[134a - 42 lines; 134b - 36 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

[1] Rashi 134a DH Chutz Shiyur חוץ שיור:

The words "d'Cheivan she'Hu Shachatah Alei Ramya l'Misvinhu" דכיון שהוא שחטה עליה רמיא למיתבינהו

do not belong here at all; it is clear that their correct place is later on, at the end of Rashi DH Aval Shekalanאבל שקלן


1a)[line 3]"חוץ" שיור"CHUTZ" SHIYURA- if the Kohen says "Chutz," he intends to keep the Matanos for himself and is not selling them

b)[line 3]"על מנת" לאו שיורא"AL MENAS" LAV SHIYURA- if the Kohen says "Al Menas" his words do not imply that he intends to keep anything for himself; rather he is selling the entire animal on the condition that the Matanos should be given to himself, which is a condition that he cannot make

2a)[line 11]גזל ולא נתייאשו הבעליםGAZAL V'LO NISYA'ASHU HA'BE'ALIM- when one robs a person and the owner has not as yet given up hope of getting his object back

b)[line 11]ולא נתייאשו הבעליםV'LO NISYA'ASHU HA'BE'ALIM (YE'USH)

(a)Ye'ush means that the owner gives up hope of ever getting back his object from the thief, and verbally acknowledges that the loss is irretrievable ("Vai Li l'Chisaron Kis")

(b)A thief becomes liable for a stolen item (such that if it is destroyed, he must reimburse the owner) when he makes a Ma'aseh Kinyan on the item (a formal Halachically-binding act denoting a change in ownership). Similarly, when he makes a Ma'aseh Kinyan on the item, he acquires it to the extent that if the owner gives up hope ("Ye'ush") of ever getting it back, and the object becomes "changed" (Shinuy; see Background to Bava Kama 111:5 and to Sukah 30:2) from its original state, he need not return the object itself, but rather its value.

b)[line 12]ובא אחר ואכלוU'VA ACHER VA'ACHALO- and another person came and consumed the object

c)[line 12]רצה מזה גובה רצה מזה גובהRATZAH MI'ZEH GOVEH, RATZAH MI'ZEH GOVEH- the owner can collect the value of that item from either the thief or from the one who consumed it

3)[line 15]מתנות כהונה נגזלותMATNOS KEHUNAH NIGZALOS - Can Matnos Kehunah be stolen or not?

See Insights to Chulin 134:2.

4)[line 22]המוציא מחבירו עליו הראיהHA'MOTZI ME'CHAVEIRO ALAV HA'RE'AYAH

The general rule in monetary claims is that the burden of proof rests with the one who wishes to extract payment or other items of value from the other person. Hence, when ownership is in doubt, all money or real estate remains with the one who has possession.

5)[line 25]חורי הנמליםCHOREI HA'NEMALIM- [the grains of wheat found in] ant-holes

6)[line 26]קמהKAMAH- standing stalks of grain

7)[line 30]אל תקניטניAL TAKNITENI- do not annoy me (with your arguments)

8)[line 30]בלשון יחידB'LASHON YACHID- in the name of an individual; as an individual opinion

9)[line 34]בלשון בן תדלB'LASHON BEN TADAL- in the name of Ben Tadal (a known fool) you would have to reckon with it, since a clear source was given for the ruling

10)[line 35]"[שפטו דל ויתום] עני ורש הצדיקו""... ANI VA'RASH HATZDIKU"- "[Do justice to the poor and the orphan;] vindicate the afflicted and needy." (Tehilim 82:3)

11)[line 37]"ודל לא תהדר בריבוֹ""V'DAL LO SEHDAR B'RIVO"- "You shall not favor a poor person when judging him." (Shemos 23:3)

12)[line 38]צדק משלך ותן לוTZADEK MI'SHELCHA V'TEN LO- act favorably with what is yours and give it to the poor person

13)[last line]קרבן אשתוKORBAN ISHTO - the sacrifice that a woman brings after giving birth (YOLEDES: KORBAN YOLEDES)

(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8, the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages:

1.During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom — see Background to Nidah 71:23b), and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.

