hebrew
1)

If the animals sinned and were punished too, how can the Torah ascribe the main sin to robbery (of which animals were obviously not guilty)?

1.

Ramban #1: If, as Rashi points, this was the case, then this Pasuk pertains only to humans, mentioning only the punishment that they received. 1

2.

Ramban #2: The animals and the birds too were guilty of Chamas, in that they all preyed upon each other (or upon humans).


1

This distinction however, is unclear, seeing as the animals died together with the humans?

2)

There were a number of Tzadikim at that time. Why does the Torah write that the end of all flesh was imminent?

1.

Rashi: When there is Zenus (immorality), mass destruction ensues that kills guilty and innocent alike. 1

2.

Bereishis Rabah (31): The decree was due to the afflicters and the screams of the afflicted. 2


1

Hadar Zekenim: If so, how did Noach and his family survive? Rather, because the majority died, it is as if all died. Also, Noach was spared to save the world from extinction (see also Moshav Zekenim). Everyone else, even those who were perhaps, not deserving of the death-sentence, perished. See also Toldos Yitzchak

3)

Rashi writes: "'The end of all flesh' - Wherever immorality is found...." How does Rashi know that this verse refers to immorality?

1.

Gur Aryeh: The preceding Pasuk used the phrase "Hishchis Kol Basar" - "all flesh corrupted," and this refers to immorality. 1 (Refer to 6:12:1:1.) This Pasuk, "Ketz Kol Basar" - "the end of all flesh" is a continuation.


1

The text of our Rashi says "immorality and idolatry," but it seems throughout the Gur Aryeh's commentary that his text stated only "immorality" (EK).

4)

Rashi writes: "Wherever immorality is found, 'Andarlamusya' comes to the world...." What does this term mean, and how was it fulfilled in the Mabul?

1.

Gur Aryeh: According to the Aruch, Andarlamusya is Dever - a plague of death; the Midrash writes that the angel of death went along with the Flood waters. This is why HaSh-m commanded Noach to conceal himself in the Teivah. Refer to 6:13:2.4.

5)

Rashi writes: "Wherever immorality is found...." Since both idolatry and immorality are referred to as "Mashchis" (Refer to 6:11:1:1); we would expect idolatry to likewise result in a plague?

1.

Gur Aryeh #1: Those who commit idolatry sin directly against HaSh-m [by denying His unity]. Therefore, HaSh-m Himself metes out punishment, and He distinguishes between the righteous and wicked. Those guilty of immorality, on the other hand, are punished by means of the "Mashchis," 1 which cannot make such a distinction.

2.

Gur Aryeh #2: Immorality is a sin of the Guf (physical body), so when physical destruction is meted out, no distinction is made between the righteous and wicked, for they are equivalent in their Guf. The distinction between righteous and wicked individuals resides in their Nefesh; therefore, when punishment is meted out for idolatry (a sin of the Nefesh), the righteous are spared.


1

The text of our Rashi says "immorality and idolatry," but it seems throughout the Gur Aryeh's commentary that his text stated only "immorality."

6)

Rashi continues: "...and kills both the good and the wicked." If so, how as Noach saved?

1.

Gur Aryeh: This is why Noach was commanded to build a Teivah, to separate himself from his surroundings. Only when the righteous are found together with the wicked are they in danger.

7)

Having just explained that the Flood was a punishment for Zenus, how can the Torah then write that it was the result of robbery?

1.

Hadar Zekenim (to 6:11), Riva: The final straw was indeed, robbery, 1 only, if not for the wide-spread Zenus, the Tzadikim would not have died. 2

2.

Ramban: We know from intellect that one may not steal. 3 A Navi need not warn about it. Robbers are evil to HaSh-m and to people.


1

Riva: If not for theft, there would not have been any decree, or they would have died differently. However, Sanhedrin 108b says that they were judged in boiling water due to Zenus!

2

Gur Aryeh concurs; he derives this from the Pasuk, "The end of all flesh (even the righteous) has come."

3

Chochmah u'Musar (Vol. 4, p. 16): A natural Mitzvah (known from intellect) is like a Shali'ach of Midas ha'Din. Patience (before punishing) does not apply to Midas ha'Din.

