[120a - 53 lines; 120b - 42 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos
 Gemara 120a [line 20]:
the words "Chelev d'Karish" חלב דקריש
should be "Chala d'Karish" חלא דקריש (ARUCH)
 Tosfos 120a DH Mah l'Hanach מה להנך:
That which is quoted in the name of MAHARSHA to erase the word "Lav" is incorrect; the MAHARSHA agrees that our Girsa is correct (RASHASH, MAREH KOHEN and others)
 Gemara 120b [line 22]:
The words "u'She'ar Minei Peiros" ושאר מיני פירות
should be "u'She'ar Mei Peiros" ושאר מי פירות (SHITAH MEKUBETZES #2; Mishnayos)
 Gemara 120b [line 32]:
The words "Mah Mashkin d'Kodshim b'Terumah" מה משקין דקדשים בתרומה
should be "Mah Mashkin d'Kadshei b'Terumah" מה משקין דקדשי בתרומה (YA'AVETZ)
 Rashi 120b DH v'Rebbi Yehoshua Savar ורבי יהושע סבר:
The words "she'Yehu ha'Mashkin Mimenah" שיהו המשקין ממנה
should be "she'Yehu ha'Mashkin ha'Yotzim Mimenah" שיהו המשקין היוצאים ממנה
 Tosfos 120b DH Lichtov b'Shratzim v'Leisu Hanach ליכתוב בשרצים וליתו הנך:
It appears that the DH should be "she'Ken Tum'asan b'Mashehu," שכן טומאתן במשהו as in TOSFOS HA'ROSH
 Tosfos DH Heicha היכא:
The words "Havah Mechaivin, Keivan" הוה מחייבין, כיון
should be "Havah Mechaivinan, Keivan" הוה מחייבינן, כיון
1a)[line 1]עורOR- skin, hide
b)[line 1]רוטבROTEV- sauce, gravy
c)[line 1]קיפהKIPAH- particles of boiled meat and/or spices that settle to the bottom of the pot
2)[line 2]טומאת אוכליןTUM'AS OCHELIN (TUM'AS OCHLIN: K'BEITZAH)
(a)See Background to Chulin 33:28.
(b)All foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Tamei. Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey. The minimum amount of food that can become Tamei is a k'Beitzah. The modern equivalent of a Beitzah is 0.05, 0.0576 or 0.1 liter, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.
(c)In order for something edible to receive Tum'as Ochlin, it has to be considered food. A person's intention to eat the item and treat it as a food gives it the status of a food and it can receive Tum'as Ochlin. Once food becomes Tamei, it cannot become Tahor by immersing it in a Mikvah.
3)[line 3]שומרSHOMER- something that protects or preserves a food or a utensil
4)[line 3]נימאNIMA- a hair
5)[line 6]חלחולי מחלחלCHALCHULEI MECHALCHEL- it penetrates [through the skin until the flesh, where it is attached; i.e. a hair is only a Shomer and not a Shomer on top of another Shomer]
6)[line 8]כתיבה תמהKESIVAH TAMAH- a perfect writing, with no part of any letter missing
7)[line 11]ציבTZIV- a strand of flesh or skin
8)[line 13]ידYAD- a handle for a food or utensil
9)[line 14]מלאיMELAI- the "whiskers" that extend upward from ears of grain, known as the glume, which is part of the chaff
10)[line 14]במלאי שבין המלאיןB'MELAI SHE'BEIN HA'MELA'IM- when one takes hold of a number of glumes at once (and together they are strong enough that they do not break off)
11)[line 19]שומנאSHUMNA- the film of fat that forms on the surface of a pot of soup or a meat stew
12)[line 20](חלב) [חלא] דקריש(CHELEV) [CHALA] D'KARISH- (O.F. glaire - a viscous, semi-fluid sticky substance) the jellied gravy of meat
13)[line 22]צירTZIR- brine (usually fish brine)
14a)[line 23]ככותבת ביום הכפוריםK'CHOSEVES B'YOM HA'KIPURIM
The amount of solid food for which a person is liable for eating on Yom ha'Kipurim is food the size of a fat date (see next entry).