2.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.

(b)Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).

(c)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even if she experiences bleeding during the period of Dam Tohar — see Insights to Nidah 25a.)

14)[last line]חלהCHALAH

See Background to Chulin 131:7.

15)[last line]בכור בהמה טמאהBECHOR BEHEMAH TEME'AH (PETER CHAMOR)

(a)There is a Mitzvah to redeem each firstborn male donkey, as the verse states, "v'Hayah Ki Yevi'acha HaSh-m El Eretz ha'Kena'ani... v'Chol Peter Chamor Tifdeh v'Seh, v'Im Lo Sifdeh va'Arafto" - "And it shall come to pass that when HaSh-m brings you to the land of the Kena'ani... And every firstborn donkey must be redeemed with a sheep [that is given to a Kohen]. If it is not redeemed, you must decapitate it" (Shemos 13:11-13).

(b)Rebbi Chiya rules like the opinion (Bechoros 9b) that it is prohibited to work with the Peter Chamor until it has been redeemed.

16)[last line]בכור בהמה טהורהBECHOR BEHEMAH TEHORAH

See Background to Chulin 130:8.


17)[line 1]ראשית הגזREISHIS HA'GEZ

See Background to Chulin 131:8.

18)[line 1]מתנותMATANOS

See below, entry #29.

19)[line 1]פדיון הבןPIDYON HA'BEN

See Background to Chulin 68:7.

20)[line 1]פדיון פטר חמורPIDYON PETER CHAMOR- the lamb that is used for the redemption of the Peter Chamor (see above, entry #15)

21)[line 3]כישרKISHAR- a town in Bavel (Levi is probably not Levi bar Sisi, the student of Rebbi, but rather may be Levi bar Chama, who lived at the time of Rav Sheshes — DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #2)

22)[line 5]"[וְכַרְמְךָ לֹא תְעוֹלֵל, וּפֶרֶט כַּרְמְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט;] לֶעָנִי וְלַגֵּר תַּעֲזֹב אֹתָם, [אֲנִי ה' אֱ-לֹקֵיכֶם]""... LE'ANI VELA'GER TA'AZOV OSAM ..."- "[Do not harvest underdeveloped clusters of grapes from your vineyard, and do not gather individual grapes that have fallen during the harvest;] leave them for the poor and the convert, [I am HaSh-m your G-d]" (Vayikra 19:10).

23)[line 5]עורביםORVIM- ravens

24)[line 6]עטלפיםATALEFIM- bats

25)[line 9]טבלהTAVLAH- it makes all the produce from which it has not yet been separated into Tevel, which is forbidden to be eaten (see Background to Chulin 131:9:a)

26)[line 10]למלוגLIMLOG- to remove the hairs by scalding the hide in boiling water, making the hide edible

27)[line 12]מעלין אותן בדמיםMA'ALIN OSAN B'DAMIM- Beis Din estimates their value and give the value to a Kohen

28)[line 20]גדלהו משל אחיוGADLEHU MI'SHEL ECHAV- make him wealthy (lit. great) at the expense of his brothers (the other Kohanim)


(a)Whenever a person slaughters cattle, sheep or goats (that are not Kodesh), he must give to a Kohen the Zero'a, Lechayayim and Keivah (the foreleg, the [lower] jaw, and the maw or abomasum [the last of a cow's four stomachs] (Devarim 18:3):

1.The ZERO'A consists of the two upper sections of the right foreleg, until the shoulder blade;

2.The LECHAYAYIM consists of the lower jaw, from the joint where it is attached to the upper jaw until the thyroid cartilage, including the tongue;

3.The KEIVAH consists of the maw together with its Chelev and the curdled milk that it contains, but the Minhag of the Kohanim is to let the animal's owner keep the Chelev and the curdled milk (Chulin 134b, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #506).

(b)Although one must give the Zero'a, Lechayayim and Keivah to a Kohen, they may be eaten by a non-Kohen.

