QUESTIONS AGAINST BOTH OPINIONS
Question (against Rav Papa - Beraisa): If a caravan camped in a valley and surrounded it with camels, saddles, pillows, loads, sticks, and stalks [of vegetables], one may carry inside, as long as the gaps between camels [or saddles...] are not as big as the width of the camels [or saddles...]
Answer: It means 'as long as the gaps between camels [or saddles...] is not as big as the camels with leeway.'
Question (against Rav Papa - Beraisa): There are three kinds of Mechitzos [regarding Kil'ayim, to permit sowing diverse seeds on each side]:
If posts less than three Tefachim wide are stuck in the ground, there cannot be three Tefachim between them, for then Gediyim Bok'im Bo;
If the posts are between three and four [Tefachim wide], the gaps cannot be as big as the posts, for this would be Parutz k'Omed;
If Parutz Merubah Al ha'Omed, even what is opposite the Omed (part that is standing) is forbidden.
If the posts are between four Tefachim and 10 Amos wide, the gaps cannot be as big as the posts, for this would be Parutz k'Omed;
If Parutz k'Omed, what is opposite the Omed is permitted, but what is opposite the Parutz is forbidden;
If Omed Merubah Al ha'Parutz, even what is opposite the Parutz is permitted.
If there is a breach more than 10 Amos, it is forbidden.
If poles were inserted in the ground and one made Pei'ah (a vine stretched from one pole to another) on top, even if the poles are more than 10 from each other, it is permitted.
Summation of question: The second clause, when the posts are between three and four, does not allow Parutz k'Omed!
Answer: It means that the gaps may not be as big as the posts with leeway.
Support: It says that if Parutz Merubah Al ha'Omed, even what is opposite the Omed is forbidden;
Inference: If Parutz k'Omed, everything is permitted! (Do not say that whether the planks are between three and four, or from four other 10, when Parutz Merubah, all is forbidden; when Parutz k'Omed, only opposite the Omed is permitted, and when Omed Merubah, all is permitted. If so, why did the Beraisa teach separately less than four and above four? Also, we challenge the Amora'im, who both hold that Parutz k'Omed does not have a third status. It is either like Omed Merubah, or like Parutz Merubah.
Question: This refutes Rav Huna!
Counter-question (Seifa): If Omed Merubah Al ha'Parutz, even what is opposite the Parutz is permitted.
Inference: If Omed k'Parutz, it is forbidden!
The Seifa is difficult for Rav Papa, and the Reisha is difficult for Rav Huna!
Answer - part 1 (for Rav Papa): Since the Reisha discussed Parutz Merubah Al ha'Omed, the Seifa mentioned Omed Merubah Al ha'Parutz. (Really, even Parutz k'Omed is permitted.)
Answer - part 2 (for Rav Huna): Since the Seifa will discuss Omed Merubah Al ha'Parutz, the Reisha mentioned Parutz Merubah Al ha'Omed. (Really, even Parutz k'Omed is forbidden.)
Question: According to Rav Papa, when the posts are [exactly] three wide, the gaps can be [exactly] three. This explains why the Reisha discussed only poles less than [but not equal to] three;
However, according to Rav Huna, even when the posts are three the gaps must be less than three. The Reisha should have discussed when the poles are less than or equal to three!
Answer: It did not teach these together because they are invalid for different reasons:
When the posts are less than three, the gaps must be less than three to prevent Beki'as Gediyim. (We cannot say that it is due to Omed k'Parutz, for a gap less than three are permitted even if Omed k'Parutz.);
When the posts are three, the gaps must be smaller because Omed k'Parutz is forbidden! (We cannot say that it is due to Beki'as Gediyim, for if it were Omed Merubah Al ha'Parutz, Beki'as Gediyim would not forbid.)
Question: The Reisha does not allow a gap of three. This is like Chachamim, who say that less than three is Lavud;
The Seifa (next clause) discusses between three and four. This is like R. Shimon ben Gamliel, for according to Chachamim, three and four [or more] are the same!
Answer #1 (Abaye): Since the Reisha is Chachamim, also the Seifa is. They require the Omed to be four wide to permit what is opposite it [even when the wall does not permit the entire area, because Omed k'Parutz or Merubah Al ha'Parutz. See Perush Chai diagram, Perek 1 number 226, in the English Charts section.]
Answer #2 (Rava): Since the Seifa is R. Shimon, also the Reisha is. He applies Lavud [up to four Tefachim] only above, but not near the ground, due to Beki'as Gediyim.
Question (against Rav Papa - Beraisa): If these walls [of a Chatzer] are Ruban (mostly) openings and windows, it is permitted, as long as there is Omed Merubah Al ha'Parutz.