b)[line 23]משום יתובי דעתאMISHUM YESUVEI DAITA - [the liability is] because of the setting at ease of one's mind (ISUR ACHILAH B'YOM HA'KIPURIM)
The Torah uses the word "Te'anu Es Nafshoseichem" - "you shall afflict your souls" to describe the prohibition against eating on Yom ha'Kipurim. In all other prohibitions against eating, the Torah uses the term "Achilah" ("Lo Sochal," "Lo Sochelu"), where Chazal defined the minimum amount of food prohibited as a k'Zayis. Eating a k'Zayis is not quite satisfying; in the words of our Gemara, it does not produce Yesuvei Da'ata (Yishuv ha'Da'as), putting one's mind at ease. Only when one eats food of at least an amount equal to a Koseves ha'Gasah (a fat date) is one liable for eating on Yom ha'Kipurim.
15)[line 27]פירמאPIRMA- (O.F. fondrille) sediment; the particles of boiled meat and/or spices that settle to the bottom of the pot
16)[line 29]הקפהHIKPAH- if one thickened (caused to congeal) blood through boiling
18)[line 30]שהמחהSHE'HIMCHAH- (O.F. fondre) if one melted, dissolved
20)[line 30]גמעוGEMA'O- swallowed it
21)[line 31]אחשובי אחשביהACHSHUVEI ACHSHEVEI- he gave it more importance (i.e. by solidifying it)
22)[line 41]איסרוחי מסרחISRUCHEI MISRACH- it spoils
23)[line 42]לא היתה לו שעת הכושרLO HAYESAH LO SHE'AS HA'KOSHER- there was no time at which the Chelev was permitted; however, Chametz was permitted to be eaten before Pesach
24)[line 43]לא הותר מכללוLO HUTAR MI'CHELALO- there is no exception to the general prohibition against eating Chametz on Pesach. (However, there is an exception to the general prohibition against eating Chelev; e.g. the Chelev of a Chayah, which is permitted to be eaten.)
25)[line 50]מליקת עוףMELIKAS OF (KORBAN OLAS HA'OF)
(a)The offering of the Olas ha'Of consists of four procedures:
1.MELIKAH - On the Sovev (see Background to Menachos 97:9) of the Mizbe'ach, on the southeastern corner, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus). (If the southeastern corner of the Sovev is crowded with Kohanim offering the Olas ha'Of, then the additional Olas ha'Of Korbanos are offered on the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach.)
2.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut part of the head and body of the bird onto the wall of the Mizbe'ach, above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
3.HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it into the fire on the Mizbe'ach.
4.HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen cuts out the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines — Zevachim 65a) and throws them to the ash-pile at the side of the ramp of the Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiyah), salts it, and throws it into the fire.
26)[line 50]חטאת העוףCHATAS HA'OF
(a)The offering of the Chatas ha'Of (which is brought by a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes and Nazir Tamei, and by a Metzora who is poor, and by a poor person who was Nishba l'Sheker, or who transgressed Shevu'as ha'Edus, or was Metamei Mikdash v'Kodashav; see Background to Kinim 22:9:b for references) consists of three procedures (see, for example, Vayikra 5:8-9): Melikah, Hazayah, and Mitzuy.
1.MELIKAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail. He makes sure to cut one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus), but does not sever both Simanim ("v'Lo Yavdil" - Vayikra 5:8).
2.HAZAYAH - The Kohen sprinkles its blood on the Mizbe'ach (directly from the neck of the bird), below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
3.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach and squeezes its remaining blood onto the Mizbe'ach.
(b)The Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim, in the Azarah, on the day that it is offered and the following night. No part of it was burned on the Mizbe'ach ("Ein Mimenu la'Ishim").
