hebrew
1)

What does 'Pituchei Chosam" mean?

1.

Rashi (citing Targum Onkelos) and Targum Yonasan: It means that the letters were (not written, but) engraved 1 on the stones. 2

2.

Sotah, 48b: They wrote on the stones with ink and held the Shamir worm 3 above them


1

Like the letters on the seal of a signet-ring (Rashi).

2

Refer to 28:11:1:2.

3

See Torah Temimah note 4, who describes the Shamir.

2)

What does the Torah mean when it writes "Musabos Mishb'tzos Zahav"?

1.

Rashi: Refer to 28:4:2:1. 1

2.

Ramban: It means that the stones were surrounded by prongs. 2


1

Consequently the stone was covered on five sides by the golden setting, and it was only the surface of the stone that was visible.

2

Which allowed one to see the majority of the stone, as is customary with precious stones.

Sefer: Perek: Pasuk:
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