[58a - 43 lines; 58b - 9 lines]
1)[line 3]"מוֹצָא שְׂפָתֶיךָ תִּשְׁמֹר וְעָשִׂיתָ, [כַּאֲשֶׁר נָדַרְתָּ לַה' אֱלֹקֶיךָ נְדָבָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ בְּפִיךָ.]""MOTZA SEFASECHA TISHMOR V'ASISA, [KA'ASHER NADARTA LA'SH-M ELOKECHA NEDAVAH...]"- "That which emerges from your lips you shall observe and perform, [according to what you have vowed to HaSh-m, your G-d, an offering, anything that you have promised with your mouth.]" (Devarim 23:24)
2)[line 13]שאור הותר מכללו במקדשSE'OR HUTAR MI'KELALO BA'MIKDASH- the is an exception to the general prohibition to offer leavened products in the Mikdash (but see MESHECH CHOCHMAH cited by YOSEF DA'AS), as the Gemara goes on to explain (line 19)
3)[line 15]דבש הותר בשירי מנחותDEVASH HUTAR BI'SHEYAREI MENACHOS- honey or sweetness of fruits are permitted to be mixed with the remainder of the Menachos (which are eaten by the Kohanim)
4)[line 19]לאו שתי הלחם דקרבה נדבה?LAV SHTEI HA'LECHEM D'KARVAH NEDAVAH?- Does this not refer to the Shtei ha'Lechem, which are permitted to be offered on a voluntary basis (in which a Kometz of the leavened loaves will be offered on the Mizbe'ach)? (This cannot be referring to the Shtei ha'Lechem of Shavu'os, since no part of them were offered on the Mizbe'ach - see SHITAH MEKUBETZES #12)
5)[line 21]ליקרב עמהםL'YEKAREV IMAHEM- [to refer to] that which is offered with them (i.e. the Kivsei Atzeres, the Eimurim of which are offered on the Mizbe'ach)
6)[line 22]הגוזלות שעל גבי הסליןHA'GOZALOS SHE'AL GABEI HA'SALIM - the pigeons that were on the baskets [as an adornment to the Bikurim fruits] (BIKURIM)
(a)The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge in one's field every year to the Beis ha'Mikdash. The verse states, "v'Hayah Ki Savo El ha'Aretz... vi'Yrishtah v'Yashavta Bah... v'Lakachta me'Reishis Kol Pri ha'Adamah..." - "And it shall be that when you come to the land... and you inherit it and you settle in it. You shall take of the first fruits of the land..." (Devarim 26:1-2). Each farmer enters the Azarah (courtyard) of the Beis ha'Mikdash with his Bikurim fruit in a decorative basket. While the basket is on his shoulder, he recites the Mikra Bikurim, specific verses from Devarim (26:3, 5-10) thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of Mitzrayim and giving us the land of Yisrael. He then places the basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12) and bows down before HaSh-m. Afterwards, he gives the Bikurim to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1). Live pigeons were a (voluntary) part of the adornment of the baskets of Bikurim. They were offered as Korbenos Olah when the Bikurim were brought.
(b)The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) - wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2).
(c)Kohanim eat the Bikurim within the walls of Yerushalayim. If a person eats them outside of Yerushalayim after the Bikurim have entered Yerushalayim (according to the Rambam, or after the Bikurim have entered the Azarah according to Rashi in Makos 18b), he receives Malkos. They must be returned to, and eaten in Yerushalayim.
7)[line 23](והסלים שבידם) [ושבידם] ניתנין לכהנים(VEHA'SALIM SHEB'YADAM) [VISHEB'YADAM] NITANIN LA'KOHANIM- and [the pigeons] in their possession [that were not intended to be an adornment for the basket of Bikurim fruits] were given to the Kohanim
8)[line 23]לעטרL'ATER BIKURIM- to adorn the Bikurim (and were not obligatory sacrifices)
9)[line 25]חטאת העוףCHATAS HA'OF
(a)The offering of the Chatas ha'Of (which is brought by a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes and Nazir Tamei, and by a Metzora who is poor, and by a poor person who was Nishba l'Sheker, or who transgressed Shevu'as ha'Edus, or was Metamei Mikdash v'Kodashav; see Background to Kinim 22:9:b for references) consists of three procedures (see, for example, Vayikra 5:8-9): Melikah, Hazayah, and Mitzuy.