27)[line 51]משלחן גבוה קא זכוMI'SHULCHAN GAVO'AH KA ZACHU- the Kohanim receive the portion of the Korbanos from "HaSh-m's table"; they do not have any monetary rights to it; merely a Zechus to eat it
28)[line 52]ליגמר מהניLIGMAR ME'HANI- learn this Halachah (that the liquids that exude from Sheratzim that are cooked or pickled are prohibited) from these (from Chelev, Chametz and Nivlas Of Tahor, where Reish Lakish taught that drinking the liquefied products of these materials is prohibited)
29)[last line]דיו לבא מן הדין להיות כנדוןDAYO LA'BA MIN HA'DIN LIHEYOS KA'NIDON- it is sufficient to give the Halachah learned from a Kal va'Chomer the exact status of the Halachah from which it was learned.
30)[line 3]שכן טומאתן במשהוSHE'KEN TUM'ASAN B'MASHEHU (TUM'AS SHERETZ)
(a)A Sheretz (a crawling pest — see Vayikra 11:29-38 and Background to Menachos 29:25), even if it or a part of it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a, Ohalos 1:7). It makes a person or object Tamei at the level of a Rishon l'Tum'ah through Maga (contact), whether the Sheretz was touched willingly or unwillingly. The person who becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah of the Beis Ha'Mikdash. However, he can immediately immerse in a Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah.
(b)In addition to Tum'as Maga, a dead Sheretz that is found in an earthenware oven makes the oven and all food or drink items that are in it Temei'im, whether the Sheretz touches them or not.
31)[line 4]טבלTEVEL (TERUMOS AND MA'ASROS)
(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).
(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there by its owner. Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon, redemption — see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5). Once the Ma'aser Sheni produce enters the walls of Yerushalayim, it may not be redeemed. It is considered "Niklat," "captured" by the walls.
(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.
32)[line 4]חדשCHADASH (MINCHAS HA'OMER)
(a)There is a Mitzvah to bring the Minchas ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall after the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of fine barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is kneaded and offered on the 16th of Nisan. It is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim — Vayikra 2:14-16). Levonah is added, and Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Sanhedrin 82:60), Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 72:25a:c).
(b)The Sheyarei ha'Minchah, also called the Mosar ha'Omer, are eaten by the Kohanim. In addition, a lamb is offered as an Olah, as it states in Vayikra 23:12. The Minchas Nesachim that is offered with this lamb contained two Esronim of fine flour mixed in three Lugin of olive oil, and three Lugin of wine. The Minchas ha'Omer is the first offering of the new grain of the year (Chadash).
(c)Until the Minchas ha'Omer is offered, there is a prohibition to eat Chadash of the five grain species: wheat, barley, oats, rye and spelt (Kidushin 37a, Menachos 68b, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:2). This prohibition is removed after it is offered.
33)[line 4]הקדשHEKDESH - an object consecrated to the Beis ha'Mikdash (KEDUSHAS HA'GUF / KEDUSHAS DAMIM)
(a)An object with Kedushas ha'Guf is an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 6:5) or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is." An animal that has Kedushas ha'Guf cannot be redeemed without a Mum (blemish).
(b)An object with Kedushas Damim is an object the value of which is consecrated to Hekdesh; e.g. an animal that a person consecrated to be sold in order to buy another animal as a Korban with its value.
(c)An object with Kedushas Bedek ha'Bayis is an object the value of which is consecrated to Hekdesh so that it should be used for filling the day-to-day needs of the Beis ha'Mikdash, and not to be used for Korbanos.
(a)The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that:
1.they must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat.
2.The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2).
3.The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal fodder, etc.
(b)One may not do any work with the land or with trees growing from the land that makes improvements.
(c)The Shemitah year is meant to teach the Jewish people to rely on HaSh-m for their sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to them during the six years in which they work their own fields.