30)[line 20]הפרק של ארכובהHA'PEREK SHEL ARKUVAH- the joint of the right lower knee

31)[line 21]כף של ידKAF SHEL YAD- the shoulder blade of the right foreleg

32)[line 21]הוא של נזירHU SHEL NAZIR- that is the portion that is waved (Tenufah) and given to the Kohanim from the Shelamim of the Nazir (Bamidbar 6:19; see Background to Chulin 98:7:c-d)

33)[line 21]שוקSHOK- the two upper sections of the hind leg of the Shelamim offering, which was given to the Kohen along with the chest (Vayikra 7:32; see Background to Chulin 130:3:c)

34)[line 22]סובך של רגלSOVECH SHEL REGEL- the upper knee; the joint between the Kulis, femur (thigh bone), and the Shok, tibia (the calf bone, which is in between the upper and lower knees)

35)[line 22]הפרק של לחיHA'PEREK SHEL LECHI- the joint where the lower jaw is attached to the upper jaw (the joint of the jawbone)

36)[line 22]פיקה של גרגרתPIKAH SHEL GARGERES- the thyroid cartilage, the protruding cartilage of the trachea

37)[line 24]המיומנתHA'MEYUMENES- the most important

38a)[line 26]חלב שעל גבי הקבהCHELEV SHE'AL GABEI HA'KEVAH- the Chelev (hard fat) that envelopes the Keivah (maw, the fourth stomach of ruminants)

b)[line 26]חלב שבתוך הקבהCHALAV SHEB'SOCH HA'KEVAH- the curdled milk that is inside the Keivah

39)[line 28]דורשי חמורותDORSHEI CHAMUROS- (a) those who expound the difficult verses (RASHI); (b) those who explain the consequences of actions (RAV SA'ADYAH GA'ON, cited by the ARUCH in TOSFOS DH Dorshei) (See Insights to Chulin 134:6)

40)[line 29]"[וירא פינחס בן אלעזר בן אהרן הכהן ויקם מתוך העדה] ויקח רמח בידוֹ""... VA'YIKACH ROMACH B'YADO"- "[And Pinchas son of Elazar son of Aharon ha'Kohen saw, and he arose from amongst the assemblage,] and he took a spear in his hand." (Bamidbar 25:7)

41)[line 29]"ויעמד פינחס ויפלל [ותעצר המגפה]""VA'YA'AMOD PINCHAS VA'YEFALEL..."- "And Pinchas arose and prayed, [and the plague was stopped]. (Tehilim 106:30)

42)[line 30]"[ויבא אחר איש ישראל אל הקבה וידקר את שניהם את איש ישראל] ואת האשה אל קבתה [ותעצר המגפה מעל בני ישראל]""... V'ES HA'ISHAH EL KAVASAH..."- "[And he came after the man of Yisrael to his stomach, and he skewered the two of them; the man of Yisrael] and the woman through her stomach, [and the plague was stopped from affecting Bnei Yisrael." (Bamidbar 25:8)

43)[line 31]זרוע מוקדשיןZERO'A MUKDASHIN- the Zero'a of the Shelamim of the Nazir (Bamidbar 6:19; see Background to Chulin 98:7:c-d)

44)[line 31]ת''ל תרומה... ת''ל תתנוTALMUD LOMAR "TERUMAH"... TALMUD LOMAR "TITNU"- The verse (Vayikra 7:32) reads "v'Es Shok ha'Yamin Titnu Serumah la'Kohen, mi'Zivchei Shalmeichem."

45)[line 32]זרוע חוליןZERO'A CHULIN- the Zero'a of the Matanos, which is given to the Kohen (see above, entry #29)

46)[line 34]מוגרמתMUGREMES - an animal slaughtered by a slanting cut which reaches partially above the uppermost ring of cartilage (the Taba'as ha'Gedolah; see Background to Chulin 18:10) around the trachea (SHECHITAH: HAGRAMAH)

The law of "Hagramah," one of the five main laws of Shechitah (see Background to Chulin 2:1), teaches that one may not cut the Simanim such that part of the cut "slants" above the point that delimits the part of the neck upon which Shechitah may be performed.