hebrew
1)

What is "Achar ha'Devarim ha'Eileh" referring to?

1.

Rashi #1: Following the episode with Potifar's wife, 1 people began to speak derogatively about Yosef ha'Tzadik; Hashem therefore caused this to happen, so that people would have something else to talk about.


1

Rashi - Hashem brought it about, because it was through the two courtiers that Yosef would be released.

2)

What was the sin of the chief butler and baker?

1.

Rashi: A fly was found in the wine of the former, and a stone in a loaf of the latter.

2.

Targum Yonasan: They plotted to put poison in the king's food and drink.

3.

Seforno: It was the employees who worked under the two chiefs who had sinned (though what the sin was not said), and they were incarcerated for not supervising their workers properly. Refer to 40:1:152:2.

4.

Megilah, 13b: Hashem made a master angry with his servants (Pharaoh with the butler and the baker) in order to perform a miracle with a Tzadik (to set Yosef free). 1


1

Megilah (13b): Similarly, He made servants angry with their master (Bigsan and Teresh with Achashverosh) in order to perform a miracle with a Tzadik (Mordechai).

3)

Why are they referred to as "Serisei Pharaoh"?

1.

Targum Onkelos and Targum Yonasan #1: Refer to 39:1:2:1.

2.

Ramban and Targum Yonasan #2: Refer to 39:1:2:2. 1


1

Ramban: Both the butler and the baker served the women as well, and kings would customarily castrate the men who worked in the women's quarters.

4)

Does "Achar" mean soon after, or a long time after?

1.

R. Yudan, in Bereishis Rabah 44:5: "Achar" means right after. 1 When it says "Acharei" it is a long time after.

2.

Rav Huna, in Bereishis Rabah 44:5: "Acharei" means right after. When it says "Achar" it is a long time after. 2


1

Hadar Zekenim (1) - a Midrash (Seder Olam) says that Yosef worked for Potifar for one year. Two years after the dreams, he was 30 and stood in front of Pharaoh. If so, he was in jail 10 years before the butler and baker sinned! This cannot be, for "Achar" is always right after! Rather, he worked for Potifar for 10 years. "Ba'Bayis uva'Sadeh" does not teach one year (refer to 39:5:151:1), rather, that Hashem was with Yosef everywhere.

2

Riva: Rashi (refer to 40:1:1:1) explained that Achar is right after, like he said above (refer to 15:1:1:1). According to Seder Olam, we must say oppositely (refer to 40:1:151:1*). (The words "Achar" and "Acharei" were copied out of order in the Riva's words "v'Hainu... -PF)

5)

Why does it say "Mashke Melech Mitzrayim"?

1.

Malbim #1: Chazal said that a fly was found in the wine, and a pebble in the bread. The latter is a grave sin, even for the baker of a minor official. A fly is close to Ones. It is considered a sin only because he was Pharaoh's wine-steward.

2.

Malbim #2, Ha'Emek Davar: Kings used to appoint a Sar (officer) to pour his drink, and a Sar to serve him baked foods. Each Sar would get faithful servants to make the wine and bake. If there was any problem, both the worker and the Sar were accountable. The workers sinned against Adoneihem 1 , i.e. the Sarim, and to Pharaoh.


1

Seemingly, if Adoneihem referred to Pharaoh, it should have said Adonam (their one master)! However, Adon often takes the plural form even for one master, e.g. "Eshes Adonav" (39:7). (PF)

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