shabbos is Rosh Chodesh or Chol ha'Mo'ed, one says the usual seven Berachos [for Shabbos] at Ma'ariv, Shacharis and Minchah, and mentions Rosh Chodesh or Chol ha'Mo'ed [in Ya'aleh v'Yavo] in Retzei;
R. Eliezer says, he mentions it in Modim.
If he did not mention it, he must repeat [Shemoneh Esre].
In Musaf, he begins and ends like for Shabbos, and says Kedushas ha'Yom in the middle;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel and R. Yishmael, son of R. Yochanan ben Brokah say, whenever one says seven Berachos (this includes Ma'ariv and Shacharis), he begins and ends like for Shabbos, and says Kedushas ha'Yom [for Rosh Chodesh or Chol ha'Mo'ed] in the middle.
Question: What was the conclusion?
Answer (Rav Chisda and Rabah): One mention suffices for Rosh Hashanah and Rosh Chodesh.
SHEHECHEYANU ON ROSH HASHANAH AND YOM KIPUR
Question (Rabah and other Talmidim of Rav Huna): Do we say Zeman (bless Shehecheyanu) on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kipur?
Since they come at a fixed time, we say it;
Or, since they are not called Regalim (pilgrimage festivals), we do not say it!
Rav Huna could not answer.
Answer (Rav Yehudah): I say Zeman even on new gourds [when they come into season. All the more so one may say it for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kipur!]
Question (Rabah): I knew that one may say it. I ask whether or not one must say it!
Answer (Rav Yehudah citing Rav and Shmuel): One says Zeman only on the three Regalim.
Question (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): "Ten Chelek l'Shiv'ah v'Gam li'Shmonah" - Shiv'ah refers to the seven days of creation, Shemoneh refers to the eight days until circumcision;
R. Yehoshua says, Shiv'ah are the days of Pesach, and Shemoneh are the days of Sukos. "V'Gam" includes Shavu'os, Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kipur.
Suggestion: [R. Yehoshua expounds that] we say Zeman at these times!
Answer: No, we bless [Mekadesh Yisrael veha'Zmanim].
Support: Surely, it does not refer to Zeman, for we do not say Zeman all seven days of Pesach!
Rejection: Perhaps it teaches that if one did not say Zeman at the beginning of Pesach, he may say it later, within the seven days of Pesach!
Question: [This is difficult if] one must say Zeman over a cup [of wine! Rashi - most people do not have wine after the first day. This is surprising, since it is a Mitzvah to have wine every day of the festival; also, if one has wine for Kidush of the last day of Yom Tov or Shabbos, he could drink part for Zeman and dilute the remainder for Kidush, or make Kidush on bread! Perhaps the question was really based on Yom Kipur, like we ask after this, and Rashi explains how the one who answered this question understood it.]
Suggestion: This supports Rav Nachman, who permits saying Zeman even in the market [without wine or bread]!
Answer: No, he teaches that one can say Zeman later during the seven days if he happens to have wine.
Question: We understand that one says Zeman on Shavu'os and Rosh Hashanah [over wine]. How is this possible on Yom Kipur?
He cannot say Zeman [shortly before Yom Kipur] and drink the wine, for once he says Zeman, he accepts Yom Tov, so he may not drink!
(Once, it was cloudy and it appeared to Rav that Shabbos had come. He prayed Ma'ariv, and then found out that it was not yet night.) R. Yirmeyah bar Aba asked Rav 'Badalta?' (Did you accept to refrain from Melachah?) Rav answered 'yes'. (Ritva - this episode shows that it depends on intent to accept Kedushas ha'Yom.)
He cannot say Zeman and leave the wine, for one who blesses must taste!
Answer: He says Zeman and gives the wine to a child to drink.
Rejection: Perhaps the child will get used to this and continue to do so when he matures. The Halachah does not follow Rav Acha bar Yakov. (Tosfos - Rav Mesharshiya paid a Nochri child to plant hops in a vineyard for him. Rav Acha bar Yakov thought that one may pay a Yisrael child to do so. We reject this, lest the child get used to planting Kil'ayim.)
Question: What was the conclusion?
Answer: Rabanan sent Rav Yemar to see what Rav Chisda does on Erev Rosh Hashanah. Rav Chisda said 'Surely, you came to learn this Halachah.' He made Kidush and said Zeman.
The Halachah is, one must say Zeman on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kipur. The Halachah is, one may say Zeman even in the market.
TIMES WE DO NOT COMPLETE A FAST
Question (Rabah and other Talmidim of Rav Huna): If a Talmid fasts on Erev Shabbos, should he complete the fast?
Rav Huna and Rav Yehudah could not answer.