(a)The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge in one's field every year to the Beis ha'Mikdash. The verse states, "v'Hayah Ki Savo El ha'Aretz... vi'Yrishtah v'Yashavta Bah... v'Lakachta me'Reishis Kol Pri ha'Adamah..." - "And it shall be that when you come to the land... and you inherit it and you settle in it. You shall take of the first fruits of the land..." (Devarim 26:1-2). Each farmer enters the Azarah (courtyard) of the Beis ha'Mikdash with his Bikurim fruit in a decorative basket. While the basket is on his shoulder, he recites the Mikra Bikurim, specific verses from Devarim (26:3, 5-10) thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of Mitzrayim and giving us the land of Yisrael. He then places the basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12) and bows down before HaSh-m. Afterwards, he gives the Bikurim to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1). Live pigeons were a (voluntary) part of the adornment of the baskets of Bikurim. They were offered as Korbenos Olah when the Bikurim were brought (Menachos 58a).
(b)The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) — wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2).
(c)Kohanim eat the Bikurim within the walls of Yerushalayim. If a person eats them outside of Yerushalayim after the Bikurim have entered Yerushalayim (according to the Rambam, or after the Bikurim have entered the Azarah according to Rashi to Makos 18b), he receives Malkus. They must be returned to, and eaten in Yerushalayim.
37)[line 13]קרייה והנחהKERIYAH V'HA'NACHAH- reading the portion of "Mikra Bikurim" and placing the basket down in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash (see previous entry)
See above, entry #31.
39)[line 21]סיתווניותSISVANIYOS- winter grapes; inferior, unripe grapes that stay on the vine throughout the winter that are only used to make vinegar
40a)[line 24]דון מינה ומינהDON MINAH U'MINAH- "judge from it and [entirely] from it," i.e. an analogy must be carried through so that the case deduced agrees throughout with the case from which the deduction was made.
b)[line 24]דון מינה ואוקי באתרהDON MINAH V'UKI B'ASRAH- judge from it but place the deduction in its own context, i.e. let the case deduced by analogy be regulated by the rules that are appropriate to that case itself.
41)[line 32]תירושTIROSH- grape juice
42)[line 33]יצהרYITZHAR- olive oil
43)[line 39]סופגין את הארבעיםSOFGIN ES HA'ARBA'IM (MALKUS ARBA'IM)
(a)It is a Mitzvah to administer the punishment of Malkus Arba'im (Torah lashes) to one who is liable to Malkus, as the Torah states, "v'Hipilo ha'Shofet v'Hikahu" - "and the judge shall cast him down and whip him" (Devarim 25:2). Malkus d'Oraisa is administered in Eretz Yisrael by a court of three judges who are Semuchin (Halachically ordained), whether the Beis ha'Mikdash stands or not (RAMBAM Hilchos Sanhedrin 16:2). Courts outside of Eretz Yisrael can administer only Makas Mardus (Rabbinic lashes, see Background to Menachos 70:27).
(b)A person is only liable to Malkus Arba'im if he transgresses a Lav (a negative commandment) of the Torah that is not "modified," such as a Lav shebi'Chelalos (see Background to Menachos 58:15), a Lav she'Nitak l'Aseh (see Background to Chulin 81:1), etc. A prohibition that is implied by a positive commandment is never punishable by Malkus. In addition, in order to be liable he must transgress in front of witnesses after receiving a proper warning.
(c)Malkus are administered in numbers of three, with a maximum amount of thirty-nine for each transgression. The culprit is examined to determine how many lashes he can withstand. He stands leaning against a post and his clothes are ripped until his heart is revealed. The agent of Beis Din, a Torah scholar who is specifically weak, stands on a rock behind him, whipping one third of the lashes on his chest and two thirds on his back, one third on each shoulder (Makos 22b).
(d)During the whipping, the most distinguished judge of the court reads the verse "Im Lo Sishmor La'asos Es Kol Divrei ha'Torah ha'Zos... v'Hifla HaSh-m Es Makoscha..." - "If you will not be careful to perform all the words of this Torah... then HaSh-m will make your blows extraordinary..." (Devarim 28:58-59). For each blow, the deputy judge counts out loud the number of each lash and a third judge calls out "Hakehu!" - "Whip him!" If the culprit dies from the lashing, the agent of Beis Din is exempt from any punishment. However, if he administers an extra lash due to a mistake in the count, and the extra lash causes the culprit to die, he must go to Galus (exile, see Background to Makos 7:10).