[125a - 44 lines; 125b - 36 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

[1] Rashi 125a DH Neveilah Keivan d'Miskashkesh Hu נבלה כיון דמתקשקש הוא:

The word "bek'Adashah" בכעדשה is very difficult (see YAAVETZ)

It is probable that this word should appear earlier. The words of Rashi should read, "d'Efshar Liga bek'Adashah Metam'im..." דאפשר ליגע בכעדשה מטמאים

[2] Rashi 125b DH Hayu Porsim היו פורסים:

The Dibur ha'Maschil should be "Hayu Perusim" היו פרוסים (SHITAH MEKUBETZES #5)

[3] Rashi 125b DH v'Ein be'Yitzi'asa ואין ביציאתה:

The words "b'Chor Pesach" בחור פתח

should be "b'Chor Pischah" בחור פתחה

[4] Tosfos 125b DH she'Lo שלא:

The words "u'Mihu Sham Piresh" ומיהו שם פירש

should be "u'Mihu Sham Pirashnu" ומיהו שם פירשנו


1)[line 1]קולית המוקדשיןKULIS HA'MUKDASHIN- a thigh-bone (containing marrow) of Nosar and Pigul (see Background to Chulin 114:3-4) which are Metamei due to a Rabbinical decree

2)[line 1]קולית נבלהKULIS NEVEILAH- a thigh-bone (containing marrow) of a Neveilah (see Background to Chulin 32:20a) of which meat is Metamei but not bones

3)[line 1]קולית השרץKULIS HA'SHERETZ- a thigh bone (containing marrow) of a dead Sheretz (see Background to Chulin 120:30) of which meat is Metamei but not bones

4)[line 7]מאהילMA'AHIL (TUM'AS OHEL)

(a)A k'Zayis of the flesh of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tumah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room (lit. tent). An Ohel is defined as a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width and height. If a person becomes Tamei with Tum'as Mes, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. Furthermore, on the third and seventh days he must have Mei Chatas (water mixed with ashes of the Parah Adumah — see Background to Chulin 81:11) sprinkled on him.

(b)In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is passing through it and does not stop moving. A person who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters, even when entering backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Kelim 1:4)

(c)The bones of a Mes are only Metamei through Ohel under one of three conditions:

1.They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav);

2.They are the majority of the human body (whether they are the majority of the build (Rov Binyano) of the body or the majority of the number (Rov Minyano) of 248 bones;

3.The bone is a complete skull or a complete spinal column. In order to be Metamei through Maga and Masa, it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).

(d)When an object that can be Metamei b'Ohel is located in an Ohel, the Ohel makes everything in it Tamei and protects anything that is above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is Mevi Tum'ah (spreads Tum'ah inside of it) and is Chotzetz from Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel, preventing Tum'ah from spreading above it).

(e)However, not all objects that cover Tum'ah are Mevi and Chotzetz. There are objects that are Mevi and not Chotzetz and other objects that are Chotzetz and not Mevi and even others that are neither Mevi nor Chotzetz (Ohalos 8:5). An object that is flying through the air, such as a bird or a Talis that is carried or caught up by the wind, is not an Ohel and is not Mevi or Chotzetz, even if it is one Tefach wide.

(f)A space that is less than a Tefach in length, width and height, is not considered an Ohel. Tum'as Mes in such an area is called "Tum'ah Retzutzah" (smashed or squashed Tum'ah) or "Tum'ah Temunah" (hidden Tum'ah). Such Tum'ah does not spread throughout the enclosure, but is Boka'as v'Olah, Boka'as v'Yoredes, i.e. it "breaks through" (Boka'as) the enclosure and goes straight up and straight down, as if it were in the open air. Similarly, if a grave has less than a Tefach of space between the body and the ceiling of the grave, the Tum'ah inside it is Tum'ah Retzutzah. The Tum'ah is Metamei everything that is above it within the boundaries of the Tum'ah (until it reaches something that is Chotzetz, thus keeping it inside an Ohel) and below it.

(g)Most graves have a space of a Tefach between the body and the ceiling of the grave (Berachos 19b). If the grave is completely sealed on all sides, it is called a "Kever Sasum." The Tum'ah inside it fills the entire Kever and is likewise Boka'as v'Olah, Boka'as v'Yoredes until something is Chotzetz above it. A grave that has an open space of a Tefach at the side is not a Kever Sasum, and the Tum'ah within it is prevented from rising above the ceiling of the grave (Ohalos 3:7). In this case, the Tefach above the body is Chotzetz.