1.MELIKAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck (Orpo - similar to the word Arifah) of the bird with his right thumbnail. He makes sure to cut one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus), but not to sever the entire neck of the bird.
2.HAZAYAH - The Kohen sprinkles its blood on the Mizbe'ach (directly from the neck of the bird), below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
3.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach and squeezes its remaining blood onto the Mizbe'ach.
(b)The Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim, in the Azarah, on the day that it is offered and the following night. No part of it was burned on the Mizbe'ach ("Ein Mimenu la'Ishim").
10)[line 26]כל שממנו לאישיםKOL SHE'MIMENU LA'ISHIM - all [Korbanos] from which [parts] of them [are burned] on the fires [of the Mizbe'ach]
The Torah requires that certain parts of the Korbanos be offered on the Mizbe'ach. These parts are collectively termed "Eimurim." It is prohibited to offer any other part of the Korban on the Mizbe'ach. This Halachah is learned from Vayikra 2:11.
11)[line 32]לוג שמן של מצורעLOG SHEMEN SHEL METZORA - the Log of olive oil of a Metzora
12)[line 34]"[זֶה יִהְיֶה לְךָ מִקֹּדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים מִן הָאֵשׁ,] כָּל קָרְבָּנָם, [לְכָל מִנְחָתָם, וּלְכָל חַטָּאתָם, וּלְכָל אֲשָׁמָם אֲשֶׁר יָשִׁיבוּ לִי; קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים לְךָ הוּא וּלְבָנֶיךָ.]""[ZEH YIHEYEH LECHA MI'KODESH HA'KODASHIM MIN HA'ESH,] KOL KORBANAM, [L'CHOL MINCHASAM, UL'CHOL CHATASAM, UL'CHOL ASHAMAM ASHER YASHIVU LI; KODESH KODASHIM LECHA HU ULE'VANECHA.]"- "[This will be for you (Aharon ha'Kohen) (i.e. your portion) from the most holy sacrifices from the fire (i.e., after those parts that are designated to be burned on the Mizbe'ach are burned there),] all of their offerings, [all of their flour offerings, all of their sin offerings, and all of their guilt offerings that they will return to Me; they are consecrated to you and your children.]" (Bamidbar 18:9)
13)[line 36]עירובוEIRUVO- its mixture
14)[line 3]המעלה משאור ומדבשHA'MA'ALEH MI'SE'OR UMI'DEVASH- (a) one who burns on the Mizbe'ach a mixture of Se'or, sourdough or leavened products, and Devash, honey or sweetness of fruits (RASHI); (a) one who burns on the Mizbe'ach Se'or, sourdough or leavened products, and Devash, honey or sweetness of fruits and a mixture of them (TOSFOS DH ha'Ma'aleh)
15)[line 6]אין לוקין על לאו שבכללותEIN LOKIN AL LAV SHEBI'CHELALOS - one does not receive Malkus for transgressing a "Lav shebi'Chelalos," a "general prohibition." (LAV SHEBI'CHELALOS)
A Lav shebi'Chelalos is a single Lav that prohibits many different acts. There is an argument among the Amora'im as to whether a person who transgresses a number of the prohibitions included in a single Lav receives a separate set of Malkus for each prohibition, one set of Malkus for everything, or no Malkus at all (see Insights to Pesachim 41:2).
16)[last line]דהא לא מיחד לאויה כלאו דחסימהD'HA LO MEYACHED LAVEI K'LAV D'CHASIMAH - since it is not similar to the prohibition of "muzzling" (LAV D'CHASIMAH)
(a)The Torah grants beasts of burden the right to eat the produce with which they are working in certain situations (Devarim 25:4). First, the produce must be a product of the earth.
(b)Next, if the produce is attached to the ground, it must be in the final stages of preparation, i.e. when it is being picked. If it is already cut from the ground, it must not have reached the final stage of preparation for which it is normally grown, which is the time when Ma'aser (see Background to Bava Metzia 52:3 and to Bava Metzia 87:49) or Chalah (see Background to Bava Metzia 87:36) must be taken.
(c)If someone muzzles a bull when it is threshing grain, he violates the commandment of "Lo Sachsom Shor b'Disho" (Devarim 25:4). This negative commandment applies to all animals that work, subject to the stipulations above (a-b).