8)

Rashi writes: "...and kills both the good and the wicked." Why do the righteous perish along with the wicked when there is immorality in the world?

1.

Gur Aryeh: The Yetzer ha'Ra, specifically in the area of immorality, is referred to as "Mashchis" (Refer to 6:11:1.1:1).This term means utter destruction down to the foundations, and the righteous are the foundation of the world.

9)

What does the Torah mean when it writes, "because the land is full of robbery before them"?

1.

Seforno: Everyone steals 1 from one another


1

Moshav Zekenim: Chamas is one who takes by force, but pays. The decree was sealed for Gezel (without paying). Also refer to 6:11:1.2:2.

10)

Rashi writes: Their verdict was sealed only because of robbery." Why was this so?

1.

Gur Aryeh #1: HaSh-m generally has pity on the world and does not rush to destroy it, but when robbers themselves destroy the world through their actions, HaSh-m also does not have pity.

2.

Gur Aryeh #2: Most other transgressions do not awaken HaSh-m's strict Din (justice), and it is possible to annul the verdict. When a person robs his fellow by force, it awakens strict Din, and the verdict is sealed immediately, and cannot be revoked.

3.

Gur Aryeh #3: As long as Teshuvah is possible, a verdict is not sealed. One who steals from the masses cannot do Teshuvah [because he does not know to whom to return the money], and therefore their verdict was sealed.

11)

Why does the Pasuk conclude with the words, "Es ha'Aretz"?

1.

Rashi #1: It means that HaSh-m will destroy them from the land. 1

2.

Rashi #2, Targum Onkelus and Targum Yonasan: He will destroy them together with the land; the top three Tefachim of soil disintegrated in the Flood. 2

3.

Ramban (citing the Ibn Ezra): It is as if the Torah had written. "... I will destroy them and I will destroy the land."

4.

Seforno: After the Flood, HaSh-m caused the earth to incline on its axis as it orbits the sun. This causes seasonal weather changes, 3 and the state of the air and earth deteriorated. As a result, man's lifespan after the Flood was drastically curtailed. 4


1

As we find, for example, in Shemos 9:29.

2

Gur Aryeh: Rashi found the first explanation difficult; the phrase "Es ha'Aretz" could have been omitted entirely. He therefore gives this alternate explanation.

3

Also refer to 8:22:1:2.

4

The quality of the food also dropped. Consequently, from then on (to make up for the deficiency), man was allowed to kill and eat animals.

12)

Why does the Pasuk conclude with the words "Es ha'Aretz"?

1.

Rashi #1: It means that Hashem will destroy them from the land. 1

2.

Rashi #2, Targum Onkelus and Targum Yonasan: He will destroy them 'together with the land, because the top three Tefachim of soil disintegrated in the Flood.

3.

Ramban (citing the Ibn Ezra: It is as if the Torah had written " ... I will destroy them and I will destroy the land".

4.

Seforno: Hashem will destroy them at the same time as He destroys the land - inasmuch as, via the planet sun, He would cause the weather conditions and the state of the air to deteriorate. 2


1

As we find, for example, in Shmos, 9:29.

2

As a result, man's lifespan after the Flood was drastically curtailed, and the quality of food dropped. Consequently from then on (to make up for the deficiency), man was allowed to kill and eat animals.

13)

רש"י: כל מקום שאתה מוצא זנות: מנין שהפסוק מדבר על זנות?*

1.

גור אריה: בפסוק הקודם כתוב "כי השחית כל בשר" דהיינו זנות, ועל זה ממשיך הפסוק "קץ כל בשר". 1


1

לפנינו ברש"י כתוב "זנות ועבודה זרה" אבל בגור אריה בכמה מקומות כאן נראה שגרס רק זנות.

14)

רש"י: אנדרלמוסיא באה לעולם: מהי אנדרלמוסיא? והיכן זה היה במבול?

1.

גור אריה: בערוך כתוב שזהו דֶבֶר, ויש במדרש שמלאך המוות היה הולך במי המבול, ולכן ציוה הקב"ה את נח להסתתר בתיבה. עיי"ש.

15)

רש"י: והורגת טובים ורעים: א"כ כיצד ניצל נח?

1.