5)[line 9]מוחMO'ACH- marrow

6)[line 10]טומאה בוקעת ועולהTUM'AH BOKA'AS V'OLAH- the Tum'ah breaks through and goes up (see above, entry #4:f)

7)[line 11]מבפנים מעלה ארוכה מבחוץMO'ACH MI'BIFNIM MA'ALEH ARUCHAH MIBA'CHUTZ- the marrow on the inside of the bone causes new flesh to grow on the outside of the bone. (A whole bone that has enough marrow in it for the flesh to regenerate had it been alive is considered to be an "Ever," a Halachic "limb." If it came from a human corpse, it is Metamei b'Ohel no matter how small it is.)

8)[line 19]מילי מילי קא משמע לןMILEI MILEI KA MASHMA LAN- the Mishnah is teaching us several Halachos (lit. words), as the Gemara will presently explain

9)[line 21]שימוש נותר מילתא היאSHIMUSH NOSAR MILSA HI- the act of serving Nosar (such as a bone that preserves the marrow inside it) is substantial (and the bone is Tamei like Nosar itself)

10)[line 24]בסיס לדבר האסורBASIS L'DAVAR HA'ASUR- a support for an object that is forbidden

11)[line 27]בששפהBESHE'SHAFAH- we are dealing with a case where the person filed down the bone in a ring along its width

12)[line 29]וסימניך דיקלאV'SIMANACH DIKLA- and a mnemonic device with which to remember the direction in which a filed bone will not regenerate is to think of a palm tree; if you make an incision along the tree's entire height, it will live; however, if you make an incision in a ring along its width, it will die

13)[line 36]המתקשקשHA'MISKASHKESH- that [becomes hard and] rattles around inside


14)[line 4]טומאה רצוצהTUM'AH RETZUTZAH- a squashed Tum'ah (see above, entry #4:f and Insights)

15)[line 4]מגדליםMIGDALIM- (lit. mestier) cupboards, cabinets

16)[line 5]פותח טפחPOSE'ACH TEFACH- a space of at least one cubic Tefach (see above, entry #4)

17)[line 7]מלא תרווד רקבMELO TARVAD REKEV

A large spoonful (that measures two handfuls) of rot (Rekev) from a decomposed corpse, is Metamei b'Ohel (Ohalos 2:1). Rekev is Metamei only if it is from a bare corpse that decomposed and was not mixed with anything else (Nazir 51a; Nidah 27b). (According to the Yerushalmi (Nazir 35b), a large spoonful is the total amount of decomposed matter that is produced from any one corpse that decomposes.)

18)[line 15]בהמשכהB'HAMSHACHAH- Tum'ah that is drawn over to a person or object when the source of Tum'ah and the person or object are under the same covering (see above, entry #4)

19)[line 16]חבילי מטהCHAVILEI MITAH- ropes that are interlaced between bed frames as the support for a mattress

20)[line 16]סריגי חלונותSARIGEI CHALONOS- the lattice of windows (made of laths or thin iron strips)

21)[line 21]מת בכסותו הואMES B'CHESUSO HU- it is considered like a corpse in its clothing; i.e. the ropes above the corpse becomes subordinate to the corpse

22)[line 27]טומאה טמונהTUM'AH TEMUNAH- a hidden Tum'ah; see above, entry #4:f

23)[line 28]תיבת המגדלTEIVAS HA'MIGDAL- a cabinet drawer

24)[line 31]דרך טומאה לצאתDERECH TUM'AH LATZEIS - since the Tum'ah will always eventually be taken out and pass through the house, the Chachamim decreed that the house should be Tamei. (SOF TUM'AH LATZES)

(a)If a Mes (a corpse) is in a house and the door is closed, not only is the Mes Metamei all that is in the house with Tum'as Ohel (see above, entry #4), but it is also Metamei articles lying outside the closed door, in the doorway (i.e. under the lintel). The reason for this Tum'ah is that the Mes will eventually be removed from the house through that doorway, therefore the doorway is considered already Tamei (mid'Rabanan [RASHI to Beitzah 10a], or through a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai [RASHI to Beitzah 37b]).

(b)If the house has a number of doorways and windows that are larger than four square Tefachim, all objects that are the outside (under the door or window frame) of all of the doorways or windows are Temei'im, since we do not know through which one the Mes will be removed. (If a k'Zayis of a Mes is in a house that has a number of doorways and windows that are all closed, even objects on both sides of windows that are less than four square Tefachim are Temei'im.)

(c)If the owner of the house chooses to remove the Mes through a particular doorway or window, all of the objects that are on the other side of all the other closed windows or doors are Tehorim. If an entire corpse (or a piece of a corpse that was larger than a k'Zayis) was in the house, the owner must have in mind to remove the Mes through a doorway or window that is at least four square Tefachim in order for all the objects that are on the other side of all the other closed exits to be Tehorim. (If a k'Zayis of a Mes was in the house, even if the owner has in mind to remove it through one of the windows that is only one square Tefach, all the objects that are on the outside of all the other closed exits are Tehorim.)