[2a - 19 lines; 2b - 36 lines]


(a)The laws of Shechitah (proper ritual slaughter) that permit an animal to be eaten are a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai, a tradition that was handed down to us from Moshe at Har Sinai (Chulin 28a, based on Devarim 12:21).

(b)There are two "Simanim," or parts of the animal that must be sliced through when performing Shechitah: the Kaneh (trachea) and the Veshet (esophagus). Five of the most important laws of Shechitah are the following: 1. "Shehiyah" - One may not "pause" in middle of a Shechitah. 2. "Derasah" - One may not "press" the knife into the neck, but must use a sliding, cutting motion. 3. "Chaladah" - One may not insert the knife into the middle of the thickness of the neck and cut from there outwards. 4. "Hagramah" - One may not cut the Simanim such that part of the cut "slants" above the point that delimits the part of the neck upon which Shechitah may be performed. 5. "Ikur" - One may not "rip out" the Simanim from the neck and then cut them. Similarly, one may not cause the Simanim to tear during Shechitah, such as by cutting them with a dull blade.

2a)[line 2]CHERESH- a deaf mute

b)[line 2]SHOTEH - (lit. a fool) a person who is mad or deranged

(a)A person is classified as a Shoteh if he regularly, because of madness, destroys or loses that which is given to him, sleeps in a cemetery, goes out alone at night or tears his clothes (Chagigah 3b). According to the RAMBAM (Hilchos Edus 9:9), a person is a Shoteh if he regularly exhibits any form of irrational behavior.

(b)A Shoteh is exempt from performing Mitzvos, is not punished for his transgressions and is not liable for the damages that he causes. His purchases and sales are meaningless and are not binding.

c)[line 3]KATAN- a minor (a boy under the age of 13 and a girl under the age of 12)


(a)The Torah prohibits making a Temurah, which is a Chulin animal exchanged for an animal designated as a Korban in an attempt to transfer the Kedushas ha'Guf of the Korban onto a replacement Korban. The verse states, "Do not transfer or exchange it (an animal that has been designated as a Korban) [for another animal], neither a good animal for a bad one nor a bad one for a good one. If you do exchange an animal [of Kodesh] for another animal [that is not], both the original animal and the one given in exchange for it, will be Kodesh." (Vayikra 27:10). The CHINUCH explains that the reason for the prohibition of Temurah is to teach us the proper reverence that we must have for objects of Kedushah (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #351, #352). (For a definition of Kedushas ha'Guf as opposed to Kedushas Damim, see Background to Avodah Zarah 13:16:c-e.)

(b)For example, the Mishnah (Temurah 26b) teaches that a person can make a Temurah by taking two animals, one of which was designated as a Korban, and saying "Zo Tachas Zo" - "This [animal] is instead of this [animal]" or "Zo Temuras Zo" - "This is in place of this" or "Zo Chalifas Zo" - "This is in exchange for this." The second animal, or the Temurah, is usually a valid Korban. If it has no Mum (blemish that invalidates it), it must also be offered on the Mizbe'ach (unless the original Korban was a Chatas or an Asham).

(c)A person who intentionally makes a Temurah receives Malkus (lashes). Sometimes, even if a person makes a Temurah b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he receives Malkus (see Chart to Temurah 17a). (For a discussion of the difference between Temurah and Chilul (redemption), see Background to Bava Metzia 57:2.)

4)[line 9]" , ; [ , .]""LO YACHALIFENU V'LO YAMIR OSO TOV B'RA O RA B'TOV ..."- "Do not transfer or exchange it (an animal that has been designated as a Korban) for another animal, neither a good animal for a bad one nor a bad one for a good one; [if you do exchange an animal [of Kodesh] for another animal [that is not], both the original animal and the one given in exchange for it, will be Kodesh.]" (Vayikra 27:10)


(a)It is a Mitzvah to administer the punishment of Malkus Arba'im (Torah lashes) to one who is liable to Malkus, as the Torah states, "v'Hipilo ha'Shofet v'Hikahu" - "and the judge shall cast him down and whip him" (Devarim 25:2). Malkus d'Oraisa are administered in Eretz Yisrael by a court of three judges who are Semuchin (Halachically ordained), whether the Beis ha'Mikdash stands or not (RAMBAM Hilchos Sanhedrin 16:2). Courts outside of Eretz Yisrael can administer only Makas Mardus (Rabbinic lashes, see Background to Menachos 70:27).

