hebrew
1)

What are the implications of "Ki Esa el Shamayim Yadi"?

1.

Rashi #1 (according to R. Yehudah): 'In My burning anger, I will raise My hand to Myself 1 in an oath'. 2

2.

Rashi #2 (according to R. Nechemyah, citing Targum Onkelos): 'I permanently rest My Shechinah 3 in the Heaven'. 4

3.

Ramban #1: 'I will raise My Hand to swear by My Throne!' 5

4.

Ramban #2 (According to Kabalah): It refers to Hashem's Right Hand - the 'Yad ha'Gedolah' 6 that fights on behalf of Yisrael, 7 and which 'I cast down from Heaven to earth at the time of the Galus ... ".

5.

Da'as Zekenim, Hadar Zekenim: I swear with My hand to take vengeance on them.

6.

Targum Yonasan: "For I raise My Hand in an oath to the heaven'.


1

See Sifsei Chachamim.

2

Rashbam: As in Bereishis 14:22, and as in Daniel, 12:7 - Seforno.

3

"Yadi refers to the location of the Shechinah - as in Bamidbar, 2:17 - "Ish Al Yado".

4

Rashi: Even if the weaker rival is on high ground, the stronger rival, who is on lower ground, is afraid of him, how much more so will a weaker rival below fear a stronger rival above!

5

Ramban: Because whoever swears, raises his hand and touches the object on which he is swearing.

6

See 14:31.

7

Ramban: Which is synonymous with 'Tif'eres Yisrael'.

2)

What are the implications of "Chai Anochi Le'olam"?

1.

Rashi #1 (according to R. Yehudah) and Seforno: 'Chai Anochi' is the wording of the oath 1 - ' I swear that as I live forever ... !' 2

2.

Rashi #2 (on Pasuk 43, according to R. Nechemyah): refer to 32:40:1:2*. 'I could have punished you there and then; However, since I live forever, I was in no hurry to do so - I can punish in your lifetimes, or after death. 3

3.

Ramban: 'I am now going to revive My Yad ha'Gedolah (refer to 32:40:1:4), when I sharpen the blade of My sword ... . 4

4.

Targum Yonasan: 'Just as I exist, so will I not negate My oath forever!'

5.

Da'as Zekenim, Rosh: [Also] this is an expression of a Shevu'ah


1

Rashi: As in Bamidbar, 14:28.

2

Seforno: As in Daniel, 12:7.

3

Rashi: Something which a human king cannot do, since he is afraid that either he or his enemy will die before he manages to exact punishment.

4

See next Pasuk.

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