גור אריה: מחמת שגם הטובים נהרגים נזקק נח לעשות תיבה כדי להבדל מהם, וכשנבדל הצדיק מהרשע אינו נאבד עמו.

16)

רש"י: והורגת טובים ורעים: למה נהרג הצדיק עם הרשע כאשר יש זנות בעולם?

1.

גור אריה: היצר הוא משחית, ולכן כאשר חוטאים ביצר של עריות ניתנת רשות למשחית, והשחתה עוקרת מהיסוד- והצדיקים הם יסוד ועיקר העולם.

17)

רש"י: והורגת טובים ורעים: לכאורה ראוי שיבא דֶבֶר גם על עבודה זרה?*

1.

גור אריה: העובד ע"ז חוטא בה' [בכך שהוא כופר בו] ולכן הקב"ה נפרע ממנו בעצמו והוא מבחין בין טוב לרע, לעומתו- החוטא בעריות נענש ע"י ה'משחית' שאינו מבחין בין טוב לרע 1 .

2.

גור אריה: חטא של עריות נעשה בגוף, וכשבא כליון על הגוף אין הבחנה בין צדיק לרשע שהרי גופם שווה, אבל בנפש הם נבדלים ולכן בחטא של ע"ז אין הצדיקים נאבדים.


1

לפנינו ברש"י כתוב "זנות ועבודה זרה" אבל בגור אריה בכמה מקומות כאן נראה שגרס רק זנות.

18)

רש"י: נחתם גזר דינם...על הגזל: לעיל כתב שנענשו מחמת הזנות?

1.

גור אריה: מין העונש (שנאבדו טובים ורעים) בא בגלל הזנות (ככתוב "קץ כל בשר"- גם הטובים), אבל הגזרה עצמה באה בגלל החמס (ככתוב "בא לפני כי מלאה הארץ חמס")

19)

רש"י: נחתם גזר דינם...על הגזל: למה גזר הדין בא דוקא בגלל הגזל?

1.

גור אריה: הקב"ה חס על העולם ואינו ממהר להביא את הגזירה, אבל הגזלנים מחריבים את העולם ואז גם הקב"ה לא חס.

2.

גור אריה: כאשר האדם גוזל בחוזקה את של חבירו, גם מלמעלה מתעוררת גזירה חזקה וחתומה שאין לה חזרה.

3.

גור אריה: הגזירה לא נחתמת כאשר אפשר לשוב בתשובה, אבל הגוזל את הרבים אין לו תשובה [כי אינו יודע למי להשיב] ולכן נחתם גזר דינם.

20)

רש"י: שאף שלשה טפחים של עומק המחרישה נמוחו: למה הביא רש"י גם את המדרש?

1.

גור אריה: קשה ש"את הארץ" מיותר, שהרי פשוט שנשחתו מהארץ? לכן פירש 'עם הארץ'.

21)

רש"י: שאף שלשה טפחים של עומק המחרישה נמוחו: למה השחית גם את הארץ?

1.

גור אריה: הארץ ניתנה לבני אדם, וכאשר חטא האדם השחית הקב"ה גם את מה שנצרך לאדם- ג' טפחים של עומק המחרישה.

22)

למה נידונו דוקא במים על כך שהיו פרוצים בעריות?

1.

מהר"ל (חידושי אגדות ח"ב עמ' קלא, תחילת קידושין): הזנות היא סטיה- הסרה מדרך היושר, והמים מוּסרים מהישוב שהוא אמצע העולם. 1

2.

מהר"ל (חידושי אגדות ח"ב עמ' קלא, תחילת קידושין): הזנות היא חומרית והמים חומריים [שהרי למים אין צורה מסויימת, עיי"ש], ולכן הם ראויים להיות מוסרים מהישוב המיועד לאדם השכלי. עיי"ש. 2


1

מקום הישוב באמצע העולם כי הוא המרכז, והמים מוּסרים מהמרכז כי אינם ראויים לישוב האדם, וכך גם הסוטה מדרך הישר.

2

ע"ע במהר"ל (חידושי אגדות ח"ב עמ' קז ד"ה אין גבורתו, גיטין דף נו:) למה נידונו דוקא במים, הובאו דבריו בפסוק יז.

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