hebrew
1)

What were the Choshen and the Eifod, respectively?

1.

Rashi: The former was a kind of ornament that was worn next to the heart; the latter, a kind of apron (that was worn at the back from the waist down and) that had side-straps 1 which were tied in front as well as shoulder-straps that were affixed to it, one on either side of the Eifod. 2

2.

Rashbam: The former is a kind of bag, 3 the latter, a kind of garment that one wraps around oneself, and that is worn on top of one's clothes, both at the back and at the front.


1

A belt that was woven together with the Eifod - out of the same threads, with pictures of Keruvim like the Eifod itself, that extended around the Kohen Gadol's waist and was tied in front (Rashi, Pasuk 7).

2

The Torah will provide more details of all eight Begadim in the course of the Parshah.

3

To house the Urim ve'Tumim, which will be described later in the Parshah.

2)

What is the definition of "Kesones Tashbeitz"?

1.

Rashi, Rashbam: Targum Onkelos and Targum Yonasan: It means a shirt with ornamental settings. 1


1

Which one generally makes in golden ornaments to house precious stones and pearls - as we find later by the Efod in Pasuk 11 (Rashi).

3)

What was the basic difference between the Me'il and the Kutones?

1.

Rashi: They are both a type of tunic (shirt) - both with sleeves, only the latter is an undershirt that is worn next to the skin (like a vest), the former, on top of it like a shirt).

2.

Ramban (on Pasuk 31): The latter is a kind of tunic with sleeves, whereas the former is a cloak - without sleeves, that encircles the body; it is closed at the neck 1 and covers the entire body, but opens in front by means of two flaps. 2


1

Via which the Kohen Gadol dons it (Ramban).

2

Refer also to 28:32:2:2.

4)

What was the "Mitznefes"?

1.

Rashi and Rashbam: The "Mitznefes" was a hat. 1

2.

Ramban (on Pasuk 31): It was a turban measuring sixteen Amos, that wound round and round the Kohen Gadol's head, as opposed to the hat of the Kohen Hedyot, which was similarly wound around the head, but spiraled upward. 2


1

And is synonymous with Migba'as - in Pasuk 40 (Rashi).

2

Which explains why the Torah sometimes refers to the Kohen Hedyot's head-covering as Migba'as, though it refers to that of the Kohen Gadol as Mitznefes, exclusively. See also Rav Chavel's footnotes. Basically however, the Kutones, the Mitznefes and the Avneit of the Kohen Hedyot were the same as that of the Kohen Gadol (Ramban, 39:27-28).

5)

Where exactly was the Mitznefes worn?

1.

Rashi (on Pasuk 37): It was worn above the forehead, with space in between it and the Tzitz to don Tefilin.

6)

What was the difference between the "Avneit" and the "belt of the Efod"?

1.

Rashi and Seforno: The former was to gird the Kutones, and the latter, the Me'il.

7)

Why did Hashem omit the pants and the Tzitz from the list?

1.

Rashbam and Ba'al ha'Turim: Because the pants were not visible, and were not for Kavod and Tiferes (Pasuk 2).

2.

Ba'al ha'Turim: He omitted the Tzitz because it was not a Beged.(Sukah 5a). 1

3.

Moshav Zekenim: They did not require Chochmah to make them, so Moshe did not need to tell "Chachmei Lev" to make them.

4.

Moshav Zekenim: The underpants were not for Avodah, rather, to cover their Ervah.


1

R. Tam (in Tosfos Nazir 54b DH Eretz) says that it is a Beged, for the Torah commanded to make Begadim, including the Tzitz. Maharsham (2:94) questions this, because the Tzitz is not listed here, only later (in Pasuk 36).

8)

To whom does "u'le'Vanav" refer?

1.

Oznayim la'Torah: It refers to Aharon' descendents who assumed the Kehunah Gedolah after him


1

Refer also to 28:1:151:2 and note.

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