Objection: If they are mostly openings and windows, this is Parutz Merubah!
Correction: Rather, if Riban (there are many) openings and windows, it is permitted, as long as there is Omed Merubah Al ha'Parutz.
Conclusion: Omed k'Parutz is forbidden. Rav Papa is refuted.
The Halachah follows Rav Papa.
Question: If he is refuted, the Halachah cannot follow him!
Answer: (Tana'im argue about this.) Our Mishnah is like Rav Papa:
(Mishnah): The gaps may not exceed the Omed.
Inference: They may equal the Omed.
HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL MECHITZOS
(Mishnah): [If a caravan camped in a valley], they may surround it with three ropes, one above the other, as long as there are not three Tefachim between successive ropes;
The total thickness of the ropes must be more than a Tefach, in order that the top of the top rope will be at least 10 Tefachim.
One may surround with sticks [stuck in the ground], as long as there are not three Tefachim between them.
R. Yehudah says, these Heterim were given only for a caravan;
Chachamim say, these Heterim always apply. They were mentioned regarding a caravan because this is a typical case.
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah says, the Mechitzah must be horizontal and vertical (e.g. sticks and ropes);
Chachamim say, it can be horizontal or vertical.
(Gemara - Rav Hamnuna): We learned that Omed Merubah Al ha'Parutz permits a vertical Mechitzah [even if Lavud does not apply, i.e. there are gaps of three Tefachim];
Question (Rav Hamnuna): Does Omed Merubah Al ha'Parutz permit a horizontal Mechitzah?
Answer (Abaye - Mishnah): The total thickness of the ropes must exceed a Tefach, so the top will be at least 10.
If Omed Merubah Al ha'Parutz permits a horizontal Mechitzah, the thickness could be any amount, the spaces between each rope and another [or the ground] would be [just less than] three, three and four Tefachim!
Objection - Question: Where can the gap of [almost] four be [and not forbid]?
If the bottom rope is four off the ground, Gediyim Bok'im Bo;
If the top gap is four, [the top rope is not Lavud to another], the air above and below it is Mevatel it;
If the middle gap is four, it is Omed Merubah Al ha'Parutz from two sides. (The 'plank' on either side is smaller than the gap, but together they are bigger than the gap. We consider above and below like planks of three Tefachim, due to Lavud.)
Suggestion: Must we say that indeed, the middle gap is four, and Omed Merubah Al ha'Parutz from both sides permits?! (Ga'on Yakov - we concluded (10b) that it does not permit!)
Correction: Rather, Rav Hamnuna asks about a mat more than seven Tefachim wide. One carved out three Tefachim and left four [above] and Mashehu [below], and hung it within three of the ground.
(Rav Ashi): He asks about whether or not a hanging Mechitzah permits, like R. Tavla:
Question (R. Tavla): Does a hanging Mechitzah permit carrying in a ruined house?
Answer (Rav): Chachamim gave this leniency only regarding [a Mechitzah over] water.
(Mishnah): One may surround with sticks... [R. Yehudah says, these Heterim were given only for a caravan].
Inference: They were given only for a caravan, not for an individual.
Contradiction (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): All [these leniencies regarding] Mechitzos (e.g. horizontal or vertical sticks) do not permit an individual more than Beis Sa'atayim. (However, less than this they permit.)
Answer: We answer like Rav Nachman answered elsewhere. Only a caravan is permitted as much as needed [even if it is more than Beis Sa'atayim].
Question: Where did Rav Nachman give this answer?
Answer (Mishnah - R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah): The Mechitzah must be horizontal and vertical.
Contradiction (Beraisa - R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah): [Horizontal] ropes permit an individual or a caravan. The only difference is that we allow only up to Beis Sa'atayim for one or two people, but three are a caravan. They get up to [Beis Sa'atayim for each, in all] six Beis Sa'im;
Chachamim say, the Halachah is the same for an individual or a caravan. We permit as much as they need, just there may not be Beis Sa'atayim free [more than is needed].
Answer (Rav Nachman): In our Mishnah, R. Yosi requires the Mechitzah to be horizontal and vertical to permit as much as needed (more than Beis Sa'atayim for an individual, or six Beis Sa'im for three people).
(Rav Nachman citing Shmuel): We allow up to Beis Sa'atayim for one or two people, but three are a caravan, they get up to six Beis Sa'im.
Question: Why do you rules like R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah, and unlike Chachamim?!
Retraction (Rav Nachman): I erred! Rather, we allow up to Beis Sa'atayim for one or two people, but three are a caravan, they get as much as needed.