(b)A person is only liable to Malkus Arba'im if he transgresses a Lav (a negative commandment) of the Torah that is not "modified," such as a Lav shebi'Chelalos (see Background to Menachos 58:15), a Lav she'Nitak l'Aseh (see Background to Shevuos 3:13), etc. A prohibition that is implied by a positive commandment is never punishable by Malkus. In addition, in order to be liable he must transgress in front of witnesses after receiving a proper warning.

(c)Malkus are administered in numbers of three, with a maximum amount of thirty-nine for each transgression. The culprit is examined to determine how many lashes he can withstand. He stands leaning against a post and his clothes are ripped until his heart is revealed. The agent of Beis Din, a Torah scholar who is specifically weak, stands on a rock behind him, whipping one third of the lashes on his chest and two thirds on his back, one third on each shoulder (Makos 22b).

(d)During the whipping, the most distinguished judge of the court reads the verse "Im Lo Sishmor La'asos Es Kol Divrei ha'Torah ha'Zos... v'Hifla HaSh-m Es Makoscha..." - "If you will not be careful to perform all the words of this Torah... then HaSh-m will make your blows extraordinary..." (Devarim 28:58-59). For each blow, the deputy judge counts out loud the number of each lash and a third judge calls out "Hakehu!" - "Whip him!" If the culprit dies from the lashing, the agent of Beis Din is exempt from any punishment. However, if he administers an extra lash due to a mistake in the count, and the extra lash causes the culprit to die, he must go to Galus (exile, see Background to Makos 7:10).

6a)[line 13]MA'ARICHIN - to make pledges of Erchin (ERECH)

(a)An Erech (endowment valuation) refers to a special form of vow. If a person declares, "Erech Ploni Alai" - "I accept upon myself to give the endowment value of so-and-so [to Hekdesh]," he must give the specific value that the Torah designates for the person's gender and age group as stated in Vayikra 27:1-8 (see below, (b)). It makes no difference at all whether the person is healthy or sick, strong or weak.

(b)If one wishes to pledge the value of an individual - whether his own or that of someone else:

1.For ages 1 month to 5 years - the Erech for males is 5 Shekalim and for females is 3 Shekalim

2.For ages 5 years to 20 years - the Erech for males is 20 Shekalim and for females is 10 Shekalim

3.For ages 20 yrs. to 60 years - the Erech for males is 50 Shekalim and for females is 30 Shekalim

4.For ages 60 years and older - the Erech for males is 15 Shekalim and for females is 10 Shekalim

b)[line 13]NE'ERACHIN- being the object of an Erech vow, if a person declares, "Erech Ploni Alai" - "I accept upon myself to give the endowment value of so-and-so [to Hekdesh]," the person is the Ma'arich and Ploni is the Ne'erach


If a person makes a vow and says "Demei Ploni Alai" - "I accept upon myself to give the value of so and so to Hekdesh," he must give the actual worth of the person; i.e. the amount he would be worth if sold on the slave market.

b)[line 13]NIDARIN- anyone can have their worth dedicated to Hekdesh

8)[line 14]" , .""V'CHI SECHDAL LINDOR, LO YIHEYEH VECHA CHET."- "And if you refrain from vowing, there will be no sin in you." (Devarim 23:23). This verse implies that if one does not refrain from taking a vow, then he has transgressed.

9)[line 15]" .""TOV ASHER LO SIDOR MISHE'TIDOR V'LO SESHALEM."- "It is better not to vow than to vow and not pay." (Koheles 5:4)

10)[last line] HAREI ZO (NEDAVAH)

(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).

(b)When a person states, "I pledge an Olah" ("Harei Alai Olah"), without singling out a specific animal, his pledge is called a Neder. When he sets aside an animal with which to fulfill his pledge, and the animal gets lost or dies, he must bring another in its place. If he states, "This animal is an Olah" ("Harei Zo Olah"), his pledge is called a Nedavah. If the animal gets lost or dies, he has no obligation to bring another in its place.


11)[line 1] HAREI ALAI (NEDER)

See previous entry.


(a)Semichah refers to the Mitzvah for a person to press both of his hands on the head of his animal Korban, as described in Vayikra (1:4). Semichah is performed immediately before the animal is slaughtered, in the place where it will be slaughtered (Menachos 93a).

(b)All private Korbanos require Semichah, except for the Bechor, Ma'aser, and Pesach offerings. The only public Korbanos that require Semichah are the Par He'elem Davar (see next entry), the Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach (scapegoat) of Yom Kipur (see Background to Menachos 92:5), and according to some, the Se'ir brought as an atonement when most of the nation sins with Avodah Zarah (see Background to Menachos 92:6). If the Korban is a Chatas, Asham or Olah, all of which are brought to atone for sins, the owner of the Korban confesses his sin while he performs Semichah. If the Korban is a Korban Shelamim or Todah, which a person brings to thank HaSh-m for the kindness or salvation that was bestowed upon him, the owner of the Korban says words of praise for HaSh-m while he performs the Semichah (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 3:13-15).

(c)If a Korban is brought by partners, each one performs Semichah. Certain people do not perform Semichah for their Korbanos. These include women, children, slaves, people designated Halachically as fools, deaf-mutes and Nochrim (Menachos 93a). Semichah is not performed when offering a Korban on a Bamah (Zevachim 119b, see Background to Zevachim 101:37). (The Girsa of our Gemara, "Echad ha'Anashim v'Echad ha'Nashim" should be removed - SHITAH MEKUBETZES #2.)

(d)The Gemara discusses whether Semichah involves pressing on the animal's head with all of one's strength, or just placing one's hands on the animal's head (Chagigah 16b). The conclusion is that one must press on the animal's head with all of one's strength (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 3:13). (e) If one does not perform Semichah on his Korban, the Korban remains valid (Menachos 93b).

13)[line 6]" [ ,] [ .]""V'SAMACH YADO... V'NIRTZAH..."- "And he shall press his hand [upon the head of the burnt offering,] and it shall be accepted [for him to make atonement for him.]" (Vayikra 1:4)


A person who often eats Kodshim (e.g. Korbanos Shelamim or Todah) and wants to train his household in the Mitzvos that apply to the consumption of Kodshim, or a person who wants to train himself in these Mitzvos, may decide that he wants all of the Chulin in his house to be eaten "Al Taharas ha'Kodesh" - "as if they were Kodshim." He must be careful that no Tum'ah comes in contact with his food. There is a Machlokes as to whether his Chulin may become a Shelishi or a Revi'i l'Tum'ah, like Kodshim, or not (see Background to Nazir 54:13). Aba Shaul, who rules that they are not like Kodshim, is of the opinion that they can only become a Sheni l'Tum'ah, like normal Chulin (Nidah 71b).


It is forbidden, by the Torah, to actively cause Kodshim to become Tamei'im, as is derived from the verse, "Es Mishmeres Terumosi" - "the guard of my Terumos" (Bamidbar 18:8), which implies that Terumah (which is a form of Kodshim) must be guarded from Tum'ah.

16)[line 21] CHULIN GREIDEI- ordinary Chulin (unconsecrated animals that are slaughtered)

17)[line 21]YISH'HU- See above, entry #1:b:1.

18)[line 22]YIDRESU- See above, entry #1:b:2.

19)[line 22]YACHALIDU- See above, entry #1:b:3.

20)[last line] ITMI B'MES (TUM'AS MES)

If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching a Mes, or an object that was Tamei with Tum'as Mes, or being in the same room as a Mes or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas, see Background to Menachos 27:17) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah. (Bamidbar 19:17-19)

21)[last line]"[ ,] , [ , , , .]""[V'CHOL ASHER YIGA AL PNEI HA'SADEH,] BA'CHALAL CHEREV, [O V'MES, O V'ETZEM ADAM, O V'KAVER, YITMA SHIV'AS YAMIM.]"- "[And whoever touches in the open fields,] one who was slain with a sword, [or a dead body, or a bone of a man, or a grave, shall be Tamei for seven days.]" (Bamidbar 19:16)